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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
61

Unlocking human agency through youth development programmes: An exploratory study of a selected NGO working in youth development on the Cape Flats

Schippers, Deidree Dianne January 2019 (has links)
Magister Artium (Development Studies) - MA(DVS) / This study explored how human agency could be unlocked through youth development programmes using a case study of a selected NGO working in youth development on the Cape Flats in the Western Cape Province in South Africa. The aim of the study was to explore whether the selected youth development organisation encourages and unlocks young people’s aspirations and agency in its program design. The objectives of the study were, firstly, to determine if the organisation provided the students with opportunities and spaces in which the young people could exercise their agency in the development process in order to pursue their goals and aspirations. Secondly, to identify challenges that could inhibit the students from exercising their agency; and lastly, to arrive at recommendations on how the challenges could be overcome or prevented. The argument in this study was that youth development organisations should empower and help to develop the youth in such a way that they could realise their full potential in order to make a positive and constructive contribution to their communities and the South African economy. Human development interventions, the kind that is instrumental to youth development, stresses the importance of helping people to expand on their existing capabilities and strengthening human values such as democracy and agency (Conradie & Robeyns, 2013). As such, the Capability Approach as pioneered by Amartya Sen (1988), was used as the theoretical framework because individuals, specifically young people’s well-being, is often dependent on the extent to which they have the aspirations, freedom and capabilities (in other words the opportunities) to live the lives which they value (Robeyns, 2005). Human agency is thus necessary to translate aspirations, freedom and capabilities into actions that could assist individuals to achieve their desired states of well-being. The six dimensions of agency that the study focused on were reflective judgement, motivation, goal pursuit, autonomy, relatedness and competence as conceptualised by Conradie (2013). The study was located in a qualitative research paradigm and used a case study design. The research participants consisted of two groups. The first group were the two programme managers of the selected organisation. The second group was 40 Grade 10 learners who participated in the youth development programme offered by the selected organisation at a high school on the Cape Flats. The research instruments used included a biographical information sheet, a self-reflective questionnaire and a focus group discussion for the student participants, and individual interviews conducted with the programme’s two staff members. The quantitative data consisted of the students’ biographical information and were analysed through Excel software. Content analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data through a three-stage open coding process. The importance of the findings of the study was that the youth development organisation added value to the students’ development by assisting them to identify their aspirations and unlock their agency role. The findings also showed that being part of a community characterised by poor households, alcohol and drug abuse, violence and crime, and disadvantaged public schooling; the students’ chances to succeed against those odds were slim. Based on the findings, recommendations were proposed for the Department of Social Development, youth development organisations, post-school institutions, families and communities, and young people, on how the different role players could engage collaboratively in order to empower and assist the youth to realise their full potential; and in so doing, enable them to make a constructive contribution to South Africa at large.
62

Positive Youth Development as a Framework for Examining the Relationships Between Conformity to Gender Norms, Social Support, and Adolescent Mental Health

Milot, Alyssa January 2014 (has links)
Thesis advisor: James Mahalik / The mental health issues of depression and substance abuse are a major public health concern in the U.S. The timing of the onset of depression and substance use is critical to the lifelong prevalence of these issues (e.g., Gayman, Lloyd, and Ueno, 2011). Symptoms of depression during adolescence are associated with major depressive episodes during adulthood (e.g., Pine, Cohen, Johnson, Brook, 1999). Alcohol use during adolescence has been linked to substance abuse in young adulthood (Griffin, Bang, and Botvin, 2010) and adulthood (Chung and Martin, 2011). Due to the influence that adolescent depression and alcohol use has on lifelong development, potential factors related these outcomes during adolescence are essential to examine. The Five C's model of positive youth development (PYD) provided a framework for the current study to understand how internal (e.g., conformity to gender norms) and external (e.g., social support) characteristics of an individual lead to the development of personal qualities of PYD, which in turn are associated with behaviors (e.g., depression, alcohol use; Lerner et al., 2005). A sample of 642 high school students from several Catholic high schools in the Northeast was utilized for the analyses. T-tests indicated that females report greater depressive symptoms compared to males, but no gender differences in alcohol use. Regression analyses indicated significant relationships between greater conformity to feminine norms and decreased alcohol use and increased social support and PYD. Conformity to masculine norms was associated with decreased social support and PYD. The current study expands the existing body of literature by including internal characteristics involving identity such as conformity to gender norms in the Five C's model of PYD and examining both the benefits and costs of one's gender, conformity to gender norms, and social support on PYD, depression, and alcohol use during adolescence. The findings suggest that gender, conformity to gender norms, and social support contribute to the adolescent outcomes of PYD, depression, and alcohol use, which have clinical and developmental implications. / Thesis (PhD) — Boston College, 2014. / Submitted to: Boston College. Lynch School of Education. / Discipline: Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology.
63

