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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
11

Rubber friction on ice and snow surfaces

Skouvaklis, Gerasimos January 2011 (has links)
The friction of rubber on ice and snow surfaces is complex. Deeper scientific understanding is important for optimising performance of tyres in winter. Rubber, ice and snow systems exhibit frictional behaviour which depends on their material properties. The viscoelastic nature of rubber results in a higher real contact area compared to most other solids. At temperatures close or below the glass transition temperature, the frictional behaviour of rubber changes and its hardness increases. Thus, the real area of contact decreases, while the dissipation in the bulk of the rubber increases. Sliding of rubber on ice or snow leads to a temperature increase at the interface because of frictional heating, this can cause the surface to melt which decreases friction significantly. In this study we measured the friction of rubber on ice and snow and related the behaviour to mechanisms that occur. Key parameters affecting friction were examined and quantified. For this work a cold room and a new linear tribometer were specially designed and constructed. The rubber samples were made from various compounds and had different geometries. Typically they were the size of a “tread block element”. The geometries were chosen systematically to investigate the effects of surface area, sharp/rounded edges and sipes (small slits in the tread block that are used on snow tyres). A significant part of the work was developing consistent and reproducible ice and snow surfaces. New protocols were devised for these. The ice surfaces were made of de-ionised water, tap water and de-ionised water with salt. For the snow surface production: artificial snow was made and then compacted in a specially manufactured press, resulting in hard packed snow tracks for testing. Static and dynamic friction were investigated. Both were affected by speed, load, temperature and ice composition. The dynamic friction behaviour on ice was explained in terms of melt-water formation and the real area of contact of the rubber. The static friction was significantly affected by the losses inside the rubber bulk, the adhesive forces at the interface, and the time of stationary contact before the test. The investigation of rubber sliding on snow showed some similarities with sliding on ice; the surface of the rubber block slides over snow particles resulting in similar mechanisms as are seen on ice. However with snow there can also be a “ploughing” effect, where snow is cut by the leading edge of a sharp tread block. This effect contributes to friction. Experiments were made with simple rounded edged samples to avoid ploughing; the results showed the same trends as seen on ice, i.e. lower friction with increased speed, load and temperature. Investigations of siped tread blocks showed the same friction at low speeds as tread blocks without sipes. At higher speeds siped blocks exhibited less, or no, decrease in friction; more sipes gave less friction decrease. Our industrial collaborator, Michelin, made vehicle tests on snow using whole tyres with similar tread blocks. The trends they found were identical to our tests despite the dynamics of the system being more complex. This indicates how powerful the approach of using simple systematic experiments is for generating deeper understanding of the processes involved in sliding on ice and snow.
12

Recuperação ambiental de áreas erodidas como alternativa de destino final de pneus inservíveis. / Environmental reclamation of eroded areas as a final destination of worn out tyres.

Cappi, Dauton Marcelo 16 April 2004 (has links)
O gerenciamento adequado de resíduos sólidos implica na proposição de tecnologias ambientalmente adequadas de reciclagem ou disposição final. Mundialmente, no caso de pneus inservíveis, a principal forma de destino final é a estocagem ou a queima para recuperação de energia. A estocagem pode gerar problemas ambientais como o risco de incêndios e a proliferação de animais ou insetos vetores de doenças. Embora venha crescendo o estudo de tecnologias para reciclagem e ou reutilização de pneus inservíveis, o total efetivamente reciclado é pequeno, mesmo em países que priorizam estas ações. O alto custo operacional e tecnológico inviabiliza uma maior abrangência na adoção de destas técnicas. Por outro lado, tecnologias de baixo desembolso de capital apresentam pequena demanda por pneus descartados. A tecnologia estudada reúne características de baixo custo operacional, em comparação às demais formas de reciclagem e a vantagem de propiciar controle indireto ao mosquito vetor da dengue, além de recuperar áreas degradadas por erosão e incrementar os reflorestamentos com espécies nativas. Ela consiste em enterrar pneus inservíveis em grandes erosões (voçorocas) ou com eles construir barreiras de assoreamento como parte da estratégia de recuperação da paisagem erodida que será posteriormente revegetada. Resultados dos testes de respirometria e liberação de zinco não demonstraram interferências negativas com a microbiota ou a liberação excesssiva de zinco na solução do solo ou no seu lixiviado. O potencial operacional de adoção da técnica foi demonstrado ser viável para todo o Estado de São Paulo, excluindo-se, eventualmente, a sua região metropolitana. / The appropriate solid waste management implies on the proposal of clean technologies for recycling as well as disposal of wastes widely generated by industrial processess. Regarding scraped tyres, stockpilling and energy recovery are the main practises adopted. Generation of urban pragues and pollution from uncontroled fire are large environmental problemas associated to the management of wasted tyre. Although tyre recycling technologies have been increasing the cost effectiveness associated to these technologies still being worthless, even in developed countries. On the other hand, low cost technologies demand a small amount of scraped tyre. The technology studied has a relative high demand for scraped tyre and also seems to be suitable for tyre disposal, dengue fever control as well as an improvement on degradated land restoration and reforesting. Results from biological test (soil respirometry) and zinc release from soil solution and leachates showed no interference with soil microbes, neither soil nor water contamination. Information generated from geoprocessing came across to a huge number of erosions in São Paulo State where the technique should be applied.
13

