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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Implementation of green infrastructure as stormwater management in Portland, Oregon

Kulkarni, Madhuri January 1900 (has links)
Master of Regional and Community Planning / Department of Landscape Architecture/Regional and Community Planning / Huston Gibson / Green infrastructure is an emerging concept which utilizes vegetated systems rather than traditional gray infrastructure for stormwater management. Conducting a literature review revealed the effectiveness of incentive based planning, the benefits of green infrastructure, information on bioswales and wetlands, stormwater management, Portland, and planning implementation strategies. Portland, Oregon, was selected as the area of study because of its widespread application of green infrastructure. Seeking to understand the reasoning behind the implementation of this atypical civic infrastructure, existing policies in the city’s Comprehensive Plan and the Zoning Code were analyzed. A policy analysis was conducted through itemizing the relevant policies in the Comprehensive Plan and the Zoning Code. Additionally, six in-depth phone interviews were conducted with Portland base planning-related professionals utilizing a snowball sampling technique to qualitatively understand the policies and circumstances that enabled the implementation of the city’s bioswales and wetlands. Findings were revealed through using the grounded theory methodology of coding and memoing to analyze the responses from the interviews. According to the policy itemization and phone interviews, the Comprehensive Plan and Zoning Code were not the reasons for Portland’s green infrastructure implementation, as hypothesized. Instead, green infrastructure was evident due to a need for compliance with the U.S Environmental Protection Agency’s Clean Water Act, and a resulting Stormwater Management Manual created by the city. Additionally, other reasons for implementation included strong leaders, active citizens, and incentives and grants. The city encountered several challenges with implementation including costs, a technical lack of information, and opposition from members against using green infrastructure, which were all ultimately overcome. Lessons learned from this case study of Portland point to four policy recommendations for other cities wanting to implement green infrastructure to help alleviate pollution and flooding: the need for design having a general Comprehensive Plan and detailed Stormwater Management Manual, experimentation to generate and monitor data, collaboration, and funding.
2

Greening the Streets: A Comparison of Sustainable Stormwater Management in Portland, Oregon and Los Angeles, California

Schweitzer, Na'ama 01 May 2013 (has links)
Stormwater runoff is one of the main sources of pollution for urban waterways. Stormwater has traditionally been managed through concrete-based storm drainage systems, but the past twenty years have introduced an alternative in the form of green infrastructure. Green infrastructure for stormwater management involves the use of low impact development (LID), often vegetated facilities to mimic natural hydrologic systems that capture and allow infiltration of rainwater where it falls and from impervious surfaces upstream, before entering the drainage system. Portland, Oregon and Los Angeles, California have adopted green infrastructure into their stormwater management plans. For this project, bioswales, a form of vegetated LID facility, were tested in each city to determine their pollutant retention capabilities. Results from Portland show that bioswales filter out heavy metals effectively, and results from Los Angeles show that bioswales accumulate heavy metals in the soil over the course of the year (also due to filtering out metals from the stormwater). These results raise the question of whether accumulation can reach dangerous levels or saturate the soil with pollutants so that removal efficiency is diminished, indicating a need for further monitoring. However, the success of bioswales up to this point is encouraging and indicates that this method should continue to be employed.
3

Assessment of a Mycorrhizal Fungi Application to Treat Stormwater in an Urban Bioswale

Melville, Alaina Diane 05 July 2016 (has links)
This study assessed the effect of an application of mycorrhizal fungi to stormwater filter media on urban bioswale soil and stormwater in an infiltration-based bioswale aged 20 years with established vegetation. The study tested the use of commercially available general purpose biotic soil blend PermaMatrix® BSP Foundation as a treatment to enhance Earthlite™ stormwater filter media amelioration of zinc, copper, and phosphorus in an ecologically engineered structure designed to collect and infiltrate urban stormwater runoff before it entered the nearby Willamette River. These results show that the application of PermaMatrix® BSP Foundation biotic soil amendment to Earthlite™ stormwater filter media contributed to the reduction of extractable zinc in bioswale soil (-24% and -26%), as compared to the control, which received a treatment of Earthlite™ stormwater filter media only, and experienced an increase in extractable zinc levels (23% and 39%). The results presented also show evidence that after establishment mycorrhizal treatment demonstrated lowered levels of phosphorus in bioswale soil (-41%) and stormwater (-100%), in contrast to the control, which had increased phosphorus levels. The treatment contributed to reductions between 67% and 100% in every metric detected in stormwater after an establishment period of 17 weeks, while the bioswale with no mycorrhizal treatment had increases between 50% and 117%. Treatment also appeared to enhance the reduction of ammonium and nitrates, while contributing to a greater increase in soil pH.
4

Analysis of Biofiltration Efficiency for Treating Stormwater Runoff from a Parking Facility

Koranchie-Boah, Peter 07 September 2008 (has links)
No description available.
5

Advancing Understanding of Green Infrastructure Performance Through Field Measurements and Modeling

