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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Critérios de seleção para características de importância econômica em ovinos da raça Santa Inês / Selection criteria for economically important traits in Santa Inês sheep

Elisa Junqueira Oliveira 11 April 2016 (has links)
Os objetivos deste estudo foram: estimar parâmetros genéticos para: coloração da conjuntiva ocular (CCO), contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG), volume globular (VG), proteína plasmática total (PPT), escore da condição corporal (ECC) e peso corporal (PC) e, ainda, explorar o perfil genético da população, utilizando análises de agrupamento com base nos valores genéticos. E estimar parâmetros genéticos para peso corporal (PC) e características de conformação (perímetro torácico (PT), altura da garupa (AG), altura da cernelha (AC), largura da garupa (LG), comprimento corporal (CC) e escore de condição corporal (ECC)) com intuito de definir critérios de seleção. Foram analisadas um total de 2.525 informações de 771 animais nascidos entre 2002 e 2013, filhos de 68 carneiros e 352 ovelhas, pertencentes a sete rebanhos localizados no estado de São Paulo. Os animais foram avaliados mensalmente durante junho de 2013 a outubro de 2014. Os componentes de covariância foram estimados por modelo animal em análises multicaracterísticas, por meio de abordagem Bayesiana. As estimativas de herdabilidade para CCO, PC, VG, PPT, OPG e ECC foram 0,21 (0,04); 0,18 (0,05); 0,30 (0,06); 0,17 (0,05); 0,19 (0,03) e 0,31 (0,07), respectivamente, indicando que a seleção pode ser realizada com base no valor genético dos indivíduos para estas características. As correlações genéticas entre a CCO e PC, VG, PPT, OPG e ECC foram -0,40 (0,17); -0,63 (0,09); -0,23 (0,15); 0,77 (0,09); -0,59 (0,11), respectivamente, e entre PC e ECC a correlação genética foi de 0,84 (0,15). Assim como as outras medidas de resistência a verminose, a CCO pode ser incluída como critério na seleção; esta apresenta estimativa de herdabilidade mediana correlação genética favorável com as outras medidas de resistência a verminose e com PC e ECC, além de ser de fácil obtenção e baixo custo. Foi possível obter grupos de indivíduos com perfil genético de resistência/resiliência a verminose a partir das análises de agrupamento. As estimativas de herdabilidade para PC, PT, AG, AC, LG e ECC foram: 0,25 (0,08); 0,22 (0,07); 0,24 (0,07); 0,25 (0,07); 0,19 (0,05) e 0,32 (0,07), respectivamente e as correlações genéticas entre o peso e as medidas corporais foram de alta magnitude, variando entre 0,66 (0,11) a 0,98 (0,016), indicando que as medidas corporais, principalmente o perímetro torácico, pode ser incluído como um critério de seleção complementar ao peso corporal. / The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for conjunctival staining score (CSS), fecal eggs count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), total plasma protein (TPP), body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW), and also explore the genetic profile of the population, using cluster analysis based on genetic values. And to estimate genetic parameters for body weight (BW) and conformation traits (heart girth (HG), hip height (HH), wither height (WH), rump width (RW), body length (BL) and body condition score (BCS)) to define selection criteria. A total of 2,525 records from 771 animals born between 2002 and 2013 to 68 rams and 352 ewes, belonging to five herds located in the São Paulo state were used. The animals were evaluated monthly during June 2013 to October 2014. The covariance components were estimated by animal model multi-trait using Bayesian analysis. The estimates of heritability for CSS, BW, PCV, FEC, BCS and PPT were 0.21 (0.04); 0.18 (0.05); 0.30 (0.06); 0.19 (0.03), 0.31 (0.07) and 0.17 (0.07), respectively, indicating that you can select animals based on the genetic value of individuals. The genetic correlations between CSS and BW, CSS and PCV, CSS and PPT, CCS and FEC, CSS and BCS and between the BW and BCS -0.40 (0.17); -0.63 (0.09); -0.23 (0.15); 0.77 (0.09); 0.84 (0.15), respectively. As other resistance traits the worms, the CCO can be included as a criterion in the selection. For this trait has estimated median heritability (0.21±0.04) and positive genetic correlation with other resistance measures to worms and BW and BCS, as well as being easy to obtain and low cost. It was possible to obtain groups of individuals with genetic profile of resistance / resilience to worms from the cluster analysis. The estimates of heritability for BW, HG, HH, WH, RW, BL and BCS were 0.25 (0.08); 0.22 (0.07); 0.24 (0.07); 0.25 (0.07); 0.19 (0.05) and 0.32 (0.07), respectively and genetic correlations between weight and body measures were highest magnitude, ranging from 0.66 (0.11) to 0.98 (0,016) indicating that body measurements, mainly heart girth, can be included as a criterion in the selection in addition to body weight.
2

Critérios de seleção para características de importância econômica em ovinos da raça Santa Inês / Selection criteria for economically important traits in Santa Inês sheep

