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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Biochemical and molecular characterisation of bacitracin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis

Gauntlett, Jonathan C, n/a January 2008 (has links)
Resistance to the antibiotic bacitracin in Enterococcus faecalis strain AR01/DGVS is conferred by the genes bcrABD that are under the control of the regulatory protein BcrR. The N-terminal domain of BcrR has similarity to the helix-turn-helix motif of DNA-binding proteins and topological modelling predicts that the C-terminal domain contains four transmembrane α-helices. These data have led to the hypothesis that BcrR is a novel transmembrane transcriptional regulator which acts to both sense bacitracin and initiate transcription of bcrABD. The transcription of bcrABD in the presence of bacitracin results in the expression of a putative ABC transporter, BcrAB, that may function by the efflux of bacitracin from the cell membrane. The aim of this study was to further characterise the mechanism of bacitracin resistance in E. faecalis and to conduct structural and functional studies with BcrR. A series of bcrA-lacZ transcriptional fusions were created to investigate the regulation of bcrABD transcription by BcrR and map the bcrABD promoter. We determined that BcrR activates bcrA-lacZ expression in response to bacitracin directly and not indirectly via the build-up of cell wall stress or cell wall precursors. A 69-bp region of the bcrABD promoter was required for activation of bcrA-lacZ expression. The introduction of mutations into this sequence demonstrated that two inverted repeat regions (viz. 5�-CTGACA(N)₆GTGTC-3�) were required for bcrA-lacZ expression. Furthermore, the creation of a bcrR::kan insertion mutant and a bcrR-lacZ transcriptional fusion revealed that bcrR is required for high-level bacitracin resistance in AR01/DGVS and that BcrR does not act to auto-regulate bcrR-lacZ expression. To study BcrR function, we overproduced BcrR with a C-terminal hexa-histidine tag in Escherichia coli membranes, extracted the protein with n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside, and subsequently purified it via Ni�⁺-NTA affinity and gel filtration chromatography to apparent homogeneity. Purified BcrR was reconstituted into liposomes and BcrR binding to bcrABD promoter DNA was analysed using gel-shift assays. We demonstrated that BcrR binds the bcrABD promoter in both the absence and presence of Zn�⁺-bacitracin and that the presence of the inverted repeat regions is necessary for binding. Purification of BcrR has also enabled us to commence structural studies toward obtaining the three dimensional structure of BcrR. We obtained crystals of BcrR that diffracted poorly to a resolution of 19 Å. To characterise the function of the putative ABC type transporter (exporter) of bacitracin, BcrAB, we conducted transport assays with purified bacitracin A, fluorescently labelled FITC-bacitracin A, and radioactive ⁶�Ni�⁺-bacitracin. Transport assays conducted with radioactive ⁶�Ni�⁺-bacitracin and inverted membrane vesicles of E. coli, in which BcrABD had been recombinantly overproduced, displayed uptake of ⁶�Ni�⁺-bacitracin, suggesting that BcrAB functions as a transporter of bacitracin. We conclude that BcrR is a transmembrane DNA-binding protein that functions as both a bacitracin sensor and regulator of bcrABD expression. We propose that BcrR binds to inverted repeat regions in bcrABD promoter to regulate bcrABD expression. Expression of bcrABD results in the production of BcrAB, which appears to be capable of bacitracin efflux (i.e. uptake in inverted membrane vesicles), conferring high-level bacitracin resistance to E. faecalis.
2

Biochemical and molecular characterisation of bacitracin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis

Gauntlett, Jonathan C, n/a January 2008 (has links)
Resistance to the antibiotic bacitracin in Enterococcus faecalis strain AR01/DGVS is conferred by the genes bcrABD that are under the control of the regulatory protein BcrR. The N-terminal domain of BcrR has similarity to the helix-turn-helix motif of DNA-binding proteins and topological modelling predicts that the C-terminal domain contains four transmembrane α-helices. These data have led to the hypothesis that BcrR is a novel transmembrane transcriptional regulator which acts to both sense bacitracin and initiate transcription of bcrABD. The transcription of bcrABD in the presence of bacitracin results in the expression of a putative ABC transporter, BcrAB, that may function by the efflux of bacitracin from the cell membrane. The aim of this study was to further characterise the mechanism of bacitracin resistance in E. faecalis and to conduct structural and functional studies with BcrR. A series of bcrA-lacZ transcriptional fusions were created to investigate the regulation of bcrABD transcription by BcrR and map the bcrABD promoter. We determined that BcrR activates bcrA-lacZ expression in response to bacitracin directly and not indirectly via the build-up of cell wall stress or cell wall precursors. A 69-bp region of the bcrABD promoter was required for activation of bcrA-lacZ expression. The introduction of mutations into this sequence demonstrated that two inverted repeat regions (viz. 5�-CTGACA(N)₆GTGTC-3�) were required for bcrA-lacZ expression. Furthermore, the creation of a bcrR::kan insertion mutant and a bcrR-lacZ transcriptional fusion revealed that bcrR is required for high-level bacitracin resistance in AR01/DGVS and that BcrR does not act to auto-regulate bcrR-lacZ expression. To study BcrR function, we overproduced BcrR with a C-terminal hexa-histidine tag in Escherichia coli membranes, extracted the protein with n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside, and subsequently purified it via Ni�⁺-NTA affinity and gel filtration chromatography to apparent homogeneity. Purified BcrR was reconstituted into liposomes and BcrR binding to bcrABD promoter DNA was analysed using gel-shift assays. We demonstrated that BcrR binds the bcrABD promoter in both the absence and presence of Zn�⁺-bacitracin and that the presence of the inverted repeat regions is necessary for binding. Purification of BcrR has also enabled us to commence structural studies toward obtaining the three dimensional structure of BcrR. We obtained crystals of BcrR that diffracted poorly to a resolution of 19 Å. To characterise the function of the putative ABC type transporter (exporter) of bacitracin, BcrAB, we conducted transport assays with purified bacitracin A, fluorescently labelled FITC-bacitracin A, and radioactive ⁶�Ni�⁺-bacitracin. Transport assays conducted with radioactive ⁶�Ni�⁺-bacitracin and inverted membrane vesicles of E. coli, in which BcrABD had been recombinantly overproduced, displayed uptake of ⁶�Ni�⁺-bacitracin, suggesting that BcrAB functions as a transporter of bacitracin. We conclude that BcrR is a transmembrane DNA-binding protein that functions as both a bacitracin sensor and regulator of bcrABD expression. We propose that BcrR binds to inverted repeat regions in bcrABD promoter to regulate bcrABD expression. Expression of bcrABD results in the production of BcrAB, which appears to be capable of bacitracin efflux (i.e. uptake in inverted membrane vesicles), conferring high-level bacitracin resistance to E. faecalis.
3

The influence of neomycin, bacitracin and SP-250 in a commercial hog finishing operation /

Godsey, Roie Monroe, January 1964 (has links)
Thesis (M.S.)--Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 1964. / Vita. Abstract. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 38-40). Also available via the Internet.
4