Recuperação ambiental de áreas erodidas como alternativa de destino final de pneus inservíveis. / Environmental reclamation of eroded areas as a final destination of worn out tyres.

Dauton Marcelo Cappi 16 April 2004 (has links)
O gerenciamento adequado de resíduos sólidos implica na proposição de tecnologias ambientalmente adequadas de reciclagem ou disposição final. Mundialmente, no caso de pneus inservíveis, a principal forma de destino final é a estocagem ou a queima para recuperação de energia. A estocagem pode gerar problemas ambientais como o risco de incêndios e a proliferação de animais ou insetos vetores de doenças. Embora venha crescendo o estudo de tecnologias para reciclagem e ou reutilização de pneus inservíveis, o total efetivamente reciclado é pequeno, mesmo em países que priorizam estas ações. O alto custo operacional e tecnológico inviabiliza uma maior abrangência na adoção de destas técnicas. Por outro lado, tecnologias de baixo desembolso de capital apresentam pequena demanda por pneus descartados. A tecnologia estudada reúne características de baixo custo operacional, em comparação às demais formas de reciclagem e a vantagem de propiciar controle indireto ao mosquito vetor da dengue, além de recuperar áreas degradadas por erosão e incrementar os reflorestamentos com espécies nativas. Ela consiste em enterrar pneus inservíveis em grandes erosões (voçorocas) ou com eles construir barreiras de assoreamento como parte da estratégia de recuperação da paisagem erodida que será posteriormente revegetada. Resultados dos testes de respirometria e liberação de zinco não demonstraram interferências negativas com a microbiota ou a liberação excesssiva de zinco na solução do solo ou no seu lixiviado. O potencial operacional de adoção da técnica foi demonstrado ser viável para todo o Estado de São Paulo, excluindo-se, eventualmente, a sua região metropolitana. / The appropriate solid waste management implies on the proposal of clean technologies for recycling as well as disposal of wastes widely generated by industrial processess. Regarding scraped tyres, stockpilling and energy recovery are the main practises adopted. Generation of urban pragues and pollution from uncontroled fire are large environmental problemas associated to the management of wasted tyre. Although tyre recycling technologies have been increasing the cost effectiveness associated to these technologies still being worthless, even in developed countries. On the other hand, low cost technologies demand a small amount of scraped tyre. The technology studied has a relative high demand for scraped tyre and also seems to be suitable for tyre disposal, dengue fever control as well as an improvement on degradated land restoration and reforesting. Results from biological test (soil respirometry) and zinc release from soil solution and leachates showed no interference with soil microbes, neither soil nor water contamination. Information generated from geoprocessing came across to a huge number of erosions in São Paulo State where the technique should be applied.
14

Tyre models for vehicle handling analysis under steady-state and transient manoeuvres