Wang, Siyan January 2020 (has links)
Urbanization has posed great challenges for environmental sustainability, human health, and wellbeing. One of these challenges is stormwater management stemming from widespread imperviousness in urban areas. For many cities, including New York City, stormwater management issues are being exacerbated by the impacts of climate change, which is increasing the frequency and intensity of wet weather flows in multiple regions of the world. In New York City, stormwater runoff is collected with wastewater sewage in a combined sewer system (CSS) that dates back to over a century ago. At the time the system was put in place, it was designed to transport a combination of storm and wastewater to local treatment plants with a capacity of about twice the dry-weather flow. With the expansion of urbanization and population growth, this outdated system is now easily overwhelmed during wet weather flow. In some areas of the City, rainfall of less than a few millimeters can cause untreated combined storm and waste water in excess of the system’s capacity (Schlanger, 2014), to be discharged directly into a nearby surface water. The combination of storm and wastewater is referred to as combined sewerage, and overflow events are referred to as combined sewer overflows (CSOs). CSOs are a leading source of local water body pollution in NYC, as well as countless other older cities in the US and abroad that operate with combined sewer systems. To solve the CSO problem, many cities, including NYC, have adopted green infrastructure (GI) plans that aim to capture stormwater locally before it can make its way into a CSS. In New York City, right-of-way bioswales (ROWBs) are composed of about 60% of the GI that has been implemented to date (The New York City Department of Environmental Protection, 2020) for stormwater management and CSO reduction. However, despite the popularity of ROWBs as a GI intervention, few research studies have focused on quantifying their hydrological performance. This can be attributed, in part, to the greater complexity of ROWB behavior in comparison to other GI interventions, such as green roofs, which have attracted wider research interest. In addition, because ROWBs are located in the public right-of-way, monitoring and measurement of the behavior of these systems also poses additional challenges. The first study in this dissertation presents three new field methods for quantifying the stormwater retention capacity of individual ROWBs. By applying the field methods at a ROWB site located in the Bronx, NYC, the influence of rainfall characteristics and the monitored soil moisture content of the ROWB on the ROWB’s hydrological performance was explored. A definition of a so-called ‘rain peaky event’ (RPE) was introduced to divide an individual storm into several sub-events. A RPE event-based empirical model for predicting the stormwater retention behavior of the ROWB was then developed based on the monitored soil moisture content of the ROWB and the rain depth recorded every 15 minutes during a storm event. This study found that the predicted stormwater retention volume per rain depth per unit drainage area of the studied ROWB, is not significantly different from that of several NYC based extensive green roofs. However, compared to the drainage area of the green roofs, which is the same as the roof’s surface area, the drainage area of the studied ROWB was about 84 times its surface area. Thus, per unit area, the ROWB was found to have significantly higher (almost two orders of magnitude) total stormwater capacity than the extensive green roofs. The second study in this dissertation assessed the applicability of the physics-based one-dimensional finite element model HYDRUS-1D, for simulating the infiltration process of a ROWB during storm events using long-term monitored soil moisture content as an input. The simulation results from the HYDRUS-1D was validated by field measurement results taken at the ROWB site located in the Bronx, NYC, and compared with the RPE event-based empirical model presented in the first study. The HYDRUS-1D model was found capable of predicting the ROWB’s cumulative stormwater retention at intervals of one minute, as well as the total retention volume of stormwater inflows into the ROWB per rain peaky event, except for events with an average stormwater inflow intensity high than 20 cm/hr. The study revealed that HYDRUS-1D has a tendency to under-predict the retention capacity of the studied ROWB for a storm with an inflow intensity high than 20 cm/hr, thus providing a lower bound on ROWB stormwater retention. The current published version of the HYDRUS-1D was also found to be erroneous when simulating the ROWB stormwater infiltration process in cases where the ROWB’s soil moisture content was close to saturation. The third study investigated the effectiveness of increased perviousness on CSO reduction and water quality improvement in NYC, toward an aim of understanding how GI implementation can improve city-wide stormwater management issues. By using the enterococci (ENT) concentration as an indicator of water quality and the runoff coefficient to represent land perviousness over an area, a random forest classification model was developed for predicting whether a water body is swimmable or not at 50 shore sites along the main waterways of NYC. The model revealed the significant contribution of land perviousness, and hence GI interventions and green space, to CSO pollution reduction for CSO-shed areas located adjacent to slower-moving waterways. For CSO-shed areas located adjacent to faster moving waterways, the influence of land perviousness was found to be negligible. The random forest classification model developed in this third study can be used as a tool for city planners and agencies as part of plans for GI implementation that focus on the optimization of local water quality, among other objectives. Overall, the research presented in this dissertation aimed to provide a deeper insight into the factors governing the hydrological performance of the most prevalent GI in NYC – namely right-of-way bioswales. In addition, the research aimed to provide insight into linkages between land perviousness and CSO pollution levels in NYC local waterways, which can be used to inform the implementation and overall performance of the entire NYC GI system.

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