Structure and Activity of Metallo-Peptides

Tang, Christian C. 03 July 2017 (has links)
Metal ions are ubiquitously found in all living systems and play vital roles in supporting life forms by performing an array of biological activities. Such biological activities include binding and transforming organic molecules, and also acting as active centers and cofactors for catalysis of various acid-base and redox reactions in biological system. The main focus in bioinorganic chemistry is to elucidate the structural and functional roles of metals in biological systems. Among all transition metal ions, Cu2+ and Fe3+ are especially versatile and important due to their abilities to go through redox efficiently. This dissertation can be divided into four main chapters. The bioinorganic chemistry of Cu- and Fe-containing proteins were briefly discussed in Chapter one. The next chapter focuses on bacitracin, a cyclic peptide-based antibiotic produced by soil bacteria Bacillus subtilis. Bacitracin is a metalloantibiotics that can coordinate with many transition metal ions and exhibit different biological activities. In the first part of Chapter two, the aim is to explore the chemicals interactions in soil micro-ecology by investigating the interactions of different flavonoids and Cu(II)-bacitracin complex. The second part of chapter two demonstrated the binding and oxidation activity of iron(III)-bacitracin. Metal-mediated oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development of different neurodegenerative diseases. In chapter 3, various synthetic and natural compounds were used to inhibit the oxidation chemistry mediated by Cu(II)-beta-amyloid complex associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Many proteins incorporate copper ions at their active sites for different functions, and among all of the chemistry copper-containing-proteins can perform, one of the most interesting aspect is the ability to bind and activate O2. Therefore, the biomimetic of two different Cu(II) complexes were investigated. In all studies, a combination of kinetic and different spectroscopic methods (UV-vis, NMR and resonance Raman spectroscopy) were used to study their metal binding and activity.
5

The influence of neomycin, bacitracin and SP-250 in a commercial hog finishing operation

Godsey, Roie Monroe 23 February 2010 (has links)
Three hundred and twelve feeder pigs, six lots of 52 pigs each (52 pounds) were used to study the response of five antibiotic supplementations in a commercial hog finishing operation. Lot one received neomycin 80 grams per ton, lot two Bacitracin MD (40 grams per ton), and lot three no antibiotic o Lots four, five and six received SP-250 for 10 days (five pounds per ton). After termination of SP-2S0, lot four received neomycin (80 grams per ton), lot five bacitracin MD (40 grams per ton) and lot six no antibiotic. At the end of the 9l-day feeding period, the first draft of hogs) which included all hogs weighing approximately 200 pounds, was removed for slaughter. A second draft of hogs was slaughtered 14 days later, the remaining hogs in each lot were all removed 32 days later. The supplementation of SP-250 (lots 4, 5 and 6) for 10 days increased (P .01) the ADG by 0.2 pounds over control, Neomycin and Bacitracin MD did not affect the ADG. Combinations of SP-250 and Neomycin or Bacitracin MD produced gains similar to those of SP-250 alone. Carcass length was measured from the first rib to the aitch bone, also average chilled carcass weight and dressing per cent were obtained at the packing plant. Feed intake did not appear to be affected by any of the treatments. Feed efficiency appeared to be improved by SP-250 due to the greater gains. The overall mean live weight at slaughter also had a tendency to be greater for lots 4, 5, and 6. There was essentially no difference among lots I, 2, and 3 or among lots 4, 5, and 6 in live weight at slaughter. Mean slaughter weights were 220 lbs. and 212 lbs. for those supplemented with SP-250 and those not, respectively. Chilled carcass weights of pens 4, 5, and 6 evidenced the slightly greater live weights as compared to lots 1, 2, and 3. The treatments had no effect on dressing % or carcass length. Those lots receiving SP-2S0 tended to have slightly thicker back fat. / Master of Science
6

EFFECTS OF LIVESTOCK ANTIBIOTICS ON NITRIFICATION, DENITRIFICATION, AND MICROBIAL COMMUNITY COMPOSITON IN SOILS ALONG A TOPOGRAPHIC GRADIENT

Banerjee, Sagarika 01 January 2010 (has links)
Several types of antibiotics (roxarsone, virginiamycin, and bacitracin) are widely included in poultry feed to improve animal growth yields. Most of the antibiotics are excreted in manure which is subsequently applied to soils. One concern with this practice is that antibiotics may affect several microbially-mediated nutrient cycling reactions in soils that influence crop productivity and water quality. The main objectives of this study were to determine the effects of livestock antibiotics on nitrification, denitrification, and microbial community composition in soils along a topographic gradient. These objectives were addressed in a series of lab experiments by monitoring changes in inorganic N species and ester-linked fatty acid methyl ester profiles after exposing soil microorganisms collected from different topographic positions to increasing levels of antibiotics. It was discovered that roxarsone and virginiamycin inhibited nitrification and soil microbial growth and also influenced microbial community composition, but only at levels that were much higher than expected in poultry litter-applied soils. Bacitracin did not affect nitrification, microbial growth, or microbial community composition at any concentration tested. None of the antibiotics had a strong affect on denitrification. Thus, it is unlikely that soil, water, or air quality would be significantly impacted by the antibiotics contained in poultry litter.
7