Mavros, Georgios January 2005 (has links)
The work presented in this thesis is devoted to the study of mechanism of tyre force generation and its influence on handling dynamics of ground vehicles. The main part of the work involves the development of tyre models for use under steady-state and transient operating conditions. The general capability of these models is assessedin a full vehicle simulation environment. The interaction between tyre and vehicle dynamics is critically evaluated and the observed vehicle behaviour is related to the inherent characteristics of different tyre models. In the field of steady-state tyre modelling, two versions of a numerical tyre model are developed. The modelling procedure is carried out in accordance with the viscoelastic properties of rubber, which influence the mechanical properties of the tyre structure and play a significant role in the determination of friction in the tyre contact patch. Whilst the initial simple version of the tyre model assumes a parabolic pressure distribution along the contact, a later more elaborate model employs a numerical method for the calculation of the actual normal pressure distribution. The changes in the pressure distribution as a result of variations in the rolling velocity and normal load influence mainly the levels of self-aligning moment, whilst the force characteristics remain practically unaffected. The adoption of a velocity dependent friction law explains the force generating behaviour of tyres at high sliding velocities. The analysis is extended to the area of transient tyre behaviour with the development of a tyre model appropriate for the study of transient friction force generation within the contact patch. The model incorporates viscoelasticity and inertial contributions, and incorporates a numerical stick-slip law. These characteristics are combined together for the successful simulation of transient friction force generation. The methodologies developed for the modelling of transient friction and steady-state tyre force generation are combined and further extended in order to create a generic transient tyre model. This final model incorporates a discretised flexible viscoelastic belt with inertia and a separate fully-dynamic discretised tread, also with inertia and damping, for the simulation of actual prevailing conditions in the contact patch. The generic tyre model appears to be capable of performing under a variety of operating conditions, including periodic excitations and transient inputs which extend to the non-linear range of tyre behaviour. For the evaluation of the influence of the aforementioned tyre models on the handling responses of a vehicle, a comprehensive vehicle model is developed, appropriate for use in handling simulations. The two versions of the steady-state models and the generic transient model are interfaced with the vehicle model, and the response of the vehicle to a step-steer manoeuvre is compared with that obtained using the Magic Formula tyre model. The comparison between the responses is facilitated by the definition of a new measure, defined as the non-dimensional yaw impulse. It is found that the transience involved in tyre behaviour may largely affect the response of a vehicle to a prescribed input.
15

On soil behaviour during field traffic /

Trautner, Andreas , January 2003 (has links) (PDF)
Diss. (sammanfattning) Uppsala : Sveriges lantbruksuniv., 2003. / Härtill 4 uppsatser.
16

Estudo da combustão do óleo pirolítico de pneus / Study of combustion of tyre pyrolytic oil / Estudio de la combustión del óleo pirolítico de neumáticos

Gamboa, Alexander Alberto Rodriguez [UNESP] 07 March 2016 (has links)
Submitted by ALEXANDER ALBERTO RODRIGUEZ GAMBOA null (alexander.r.gamboa@gmail.com) on 2016-05-06T06:12:01Z No. of bitstreams: 1 ALEXANDER ALBERTO RODRIGUEZ GAMBOA D Final.pdf: 2835466 bytes, checksum: 371027696e6cde2bf330e85c69c9370e (MD5) / Approved for entry into archive by Felipe Augusto Arakaki (arakaki@reitoria.unesp.br) on 2016-05-09T18:46:42Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 gamboa_aar_me_guara.pdf: 2835466 bytes, checksum: 371027696e6cde2bf330e85c69c9370e (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2016-05-09T18:46:42Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 gamboa_aar_me_guara.pdf: 2835466 bytes, checksum: 371027696e6cde2bf330e85c69c9370e (MD5) Previous issue date: 2016-03-07 / Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) / O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com a finalidade de avaliar a combustão do óleo pirolítico, obtido a partir de pneus inservíveis, tendo sido levadas em consideração as viabilidades energética e ambiental para seu emprego como combustível alternativo, em um processo de combustão convencional. A primeira etapa consistiu em uma revisão da literatura sobre a grande quantidade de pneus inservíveis gerados no mundo e as principais rotas de disposição destes, a fim de ressaltar a relevância do estudo do óleo pirolítico de pneus (OPP) como uma alternativa de solução energética e ambiental. Assim como, verificaram-se suas principais propriedades físico-químicas, que fazem deste, um atrativo combustível alternativo. Posteriormente, foi desenvolvido um modelo de equilíbrio químico utilizando o método de minimização da energia livre de Gibbs para obter uma estimativa da formação e emissão dos principais produtos da combustão do OPP. Neste, foram avaliadas as concentrações dos produtos da combustão da mistura de óleo pirolítico de pneus e óleo diesel, focando-se principalmente na influência promovida pelas emissões de SO2 ao se aumentar a concentração do óleo diesel na mistura. Os testes experimentais foram realizados utilizando uma câmara de combustão de paredes não isoladas, constituída de dois módulos desmontáveis. Foi empregado nestes testes um queimador, no qual foi montado um swirler axial de pás movíveis que permitiu avaliar a influência do ângulo das pás do swirler sobre as concentrações dos produtos da combustão (CO, CO2, NOx e O2). Um problema crucial foi a elevada formação e deposição de material particulado, o que conduziu os experimentos a algumas paradas durante os testes, devido ao entupimento reiterativo do bico injetor e do filtro do compressor, utilizado na exaustão. Os resultados evidenciaram a viabilidade do uso do OPP como combustível alternativo, utilizando-se apenas um atomizador comercial tipo pressure swirl para sua atomização. A chama ficou estável para valores de razão de equivalência abaixo de 0,92. Além disso, as emissões de CO, CO2 e NOx foram comparáveis com aquelas obtidas por outros pesquisadores que queimaram óleo diesel. / This study was conducted in order to evaluate the combustion of pyrolytic oil derived from waste tires, for which the energy and environmental feasibility of its use as an alternative fuel in a conventional combustion process were considered. The first stage consisted in a review of literature about the large amount of waste tires generated in the world and the main disposal routes of them, to highlight the relevance of the study of tyre pyrolytic oil (TPO) as an alternative energy and environmental solution. Also, its main physico-chemical properties that make it an attractive alternative fuel was verified. After that, a chemical equilibrium model using the Gibbs free energy minimization method to obtain an estimate of the formation and emission from the main combustion products of TPO was developed. At this, the concentrations of the combustion products of the blend between tyre pyrolytic oil and diesel fuel were assessed mainly focused on the promoted influence by SO2 emissions with the increase of diesel fuel in the mixture. The experiments were carried out using a combustion chamber of non-isolated walls that consisted of two removable modules. A burner was used in the experiments, which was mounted an axial swirler of movable blades that allowed to assess the influence of the swirler blades angle on concentrations of combustion products (CO, CO2, NOx and O2). A crucial issue was the elevated formation and deposition of particulate matter, which led the experiments a few stops during the tests, due to reiterative clogging the nozzle and compressor filter used in the exhaust. The results showed the viability of the TPO's use as an alternative fuel, using only a commercial type atomizer pressure swirl for its atomization. The flame was stable for the equivalence ratio values below 0.92. Furthermore, emissions of CO, CO2 and NOx were comparable with those obtained by other researchers who burned diesel fuel.
17

