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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Processos gráficos e a NBR 15936-1: avaliação da consistência colorimétrica / Graphics and processes NBR 15936-1: evaluation colorimetric consistency

Bruno Arruda Mortara 09 June 2015 (has links)
Este estudo abrange as bases teóricas, com ênfase maior nos temas afins à colorimetria, dos requisitos da NBR 15936-1, de 2011, criada pela ABNT/ONS-027 Tecnologia Gráfica. A norma tem como objetivo \"...especifica[r] os requisitos para um provedor que seja capaz de produzir impressos a partir de arquivos digitais padronizados, simulando uma condição de impressão pública e aceita em todo o mundo, dentro das tolerâncias especificadas nesta Norma...e aplica-se aos processos de recepção de arquivos digitais, execução de provas digitais e processos de impressão / Thisstudycovered the theoreticalconcepts, withemphasisonthoserelatedto colorimetry, involving the requirements of NBR 15936-1, from 2011, with tile \"Graphictechnology - Quality in reproductionprocessPart 1: Requirements\", published by ABNT/ONS-027 - Graphic Technology. The standard aimsto \"specify ... the requirements for a providerthat is capable of producingstandardizedprintedfrom digital files, simulating a publicprintingcondition, accepted world wide, within the tolerancesspecified in this standard and...appliesto the processes of receiving digital files, implementation of digital proofsandprintingwithor web offset processes.\"

Constitutionalisation and institutionalisation applied to the international investment regime : toward a uniform, consistent and coherent international investment law

Varis, Ozge January 2018 (has links)
International investment law has been developing for centuries. During the development process of international investment law, legal norms and principles of international investment law are evolved and shaped as sui generis nature, and separate legal regime as a branch of international law. The contemporary international investment law, according to United Nations Conference on Trade and Development data, currently, 2283 BITs and 280 other investment agreements are in force in international investment system, and high numbers of disputes are pending in different international dispute settlement bodies. These international investment agreements are interpreted and applied by arbitrators at different investor-state dispute settlement institutions or in ad-hoc arbitrations. Different interpretations and paradoxical arbitration awards cause critics regarding consistency, coherence and uniformity issues of the international investment law regime. Given the characteristics of international investment law regime, this thesis aims to study the institutionalisation and constitutionalisation processes of the international investment law regime. Moreover, the thesis attempts to ascertain consistent means by examining the nature of the international investment law regime and its institutionalisation and constitutionalisation processes to solve the issues associated with uniformity consistency and coherence. This thesis can also provide guidance and some recommendations that would have a chance of being carried out regarding new trends and developments of the international investment regime. Therefore, the major concern of this research is to understand the suitability of institutionalisation and constitutionalisation to sustain more consistent, coherent and uniform international investment law regime. In the first part of the research project, the nature of international investment law and its interaction with other international law systems, definitions and the necessity of uniformity, coherence and consistency are scrutinized. The second part starts with the solutions in the literature and their overview, and then institutionalisation and constitutionalisation are discussed. In the last part of this research, the energy sector and the Energy Charter Treaty are examine as case study, trying to understand the current creation of a uniform, coherent and consistent international investment regime in the energy sector. This thesis illustrates the nature of the international investment law regime and concepts of institutionalisation and constitutionalisation in legal perspective, as well as analysing coherence, consistency and uniformity issues of the international investment law regime. This project shows institutionalisation and constitutionalisation are developing processes in international investment law regime and they are consistent with the current global trends and developments of the international investment law regime as a branch of international law. The thesis suggests, despite the presence of the uniformity, consistency and coherence issues in international investment law regime, the international investment regime is the compulsory element of world globalisation, and those issues may be solved via applying new approaches that are consistent with the international investment regime’s sui generis nature and its evolving process. This thesis shows institutionalisation and constitutionalisation are congruent with the sui generis nature of international investment regime and contemporary trends and developments.

Les cohérences fortes : où, quand, et combien / Higher-Level Consistencies : When, Where, and How Much