Produção de bacitracina por bacillus licheniformis (UCP1010) utilizando meio alternativo à base de soro de leite

Amanda de Araújo Alencar 18 August 2011 (has links)
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior / A bacitracina é um dos mais importantes antibióticos polipeptídicos, produzido por Bacillus licheniformis e Bacillus subtilis, funcionando como inibidor da biossíntese da parede celular. O soro de leite é um rejeito da fabricação de queijos de alto valor nutricional, sendo considerado um poluente extremamente problemático devido à elevada carga orgânica e grande volume gerado. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o potencial biotecnológico de B. licheniformis UCP1 01 O, isolada de solo contaminado por petróleo, na produção de bacitracina, utilizando meios formulados à base de soro de leite, em substituição ao ácido glutâmico e utilizando glicose como fonte adicional de carbono. Foi empregado um planejamento fatorial 23, variando as condições de temperatura, concentrações de glicose e de soro de leite, tendo como variável resposta o diâmetro do halo produzido pelo microorganismo. A produção foi detectada através do teste de difusão em disco, utilizando Micrococcus flavus como micro-organismo teste. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram a presença de halos com diâmetros variando entre 11 mm e 27mm, em todas as temperaturas estudadas. No entanto, a melhor produção ocorreu a 37C, em pH alcalino, após 72h de crescimento microbiano. De acordo com o planejamento fatorial utilizado, os ensaios realizados nas condições do ponto central apresentaram melhor potencial para produção de bacitracina. Tal fato indica que as concentrações de soro de leite 40% (v/v) e de glicose 20g/L mostraram-se mais eficientes para a produção do antibiótico. Assim, pode-se concluir que o micro- organismo estudado possui potencial para produção de antibióticos utilizando soro de leite como substrato, evitando que esse resíduo seja descartado no meio ambiente
8

Produção de bacitracina por bacillus licheniformis (UCP1010) utilizando meio alternativo à base de soro de leite

Alencar, Amanda de Araújo 18 August 2011 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2017-06-01T18:20:30Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 dissertacao_amanda_alencar.pdf: 3505870 bytes, checksum: 6913fe23cb6f356d3d9af7c2d1ebc9eb (MD5) Previous issue date: 2011-08-18 / Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior / Bacitracin is a major polypeptide antibiotics produced by Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis, functioning as an inhibitor of cell wall biosynthesis. Whey is a waste of the cheese manufacture of high nutritional value and is considered a pollutant extremely problematic due to his high organic load and high volume generated. This work aimed to study the potential of biotechnology of B. licheniformis UCP1 01 O, isolated from soil contaminated by oil, through the production of bacitracin, using mediums formulated by whey basis, replacing the glutamic acid and using glucose as a additional source of carbono It uses a 23 factorial design, varying conditions of temperature, concentrations of glucose and whey, having the response variable diameter of the haja produced by the microorganism. The production was detected by disk diffusion test, using Micrococcus flavus as microorganism testo The results showed the presence of halos with diameters ranging from 11 mm and 27mm, at ali temperatures studied. However, the best production occurred at 37 °C, at alkaline pH, after 72 h of microbial growth. According to the experimental design used, tests performed under the conditions of the central point showed best potential for production of bacitracin. This fact indicates that the whey concentration of 40% (v/v) and 20 g/L of glucose were more efficient for the production of the antibiotic. Thus, it's possible to conclude that the microorganism studied has potential for antibiotic production using whey as substrate preventing that waste being discarded into the environment / A bacitracina é um dos mais importantes antibióticos polipeptídicos, produzido por Bacillus licheniformis e Bacillus subtilis, funcionando como inibidor da biossíntese da parede celular. O soro de leite é um rejeito da fabricação de queijos de alto valor nutricional, sendo considerado um poluente extremamente problemático devido à elevada carga orgânica e grande volume gerado. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o potencial biotecnológico de B. licheniformis UCP1 01 O, isolada de solo contaminado por petróleo, na produção de bacitracina, utilizando meios formulados à base de soro de leite, em substituição ao ácido glutâmico e utilizando glicose como fonte adicional de carbono. Foi empregado um planejamento fatorial 23, variando as condições de temperatura, concentrações de glicose e de soro de leite, tendo como variável resposta o diâmetro do halo produzido pelo microorganismo. A produção foi detectada através do teste de difusão em disco, utilizando Micrococcus flavus como micro-organismo teste. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram a presença de halos com diâmetros variando entre 11 mm e 27mm, em todas as temperaturas estudadas. No entanto, a melhor produção ocorreu a 37°C, em pH alcalino, após 72h de crescimento microbiano. De acordo com o planejamento fatorial utilizado, os ensaios realizados nas condições do ponto central apresentaram melhor potencial para produção de bacitracina. Tal fato indica que as concentrações de soro de leite 40% (v/v) e de glicose 20g/L mostraram-se mais eficientes para a produção do antibiótico. Assim, pode-se concluir que o micro- organismo estudado possui potencial para produção de antibióticos utilizando soro de leite como substrato, evitando que esse resíduo seja descartado no meio ambiente
9

