• Refine Query
• Source
• Publication year
• to
• Language
• 24
• 14
• 13
• 7
• 1
• 1
• 1
• 1
• Tagged with
• 72
• 72
• 19
• 10
• 10
• 10
• 10
• 10
• 9
• 9
• 8
• 8
• 8
• 7
• 7
• The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

#### Inferring mode of locomotion through microscopic cortical bone analysis: a comparison of the third digits of Homo sapiens and Ursus americanus using Micro-CT

Harrison, Kimberly D. 18 December 2012 (has links)
Bone is a 3D dynamic and unique tissue that structurally adapts in response to mechanical stimuli. Comparative skeletal morphology is commonly utilized to infer ancient hominins' modes of locomotion; however, instances of remarkable gross similarity despite different modes of locomotion do occur. A common cited example is the similarity between the skeletal elements of bipedal human (Homo sapiens) hands/feet and quadrupedal black bear (Ursus americanus) front/hind paws. Through novel 3D Micro-CT and 2D histomorphology analysis, this thesis tests the hypothesis that a 3D microscopic analysis of biomechanically regulated cortical bone structures provides a more representative and accurate means to infer a species' mode of locomotion. Micro-CT data were collected at the mid-diaphysis of human (n=5) and bear (n=5) third metacarpal/metatarsal pairs and compared with independent and paired t-tests, Pearson correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. Bone microarchitecture is quantifiable in 3D and accessible through non-destructive Micro-CT. Interspecies variation was present, however no significant cortical differences between elements of humans and bears was found. Histological inspection revealed further variation between and within species and element. A key limitation was sample size and further investigation of the relationship between mechanical loading and mode of locomotion is warranted.
2

#### Inferring mode of locomotion through microscopic cortical bone analysis: a comparison of the third digits of Homo sapiens and Ursus americanus using Micro-CT

Harrison, Kimberly D. 18 December 2012 (has links)
Bone is a 3D dynamic and unique tissue that structurally adapts in response to mechanical stimuli. Comparative skeletal morphology is commonly utilized to infer ancient hominins' modes of locomotion; however, instances of remarkable gross similarity despite different modes of locomotion do occur. A common cited example is the similarity between the skeletal elements of bipedal human (Homo sapiens) hands/feet and quadrupedal black bear (Ursus americanus) front/hind paws. Through novel 3D Micro-CT and 2D histomorphology analysis, this thesis tests the hypothesis that a 3D microscopic analysis of biomechanically regulated cortical bone structures provides a more representative and accurate means to infer a species' mode of locomotion. Micro-CT data were collected at the mid-diaphysis of human (n=5) and bear (n=5) third metacarpal/metatarsal pairs and compared with independent and paired t-tests, Pearson correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. Bone microarchitecture is quantifiable in 3D and accessible through non-destructive Micro-CT. Interspecies variation was present, however no significant cortical differences between elements of humans and bears was found. Histological inspection revealed further variation between and within species and element. A key limitation was sample size and further investigation of the relationship between mechanical loading and mode of locomotion is warranted.
3