Oliveira, Elisa Junqueira 11 April 2016 (has links)
Os objetivos deste estudo foram: estimar parâmetros genéticos para: coloração da conjuntiva ocular (CCO), contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG), volume globular (VG), proteína plasmática total (PPT), escore da condição corporal (ECC) e peso corporal (PC) e, ainda, explorar o perfil genético da população, utilizando análises de agrupamento com base nos valores genéticos. E estimar parâmetros genéticos para peso corporal (PC) e características de conformação (perímetro torácico (PT), altura da garupa (AG), altura da cernelha (AC), largura da garupa (LG), comprimento corporal (CC) e escore de condição corporal (ECC)) com intuito de definir critérios de seleção. Foram analisadas um total de 2.525 informações de 771 animais nascidos entre 2002 e 2013, filhos de 68 carneiros e 352 ovelhas, pertencentes a sete rebanhos localizados no estado de São Paulo. Os animais foram avaliados mensalmente durante junho de 2013 a outubro de 2014. Os componentes de covariância foram estimados por modelo animal em análises multicaracterísticas, por meio de abordagem Bayesiana. As estimativas de herdabilidade para CCO, PC, VG, PPT, OPG e ECC foram 0,21 (0,04); 0,18 (0,05); 0,30 (0,06); 0,17 (0,05); 0,19 (0,03) e 0,31 (0,07), respectivamente, indicando que a seleção pode ser realizada com base no valor genético dos indivíduos para estas características. As correlações genéticas entre a CCO e PC, VG, PPT, OPG e ECC foram -0,40 (0,17); -0,63 (0,09); -0,23 (0,15); 0,77 (0,09); -0,59 (0,11), respectivamente, e entre PC e ECC a correlação genética foi de 0,84 (0,15). Assim como as outras medidas de resistência a verminose, a CCO pode ser incluída como critério na seleção; esta apresenta estimativa de herdabilidade mediana correlação genética favorável com as outras medidas de resistência a verminose e com PC e ECC, além de ser de fácil obtenção e baixo custo. Foi possível obter grupos de indivíduos com perfil genético de resistência/resiliência a verminose a partir das análises de agrupamento. As estimativas de herdabilidade para PC, PT, AG, AC, LG e ECC foram: 0,25 (0,08); 0,22 (0,07); 0,24 (0,07); 0,25 (0,07); 0,19 (0,05) e 0,32 (0,07), respectivamente e as correlações genéticas entre o peso e as medidas corporais foram de alta magnitude, variando entre 0,66 (0,11) a 0,98 (0,016), indicando que as medidas corporais, principalmente o perímetro torácico, pode ser incluído como um critério de seleção complementar ao peso corporal. / The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for conjunctival staining score (CSS), fecal eggs count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), total plasma protein (TPP), body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW), and also explore the genetic profile of the population, using cluster analysis based on genetic values. And to estimate genetic parameters for body weight (BW) and conformation traits (heart girth (HG), hip height (HH), wither height (WH), rump width (RW), body length (BL) and body condition score (BCS)) to define selection criteria. A total of 2,525 records from 771 animals born between 2002 and 2013 to 68 rams and 352 ewes, belonging to five herds located in the São Paulo state were used. The animals were evaluated monthly during June 2013 to October 2014. The covariance components were estimated by animal model multi-trait using Bayesian analysis. The estimates of heritability for CSS, BW, PCV, FEC, BCS and PPT were 0.21 (0.04); 0.18 (0.05); 0.30 (0.06); 0.19 (0.03), 0.31 (0.07) and 0.17 (0.07), respectively, indicating that you can select animals based on the genetic value of individuals. The genetic correlations between CSS and BW, CSS and PCV, CSS and PPT, CCS and FEC, CSS and BCS and between the BW and BCS -0.40 (0.17); -0.63 (0.09); -0.23 (0.15); 0.77 (0.09); 0.84 (0.15), respectively. As other resistance traits the worms, the CCO can be included as a criterion in the selection. For this trait has estimated median heritability (0.21±0.04) and positive genetic correlation with other resistance measures to worms and BW and BCS, as well as being easy to obtain and low cost. It was possible to obtain groups of individuals with genetic profile of resistance / resilience to worms from the cluster analysis. The estimates of heritability for BW, HG, HH, WH, RW, BL and BCS were 0.25 (0.08); 0.22 (0.07); 0.24 (0.07); 0.25 (0.07); 0.19 (0.05) and 0.32 (0.07), respectively and genetic correlations between weight and body measures were highest magnitude, ranging from 0.66 (0.11) to 0.98 (0,016) indicating that body measurements, mainly heart girth, can be included as a criterion in the selection in addition to body weight.
3

Vztah exteriéru prvotelek k výkonnosti a dlouhověkosti dojnic českého strakatého plemene / The relationship of exterior of first calved to the performance and longevity of Czech Fleckvieh cows