Étude sur le biofilm et les mécanismes de résistance à la bacitracine chez Clostridium perfringens

Charlebois, Audrey 01 1900 (has links)
Clostridium perfringens est ubiquitaire dans l’environnement. Ce microorganisme peut être retrouvé dans la flore normale du tractus gastro-intestinal des mammifères et peut également causer une variété d’infections intestinales. Le phénotype de résistance à la bacitracine a déjà été rapporté chez C. perfringens mais les gènes associés n’ont pas été caractérisés. Dans cette étude, 24 des 99 isolats de C. perfringens aviaires testés ont démontré une résistance à la bacitracine. Les analyses ont révélé la présence d’un transporteur ABC ainsi que d’une undécaprénol kinase surproduite. Ces deux mécanismes semblent être codés par l’opéron bcrABDR. En amont et en aval des gènes bcr, un élément IS1216-like a été identifié, celui-ci pouvant jouer un rôle dans la dissémination de la résistance à la bacitracine. Des analyses d’hybridation sur ADN ont révélé que les gènes bcrABDR étaient localisés sur le chromosome. De plus, il a été démontré que les gènes bcr étaient exprimés en présence de bacitracine. Plusieurs études ont associé la tolérance aux antibiotiques et aux désinfectants à la formation de biofilm. Dans la littérature, peu d’informations sont disponibles sur le biofilm de C. perfringens. La majorité des isolats testés dans cette étude ont démontré la formation d’un biofilm. L’analyse de la matrice a démontré que celle-ci contenait des protéines, de l’ADN extracellulaire ainsi que des polysaccharides liés en bêta-1,4. Une meilleure survie des cellules en biofilm a été observée suite à une exposition à de fortes concentrations d’antibiotiques. Une exposition à de faibles doses de certains antibiotiques semblait diminuer le biofilm formé alors que pour d’autres, le biofilm semblait augmenter. Dans la présente étude, la susceptibilité des biofilms de C. perfringens à la désinfection a été également analysée. Les résultats ont démontré que la formation de biofilm protégeait les cellules de l’action du monopersulfate de potassium, des ammoniums quaternaires, du peroxyde d’hydrogène et du glutéraldéhyde. Toutefois, l’hypochlorite de sodium a été démontré comme étant efficace contre le biofilm de C. perfringens. Il a été démontré que les biofilms mixtes de C. perfringens cultivés en présence de Staphylococcus aureus ou d’Escherichia coli étaient plus résistants à la désinfection en comparaison aux biofilms simples de S. aureus ou d’E. coli. Toutefois, le biofilm simple de C. perfringens était plus résistant à la désinfection que les biofilms mixtes. Finalement, les profils de transcription entre les populations planctoniques et en biofilm ont été analysés par séquençage d’ARN. L’analyse transcriptomique du biofilm a identifié 238 gènes différentiellement exprimés entre les deux conditions. Les gènes négativement régulés sont impliqués dans la virulence, la production d’énergie, le métabolisme des sucres ainsi que dans la biosynthèse des acides gras et des acides aminés alors que les gènes induits sont impliqués dans la réponse au stress et au stress oxydatif, dans la biosynthèse d’acides gras et de phospholipides ainsi que dans la virulence. Cette étude décrit pour la première fois la découverte des gènes associés à la résistance à la bacitracine chez C. perfringens. Elle rapporte également de nouvelles données sur la matrice du biofilm, la tolérance aux antibiotiques et aux désinfectants ainsi que sur le transcriptome du biofilm de C. perfringens. / Clostridium perfringens is ubiquitous in the environment. This microorganism can be