Konstrukční návrh manipulačního zařízení ve výrobě pneumatik / Design of Tyre Production Line Manipulation Equipment

Solař, Adam January 2019 (has links)
The subject of this diploma thesis is to design a new construction of the machinery, which is used for manipulation with tire carts in rubber industry. The reason for the new design is to eliminate the main shortcomings of the existing provision. The aim of this project was to elaborate an overview of the current designs of the handling equipment in question and to subsequently construct a new suitable design solution. In addition, several conceptual calculations were needed to be used in the selection of the appropriate electric motor, transmission, pneumatic cylinders and wiring. The relevant parts were designed using structural FEM analyses. The several variants of the solutions were considered for a suitable construction design. Based on these FEM simulations, the relevant parts have been modified in terms of geometry so that the resulting manipulating machinery meets all the criteria, especially regarding safety.
18

Vstupní modul linky pro ozónovou degradaci pneumatik / Entry module of processing line for ozonic deterioration of tyres

Slezák, Jan January 2012 (has links)
The aim of this diploma thesis is making design of device for setting tyres into the machine for ozone deterioration of tyres with following parametres: tyre size 295/80 R22,5, deployment profile of tyres, its foundation into the machine and sealing ozone atmosphere. The first part of this thesis contain research retailing to issues of tyre. After that there si presented design, which is completely making in programme Autodesk Inventor 2010. Calcutations are making in programme Mathcad 14 and deformation load, mainly construction, is making in programme Ansys 12.1. Finally there is making drawings.
19

Založení elektronického obchodu s pneumatikami / Creation of E-business with Tyres

Richtr, Roman January 2016 (has links)
This thesis deals with proposal of business plan for making an electronic shop with tyres. Parts of the business plan are business, marketing, organizational and financial plans and politics of risks. Source materials for the business plan are processed analyses of internal and external environment of the company in analytical part of the thesis.
20

A scenario study on end-of-life tyre management in 2020

Lin, Hong-Mao January 2011 (has links)
With a large amount of tyres being discarded every year, the question of how to manage the end-of-life tyres (ELTs) has become a serious issue. Thus this study identifies different driving forces for this management and the most possible scenarios for the future management of ELTs. The study also compares the business as usual model with a waste hierarchy model to explore the possibilities for optimizing management of ELTs through cascading. This study collects opinions about the driving forces of ELT management from 29 experts working in the area. Important driving forces identified were: price of substitute products, recycled materials’ market, environmental legislation, and technology. This study also surveys 23 experts in the tyre area about the most possible scenarios for ELTs in 2020. One of the more believed in futures was: “Due to increasingly limited fossil fuels and a rise of sustainability awareness, applications for ELTs are growing both in material and energy recycling.” This suggests that a shift toward an equal recycling situation of ELTs among material and energy might be likely to happen by 2020. Based on the most possible scenario for ELTs in 2020, a comparison between waste hierarchy model and business as usual model has been performed. The result shows that the (cascading) waste hierarchy model would likely create more environmental benefits than business as usual model. This is done though the saving and cycling of more materials from energy recovery into material recycling.

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