Family and Contextual Variables as Predictors of School Engagment and Developmental Outcomes in Adolescence

Hedvat, Atara Tatelman January 2008 (has links)
Thesis advisor: Jacqueline Lerner / Previous research has found higher levels of school engagement to be related to various positive outcomes such as higher academic achievement, higher levels of competence, lower depression, and better personal adjustment. Overall, there is strong evidence to suggest a broad positive association between school engagement and a variety of academic, social, and emotional outcomes. However, existing work has certain limitations and some important questions remain to be addressed. In an effort to address the limitations of previous research, this study aimed to establish the within and across time relationships between family and contextual variables and school engagement. The sample for this longitudinal study included 596 students who were part of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development. These students were first surveyed in the fifth grade and completed subsequent questionnaires in the 6th and 7th grade (44% male; 56% female). In addition to the CES-D, several scales were constructed from the broad array of measures used in the 4-H study. The goals of this research were to identify the within and across time family and contextual predictors of school engagement, the predictors of the emotional and cognitive outcomes that result when adolescents are engaged in school, and to determine whether school engagement acts as a mediator between the variables of school climate, teacher support and parental involvement and the outcomes of grades, perceived academic competence, depression, educational aspirations, and educational expectations. The effects of gender, SES, and race were also examined. Statistical tools including regression analysis and tests of mediation were used. The findings indicated that the predictors of school engagement varied for 5th, 6th, and 7th graders in this sample. The changing predictors of school engagement and thus, the ways in which school engagement mediated the relationships between family and contextual variables and developmental outcomes demonstrated the fluidity of the adolescent and their changing needs and influences. These findings also illustrated the value of the longitudinal design of this study. / Thesis (PhD) — Boston College, 2008. / Submitted to: Boston College. Lynch School of Education. / Discipline: Applied Developmental and Educational Psychology.
64

Curricular sport-for-development programmes and positive youth development : perspectives in a Scottish context

Treacy, Jennifer Anne January 2017 (has links)
This thesis investigated pupil and staff experiences of a curricular sports programme known as the Scottish School of Sport (SSoS). Participation in these types of sports programmes is a promising avenue to foster what is known as Positive Youth Development (PYD; Holt, 2008). PYD is based on a strengths-based model, in which youth are seen as having the ability to develop and enhance socially desirable characteristics. As greater responsibility is placed within the Scottish Curriculum for Excellence (CfE) for enhancing aspects commonly associated with PYD such as social and emotional well-being, it is essential to understand how school provision may develop these characteristics. The majority of research involving sport and youth development is cross-sectional and quantitative in nature, with very few studies drawing on qualitative evidence. In addition, research involving curricular sports programmes such as the SSoS, and their ability to foster aspects of PYD is limited. This research employed a sequential multi-phase mixed methods design consisting of three phases (QUAL→QUAN→QUAL). The three phases of research began with an exploratory design, which sought to understand the research context through documentary analysis and semi-structured interviews with associated SSoS staff (Phase 1) and then to investigate pupil PYD reports with a longitudinal quantitative design that was comprised of two survey questionnaires (Phase 2). The final phase (Phase 3) was explanatory in nature and utilised semi-structured interviews with pupils both enrolled and not enrolled in the SSoS; these interviews sought explanations for the results which emerged from the previous two phases. A further extension phase, which analysed Tweets and the physical environment of the school, was devised to add further depth to findings from the earlier data collection. Findings overall indicated that while participation in the SSoS was a positive and engaging experience for most pupils, it was unclear if the pupils perceive the positive outcomes to be transferrable to other contexts, which was a key overarching aim of the SSoS. Programme ‘selection’ appeared to be a self-validating factor for increases in pupils’ confidence in their athletic ability. With recent requirements such as ‘playing for the school team’ added to the programme documentation, the SSoS has, perhaps unwittingly, taken on a ‘sports-plus’ approach, where the developmental aims have become secondary to sport performance. This research adds to the continuing conversation regarding the possible developmental nature of sport programmes and the continued search for positive avenues in which to enhance social and emotional development and HWB in the school context.
65