found in the intestinal tract of mammals as normal flora and can also cause many gastrointestinal infections. Phenotypic bacitracin resistance has been reported in the literature for C. perfringens but the genes responsible for this resistance have not yet been characterized. In this study, twenty-four of the 99 poultry isolates tested showed bacitracin resistance. Analysis revealed putative genes encoding for both an ABC transporter and an overproduced undecaprenol kinase. These two mechanisms were shown to be both encoded by the putative bcrABDR operon. An IS1216-like element was found upstream and downstream from the bcr cluster, which may play a role in the dissemination of this resistance determinant. DNA hybridization analyses revealed that the bacitracin resistance genes bcrABDR were located on the chromosome. Moreover, this gene cluster has been showed to be expressed under bacitracin stress. Many studies have associated tolerance to antibiotics and disinfectants to biofilm. In the literature, very little is known on the biofilm formation by C. perfringens. Most of the C. perfringens isolates tested in this study were able to form biofilms. Matrix composition analysis revealed the presence of proteins, extracellular DNA and beta-1,4 linked polysaccharides. Biofilm could also protect C. perfringens bacterial cells from an exposition to high concentrations of antibiotics. Exposition to low doses of antibiotics tended to lead to a diminution of the biofilm formed but for few isolates, the biofilm formation was increased. In the present study, susceptibilities of C. perfringens biofilms to disinfectants were also analysed. Results showed that biofilms can protect the bacterial cells from the action of potassium monopersulfate, quaternary ammonium chlorides, hydrogen peroxide and gluteraldehyde solutions. However, sodium hypochlorite solution was shown to be effective on C. perfringens biofilms. Our investigation of dual-species biofilms of C. perfringens with the addition of Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli demonstrated that these dual-species biofilms were more tolerant to disinfection with sodium hypochlorite than the mono-species biofilms of S. aureus or E. coli. However, further disinfection studies using sodium hypochlorite suggest that the mono-species biofilms formed by C. perfringens is more tolerant to this disinfectant than the dual-species biofilms of C. perfringens with S. aureus or E. coli. Finally, the differential gene expression patterns between planktonic populations and biofilms of C. perfringens were investigated by RNA sequencing. The transcriptomic analysis identified 238 genes that were significantly differentially expressed between both conditions. Genes that were down-regulated in biofilm cells, relative to planktonic cells, included those involved in virulence, energy production, carbohydrate metabolism, fatty acids and amino acids biosynthesis. On the other hand, genes up-regulated in biofilm cells were involved in oxidative and stress responses, fatty acids and phospholipids biosynthesis and few genes were involved in virulence. This study reports on the discovery of genes associated to bacitracin resistance of C. perfringens. Our work brings also new data on matrix cohesion of the biofilm, tolerance to antibiotics and disinfectants, and on the transcriptome of the biofilm of C. perfringens.
10

Towards a Better Understanding of Poultry Intestinal Microbiome through Metagenomic and Microarray Studies

Wei, Shan 20 May 2013 (has links)
No description available.

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