Woodward, Robert J. 13 September 2018 (has links)
Déterminer si un problème de satisfaction de contraintes (CSP) a une solution ou non est NP-complet. Les CSP sont résolus par inférence (c’est-à-dire, en appliquant un algorithme de cohérence), par énumération (c’est-à-dire en effectuant une recherche avec retour sur trace ou backtracking), ou, plus souvent, en intercalant les deux mécanismes. La propriété de cohérence la plus courante appliquée en cours du backtracking est la GAC (Generalized Arc Consistency). Au cours des dernières années, de nouveaux algorithmes pour appliquer des cohérences plus fortes que le GAC ont été proposés et montrés comme étant nécessaires pour résoudre les problèmes difficiles.Nous nous attaquons à la question de balancer d’une part le coût et, d’autre part, le pouvoir d’élagage des algorithmes de cohérence et posons cette question comme étant celle de déterminer où, quand et combien une cohérence doit-elle être appliquée en cours de backtracking. Pour répondre à la question « où », nous exploitons la structure topologique d'une instance du problème et focalisons la cohérence forte là où des structures cycliques apparaissent. Pour répondre à la question « quand », nous proposons une stratégie simple, réactive et efficace qui surveille la performance du backtracking puis déclenche une cohérence forte lorsque l’effort du retour sur trace devient alarmant. Enfin, pour la question du « combien », nous surveillons les mises à jour provoquées par la propagation des contraintes et interrompons le processus dès qu’il devient inactif ou coûteux même avant qu’il n’atteigne un point fixe. Les évaluations empiriques sur des problèmes de référence établissent l’efficacité de nos stratégies. / Determining whether or not a Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) has a solution is NP-complete. CSPs are solved by inference (i.e., enforcing consistency), conditioning (i.e., doing search), or, more commonly, by interleaving the two mechanisms. The most common consistency property enforced during search is Generalized Arc Consistency (GAC). In recent years, new algorithms that enforceconsistency properties stronger than GAC have been proposed and shown to be necessary to solve difficult problem instances.We frame the question of balancing the cost and the pruning effectiveness of consistency algorithms as the question of determining where, when, and how much of a higher-level consistency to enforce during search. To answer the ‘where’ question, we exploit the topological structure of a problem instance and target high-level consistency where cycle structures appear. To answer the ‘when’ question, we propose a simple, reactive, and effective strategy that monitors the performance of backtrack search and triggers a higher-level consistency as search thrashes. Lastly, for the question of ‘how much,’ we monitor the amount of updates caused by propagation and interrupt the process before it reaches a fixpoint. Empirical evaluations on benchmark problems demonstrate the effectiveness of our strategies.

Justice Perceptions of Team Disciplinary Actions in the Workplace

Rettke, Austin Lee 01 April 2018 (has links)
This scenario study examined fairness perceptions of rule violations and punishment in an organizational team setting. Participants read one of 16 scenarios in which an integral team member violates an organizational rule and subsequently is punished. Participants then answered 12 items assessing perceptions of fairness for the punished employee and for the non-punished team members, and the likelihood the punishment will deter future misconduct for the punished employee and for the teammates. This study examined two levels of misconduct severity (moderate and severe), two levels of punishment severity (moderate and severe), two types of punishment distribution (consistent and conditional), and two types of situational urgency (urgent and non-urgent). The rule violations and punishments used in this study were chosen from those evaluated in a stimulus-rating study calibrating violations and punishments in an organizational team setting (Shoenfelt, 2015). Overall, consistently applying punishment had a highly significant effect on perceptions of fairness to the punished team member and teammates, and on the likelihood the punishment will deter future misconduct by the punished team member and teammates.

Evaluation of Differential Algebraic Elimination Methods for Deriving Consistency Relations from an Engine Model / Utvärdering av differential-algebraiska elimineringsmetoder för att beräkna konsistensrelationer från en dieselmotor

Falkeborn, Rikard January 2006 (has links)
<p>New emission legislations introduced in the European Union and the U.S. have made truck manufacturers face stricter requirements for low emissions and on-board diagnostic systems. The on-board diagnostic system typically consists of several tests that are run when the truck is driving. One way to construct such tests is to use so called consistency relations. A consistency relation is a relation with known variables that in the fault free case always holds. Calculation of a consistency relation typically involves eliminating unknown variables from a set of equations.</p><p>To eliminate variables from a differential polynomial system, methods from differential algebra can be used. In this thesis, the purely algebraic Gröbner basis algorithm and the differential Rosenfeld-Gröbner algorithm implemented in the Maple package Diffalg have been compared and evaluated. The conclusion drawn is that there are no significant differences between the methods. However, since using Gröbner basis requires differentiations to be made in advance, the recommendation is to use the Rosenfeld-Gröbner algorithm.</p><p>Further, attempts to calculate consistency relations using the Rosenfeld-Gröbner algorithm have been made to a real application, a model of a Scania diesel engine. These attempts did not yield any successful results. It was only possible to calculate one consistency relation. This can be explained by the high complexity of the model.</p>