Global Explorers: An Examination of Program Processes and Outcomes

Duerden, Mathew D. 14 January 2010 (has links)
This study utilizes longitudinal, mixed-method data drawn from participants in an environmental education/international immersion program for middle high-school students to study outcomes and processes associated with program participation. Studies of program outcomes and processes are important for better understanding the design and impact of youth programs. The first study investigated the relationships between experience types (i.e., indirect vs. direct) and learning outcomes (i.e., knowledge vs. attitudes). In other words, what is the difference in impacts between reading a book about the rain forest and actually traveling to the rain forest? Findings suggest that experience type plays a significant role in the type of learning outcomes as well as how these outcomes influence behavior. More specifically, direct experiences appear to catalyze knowledge in a way that facilitates future behavior development. The qualitative data also suggest that participants' perceptions of perceived freedom during the program moderated whether participation was experienced as direct or indirect. The second study employed a social development model (SDM) to understand the relationship between within program socialization processes and program outcomes. The model provided a good fit for the data and predicted a significant portion of the variance in environmental behavior after controlling for baseline levels of this outcome variable. Additionally, analysis of qualitative data produced a proposed model of shared activities and bonding that suggests youth valued experiences where adults participated with them as equals rather than as disciplinarians or administrators. The final study provided insights regarding the degree to which the program was implemented as originally planned and how the domains of implementation integrity influenced program outcomes. The findings suggest that of the measured implementation domains, only participant responsiveness was significantly related to program outcomes. Data also suggest that implementer efficacy can have differing impacts on program adherence. The qualitative data suggest that most participants positively perceived the program and felt it was well organized. In sum, the findings provide a holistic perspective of the processes and outcomes of this program. Rather than merely presenting an overview of program impacts, the study offers insights into the processes (e.g., socialization) and characteristics (e.g., experience types) that produced observed outcomes. Thus, the study presents a more complete picture of what individuals gained through their participation in this program as well as the processes that led to these gains.
66

The Construction of Self-identity and Positive Behavioural Change in Pregnant and Parenting Young Women

Breen, Andrea 15 February 2011 (has links)
The purpose of this mixed method study was to investigate the relationship between the narrative construction of self-identity and positive change in antisocial behaviour in pregnant and parenting young women. It focused on two related aspects of identity development: (1) individuals’ conceptualizations of their personally salient self-values; and (2) “self-action coherence”: the process of constructing self-narratives that establish coherence between one’s personally salient self-values and behaviour. This study also included a qualitative exploration of how becoming a mother in adolescence and early adulthood is related to processes of identity development and behavioural change. Participants were 27 pregnant and parenting young women (ages 16 to 22) recruited from youth-serving agencies in Toronto, Ontario. Participants completed a questionnaire on history of engagement in antisocial behaviour and a semi-structured interview that explored self-identity and critical life experiences. Analyses of participant interviews suggest that positive behavioural change in pregnant and parenting young women is related to active engagement in self-reflection motivated by a convergence of meaning gleaned from a variety of life experiences, including the transition to motherhood. Quantitative findings suggest that: (1) an orientation to relational values is related to lower reported recent engagement in antisocial behaviour; (2) self-action coherence develops across adolescence and early adulthood; and (3) self-action coherence is related to reported positive behavioural change. Overall, the findings suggest that an orientation to relationships is important for establishing positive patterns of behaviour and that positive behavioural change in pregnant and parenting young women involves a process of constructing personally salient self-values and establishing behaviours that cohere with these values. The findings have theoretical implications relating to identity development in adolescence and early adulthood and its relations to behavioural functioning. The findings also have implications for applied work with pregnant and parenting young women with histories of antisocial behaviour.
67

The Construction of Self-identity and Positive Behavioural Change in Pregnant and Parenting Young Women

Breen, Andrea 15 February 2011 (has links)
The purpose of this mixed method study was to investigate the relationship between the narrative construction of self-identity and positive change in antisocial behaviour in pregnant and parenting young women. It focused on two related aspects of identity development: (1) individuals’ conceptualizations of their personally salient self-values; and (2) “self-action coherence”: the process of constructing self-narratives that establish coherence between one’s personally salient self-values and behaviour. This study also included a qualitative exploration of how becoming a mother in adolescence and early adulthood is related to processes of identity development and behavioural change. Participants were 27 pregnant and parenting young women (ages 16 to 22) recruited from youth-serving agencies in Toronto, Ontario. Participants completed a questionnaire on history of engagement in antisocial behaviour and a semi-structured interview that explored self-identity and critical life experiences. Analyses of participant interviews suggest that positive behavioural change in pregnant and parenting young women is related to active engagement in self-reflection motivated by a convergence of meaning gleaned from a variety of life experiences, including the transition to motherhood. Quantitative findings suggest that: (1) an orientation to relational values is related to lower reported recent engagement in antisocial behaviour; (2) self-action coherence develops across adolescence and early adulthood; and (3) self-action coherence is related to reported positive behavioural change. Overall, the findings suggest that an orientation to relationships is important for establishing positive patterns of behaviour and that positive behavioural change in pregnant and parenting young women involves a process of constructing personally salient self-values and establishing behaviours that cohere with these values. The findings have theoretical implications relating to identity development in adolescence and early adulthood and its relations to behavioural functioning. The findings also have implications for applied work with pregnant and parenting young women with histories of antisocial behaviour.
68

Organizational Characteristics and Adolescent Political Development: Exploring the Experience of Youth Activists in Youth Development Organizations