NOVOTNÝ, Luboš January 2019 (has links)
Genetic relationship was analyzed between type traits and longevity measures in dual-purpose cattle. Data from 91 486 Czech Fleckvieh cows first calved between 2003 and 2009 were used. Longevity was defined as the actual number of lactations initiated per cow and also as functional longevity, which incorporated an adjustment to account for variation in voluntary culling based upon milk production. Lifetime performance was defined as cumulative milk production through the 6th parity. All cows were scored for conformation traits during their first lactation. Genetic correlations between these traits and longevity measures were estimated by bivariate analysis using the DMU variance component program package. Type trait heritabilities ranged from 0.30 to 0.59, while heritabilities for longevity and functional longevity were 0.06 and 0.05, respectively. Heritability of lifetime performance was 0.08. Genetic correlations between type traits and longevity measures ranged from low to intermediate values. Genetic correlations of the measured body size traits to the real and functional longevity ranged from ?0.06 to ?0.29, for udder traits from ?0.02 to 0.33, and for foot and leg traits from ?0.03 to 0.17. Genetic correlations between the measured body size traits and lifetime performance ranged from ?0.03 to ?0.30, for udder traits from 0.05 to 0.47, for foot and leg traits from ?0.07 to 0.15. Genetic correlations of composite trait scores for frame, muscularity, feet and legs, and udder with longevity traits ranged from ?0.20 to 0.41 and for lifetime performance ?0.14 to 0.51. The highest genetic correlations between a type trait and functional longevity were for composite udder score (0.25), feet and legs (0.26), and udder depth (0.33), suggesting that these traits could serve as indicators of functional longevity. We conclude that selection based upon easily and inexpensively measured type traits could improve functional longevity of cows as well as lifetime milk production.
4

Identification et caractérisation fonctionnelle de régions du génome associées à des caractères d'intérêt pour la filière caprine / Identification and functional characterization of genome regions associated with traits of interest for goat breeding

Martin, Pauline 06 October 2016 (has links)
Un important dispositif de détection de QTL caprin laitier basé sur 2 254 chèvres génotypées sur puce SNP 50K et issues de 20 mâles d'IA séquencés a été mis en place. Des QTL avaient déjà été détectés pour de nombreux caractères laitiers ou de morphologie. Un certain nombre de caractères restait néanmoins à étudier ou à approfondir. Dans un premier temps, une analyse de type GWAS a été réalisée sur cinq caractères. Pour deux d'entre eux, les trayons surnuméraires et le débit de traite, nos résultats sont en faveur d'un déterminisme polygénique. Pour deux phénotypes de coloration indésirables en race Saanen et la présence de pampilles, une région du génome a été trouvée comme très significativement associée au phénotype (chromosomes 11, 13 et 10 respectivement). Le gène ASIP est un candidat fonctionnel et positionnel très prometteur pour le QTL du chromosome 13 qui agit sur la coloration rose des animaux Saanen. En revanche, malgré une analyse plus poussée des deux autres zones via l'analyse de séquences et des génotypages, aucune mutation causale candidate n'a pu être identifiée. Enfin, nous avons étudié deux mutations associées à des différences de taux butyreux qui avaient été précédemment identifiées dans le gène DGAT1 caprin. Après avoir produit in vitro les différentes versions de la protéine en système " baculovirus/cellules de lépidoptère ", l'activité enzymatique des différents variants a été testée sur le diglycéride DAG 10 :10. Nos résultats confirment l'effet délétère des mutations sur la production de triglycérides et signent ainsi la causalité de ces mutations. Ces travaux ont permis de mettre en évidence de nouvelles régions du génome impliquées dans le contrôle de caractères d'intérêt pour la filière et ont prouvé la causalité de deux mutations. L'ensemble de ces résultats pourra aider la filière à mieux gérer ces phénotypes dans le schéma. / A large daughter design based on 2 254 genotyped dairy goats genotyped on a 50K SNP chip and their 20 sequenced fathers was carried out for mapping traits of interest in French dairy goats and QTL have been detected for some dairy and morphologic traits. However, in-depth studies were needed and some unstudied traits remained. A GWAS analysis was performed on five different traits. For two of them: supernumerary teats and milk flow, results showed a polygenic determinism. For the three others: two undesired coat color in the Saanen breed and the presence of wattles, a genome region was very significantly associated with each of these phenotypes (chromosomes 11, 13 and 10 respectively). The ASIP gene is a strong functional and positional candidate for the QTL on chromosome 13 for the pink coat trait. Despite in-depth analyses for the two other regions using sequences data and genotyping, no candidate causal mutation has been identified. Finally, two mutations previously identified in the DGAT1 gene and statistically associated with differences of milk fat content have been investigated. After in vitro production of the different version of the protein by a baculovius system, the enzymatic activity was assessed on diglyceride DAG 10:10. The results attest the deleterious effect of these mutations on triglyceride production and prove the causality of the mutations. This work lead to the identification of new genome regions associated with traits of interest and will be useful for the breeding organization.

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