Accuracy and consistency in finite element ocean modeling

White, Laurent 23 March 2007 (has links)
The intrinsic flexibility of unstructured meshes is compelling for numerical ocean modeling. Complex topographic features, such as coastlines, islands and narrow straits, can faithfully be represented by locally increasing the mesh resolution and because there is no constraint on the mesh topology. In that respect, the finite element method is particularly promising. Not only does it allow for naturally handling unstructured meshes but it also offers additional flexibility in the choice of interpolation and is sustained by a rich and rigorous mathematical framework. This doctoral research was carried out under the auspices of the SLIM (Second-generation Louvain-la-Neuve Ice-ocean Model) project, the objective of which is to develop an ocean general circulation model using the finite element method. This PhD dissertation deals with one-, two- and three-dimensional finite element ocean modeling. We chiefly focus on the accurate representation of some selected oceanic processes and we devote much effort toward using a consistent finite element method to solve the underlying equations. We first concentrate on the finite element solution to a one-dimensional benchmark for the propagation of Poincaré waves with particular emphasis on the discontinuous Galerkin method and a physical justification for computing the numerical fluxes. We then compare three finite element formulations (vorticity - streamfunction, velocity - pressure and free-surface) for the solution to geophysical fluid flow instabilities problems. The prominent -- and remaining -- part of this work deals with three-dimensional ocean modeling on moving meshes. It covers the selection of the right elements for the vertical velocity and tracers through achieving strict tracer conservation and local consistency between the elevation, continuity and tracer equations. The ensuing three-dimensional model is successfully validated against a realistic tidal flow around a shallow-water island. New physical insights are proposed as to the physical processes encountered in such flows.

Statistical Learning: Stability is Sufficient for Generalization and Necessary and Sufficient for Consistency of Empirical Risk Minimization

Mukherjee, Sayan, Niyogi, Partha, Poggio, Tomaso, Rifkin, Ryan 01 December 2002 (has links)
Solutions of learning problems by Empirical Risk Minimization (ERM) need to be consistent, so that they may be predictive. They also need to be well-posed, so that they can be used robustly. We show that a statistical form of well-posedness, defined in terms of the key property of L-stability, is necessary and sufficient for consistency of ERM. / revised July 2003

Semantics of Inheritance and Attributions in the Description System Omega

Attardi, Giuseppe, Simi, Maria 01 August 1981 (has links)
Omega is a description system for knowledge embedding which incorporates some of the attractive modes of expression in common sense reasoning such as descriptions, inheritance, quantification, negation, attributions and multiple viewpoints. A formalization of Omega is developed as a framework for investigations on the foundations of knowledge representation. As a logic, Omega achieves the goal of an intuitively sound and consistent theory of classes which permits unrestricted abstraction within a powerful logic system. Description abstraction is the construct provided in Omega corresponding to set abstraction. Attributions and inheritance are the basic mechanisms for knowledge structuring. To achieve flexibility and incrementality, the language allows descriptions with an arbitrary number of attributions, rather than predicates with a fixed number of arguments as in predicate logic. This requires a peculiar interpretation for instance descriptions, which in turn provides insights into the use and meaning of several kinds of attributions. The formal treatment consists in presenting semantic models for Omega, deriving an axiomatization and establishing the consistency and completeness of the logic.

The Implicit Constraints of the Primal Sketch

Grimson, W.E.L 01 October 1981 (has links)
Computational theories of structure-from-motion and stereo vision only specify the computation of three-dimensional surface information at points in the image at which the irradiance changes. Yet, the visual perception is clearly of complete surfaces, and this perception is consistent for different observers. Since mathematically the class of surfaces which could pass through the known boundary points provided by the stereo system is infinite and contains widely varying surfaces, the visual system must incorporate some additional constraints besides the known points in order to compute the complete surface. Using the image irradiance equation, we derive the surface consistency constraint, informally referred to as no news is good news. The constraint implies that the surface must agree with the information from stereo or motion correspondence, and not vary radically between these points. An explicit form of this surface consistency constraint is derived, by relating the probability of a zero-crossing in a region of the image to the variation in the local surface orientation of the surface, provided that the surface albedo and the illumination are roughly constant. The surface consistency constraint can be used to derive an algorithm for reconstructing the surface that "best" fits the surface information provided by stereo or motion correspondence.

Disruption of conditional discrimination and its effects on equivalence /

Guerrero, Luis Fernando. January 2005 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Nevada, Reno, 2005. / "May 2005." Includes bibliographical references (leaves 64-72). Online version available on the World Wide Web. Library also has microfilm. Ann Arbor, Mich. : ProQuest Information and Learning Company, [2005]. 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm.

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