Armstrong, Michael N. 17 August 2007 (has links)
Interest in youth civic engagement continues to increase and a small but growing group of organizations are seeking to get young people involved in political activism. At the same time, researchers are giving more attention to the features of adolescent settings and how they relate to the overall development of young people. What remains to be absent is a contextual understanding of how the characteristics of adolescent settings contribute specifically to political development. The purpose of this study is to identify organizational level characteristics of youth organizations that promote the political development of adolescents. Semi-structured interviews and grounded theory analysis with 15 young activists revealed a “Big Six” of organizational characteristics and properties that influence participation in societal involvement behaviors. Post hoc analyses also revealed potential relationships between political development and the Big Six. Implications for both theory and practice are discussed and directions for future research are delineated.
69

Global Explorers: An Examination of Program Processes and Outcomes

Duerden, Mathew D. 14 January 2010 (has links)
This study utilizes longitudinal, mixed-method data drawn from participants in an environmental education/international immersion program for middle high-school students to study outcomes and processes associated with program participation. Studies of program outcomes and processes are important for better understanding the design and impact of youth programs. The first study investigated the relationships between experience types (i.e., indirect vs. direct) and learning outcomes (i.e., knowledge vs. attitudes). In other words, what is the difference in impacts between reading a book about the rain forest and actually traveling to the rain forest? Findings suggest that experience type plays a significant role in the type of learning outcomes as well as how these outcomes influence behavior. More specifically, direct experiences appear to catalyze knowledge in a way that facilitates future behavior development. The qualitative data also suggest that participants' perceptions of perceived freedom during the program moderated whether participation was experienced as direct or indirect. The second study employed a social development model (SDM) to understand the relationship between within program socialization processes and program outcomes. The model provided a good fit for the data and predicted a significant portion of the variance in environmental behavior after controlling for baseline levels of this outcome variable. Additionally, analysis of qualitative data produced a proposed model of shared activities and bonding that suggests youth valued experiences where adults participated with them as equals rather than as disciplinarians or administrators. The final study provided insights regarding the degree to which the program was implemented as originally planned and how the domains of implementation integrity influenced program outcomes. The findings suggest that of the measured implementation domains, only participant responsiveness was significantly related to program outcomes. Data also suggest that implementer efficacy can have differing impacts on program adherence. The qualitative data suggest that most participants positively perceived the program and felt it was well organized. In sum, the findings provide a holistic perspective of the processes and outcomes of this program. Rather than merely presenting an overview of program impacts, the study offers insights into the processes (e.g., socialization) and characteristics (e.g., experience types) that produced observed outcomes. Thus, the study presents a more complete picture of what individuals gained through their participation in this program as well as the processes that led to these gains.
70

Youth, Art, and Life on the Border: An Examination of Coping and Support among Participants in a Migrant Art Program

Ramirez-Mann, Laura 2012 May 1900 (has links)
This case study examined coping strategies and support systems utilized by 33 children of Hispanic migrant farmworkers from Fabens, Texas. The youth participated in the summer 2011 Creative Kids Incorporated Migrant Program in El Paso, Texas. The study examined how socio-ecological factors, specifically within Creative Kids Inc., help youth to cope with risk factors and aid in the resilience process. This study applied both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The qualitative portion consisted of 12 in-depth program participant interviews, ages 9-15, and observations at Creative Kids Inc. The quantitative portion consisted of a survey that utilized the Brief Adolescent Life Event Scale, the Children Coping Strategies Checklist, and the Multi-Dimensional Support Scale. Thirty-four surveys were distributed, and 33 surveys were analyzed from program participants ages 10-15. The study found the youth were affected by various risk factors within their environment, such as poverty, separation from family, and school. When adapting to stress, most youth utilized behavioral-based distraction strategies (i.e., listening to music and playing outside) and cognitive-based avoidance strategies (i.e., not thinking about their problem) to cope. The youth did not use active coping strategies as often as avoidance strategies. However, some support seeking strategies were mentioned. Most often, youth sought support from parents and older siblings. While the youth sought support from their teachers, it was mainly in regard to school work. Similarly, youth sought support from Creative Kids Inc. staff concerning their art projects. Families were beneficial to youth in the coping process, because they provided youth with opportunities for distracting activities as well as some support. Although the youth strongly enjoyed participating in the Migrant Program, they rarely sought support for personal stressors or problems from the staff. Yet, the program provided youth with opportunities to participate in distracting activities, express their feelings, and seek out support. Despite the lack of literature on children of Hispanic migrant farmworkers and the factors that influence their resilience, this study provided an in-depth description of how they cope with daily life events, what support systems are available to assist in overcoming risks, and provided a basis for understanding the role of support systems in facilitating resiliency among this adolescent group.

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