#### Automated modelling of cortical bone from clinical CT

Pearson, Rose Alicia January 2017 (has links)
Osteoporosis is an age-related skeletal disease characterised by an increased incidence of fragility fractures. In this thesis I develop a new technique capable of measuring the thickness of the previously unmeasured endocortical region, and providing an improved measure of the cortical bone mineral density (cBMD) from in-vivo clinical CT scans. These features are of interest as both have been linked to fracture risk. \\ The new technique is developed within the cortical bone mapping (CBM) framework so that it provides localised architectural measurements over a bone's surface. Its performance is assessed using simulated QCT data from three simulated phantoms with differing bone architecture, and two paired datasets of ex-vivo QCT and HR-pQCT scans across the proximal femur and the lumbar spine. The simulated data allows for inaccuracies in CBM measurements caused by beam hardening effects to be considered for the first time: I show that beam hardening leads to an underestimation in cortical thickness and an overestimation in trabecular BMD and that these inaccuracies can be reduced through adjustments to the CBM optimisation process. \\ A new technique of analysing HR-pQCT scans is also developed, for the validation of the new CBM method. It was used in place of other established HR-pQCT techniques for its ability to provide localised measurements of the endocortical region. A comparison with the well known full-width half-maximum (FWHM) method shows that it is less susceptible to errors caused by beam hardening. It also measures the mean cBMD, which has a greater clinical relevance than the peak cBMD measured by the FWHM method as it includes the impact of porosity. I demonstrate that the endocortical thickness can be measured to an accuracy of $$-0.15\pm0.71\thinspace\mathrm{mm}$$, and that local cBMD measurements are possible down to $$300\thinspace\mathrm{mg/cm}^3$$ from QCT scans over the proximal femur. I also validate CBM methods over the vertebrae for the first time and demonstrate that the cortical thickness and endocortical thickness can be measured with accuracies of $$0.10\pm0.30\thinspace\mathrm{mm}$$ and $$-0.20\pm0.53\thinspace\mathrm{mm}$$. \\ Two clinical trials involving Teriparatide are used to demonstrate that the new CBM method is able to detect significant regional changes in the dense cortical and endocortical bone over the proximal femur and lumbar spine, which can be attributed to changes in intracortical remodelling and endosteal apposition. The analysis of a cross-sectional fracture discrimination trial shows that fracture incidence is associated with significant decreases in endocortical thickness over specific regions.
4

#### Study of the mechanical behavior of cortical bone microstructure by the finite element method

Arango Villegas, Camila 14 July 2016 (has links)
5

#### 異方性と損傷を考慮した皮膚骨の非弾性構成式の定式化

No description available.
6

#### The Effect of Soft Tissue on the Propagation of Ultrasonic Guided Waves Through Long Bones

Stieglitz, Lauren Unknown Date
No description available.
7

#### Quantitative imaging of sex and age differences in human cortical bone osteocyte lacunae

Osteocytes, the most abundant cell within bone, have been linked to the processes of mechanosensation and transduction. Based upon relatively limited empirical evidence, variations in their abundance and morphology have been linked to sex, age, biomechanics and disease. In order to better elucidate lacunar variation within a healthy cohort, samples from 30 women aged 20-86 and 36 men aged 18-92 were studied utilizing synchrotron radiation micro-CT. Initial studies of normal variation within the femoral proximal shaft cross-section found high variation in lacunar density (up to ~54%) and associated morphological differences linked to biomechanical regions. In women, a non-significant trend in lacunar density reduction was apparent with age; however, a significant reduction in lacunar volume with age (~30%) was observed. Also noted were differences in lacunar morphology, with the lacunae of younger women characterized as flatter and less equant than their older counterparts. The males, who demonstrated lacunar density decline with age and a tendency towards more equant and less elongate lacunae, did not share these characteristics. Intriguingly, the previously noted reductions in lacunar volume were not observed in males. The results of this research indicate that normal variation in osteocyte lacunar parameters is high. To our knowledge the observation that lacunar volume differs in women with age is novel, potentially resulting from preferential surface infilling within the extracellular space. The functional impact of this infilling is unclear but such a change in scale likely impacts the mechanosensing function of the osteocyte network. This hypothesis warrants further investigation as, if confirmed, it would represent a profound negative impact on the osteocyte network and may provide new insights into age-related bone loss.
8

#### In vivo imaging of cortical porosity by synchrotron phase contrast micro computed tomography

Cortical bone is a dynamic tissue which undergoes adaptive and pathological changes throughout life. An improved understanding of the spatio-temporal process of remodeling holds great promise for improving our understanding of bone development, maintenance and senescence. The use of micro-computed tomography (µCT) on living animals is relatively new and allows the three dimensional quantification of change in trabecular bone microarchitecture over time. The use of in vivo µCT is limited by the radiation dose created by the x-ray beam, with commercially available in vivo systems generally operating in the 10-20 um resolution range and delivering an absorbed dose between 0.5-1 Gy. Because dose scales to the power of four with resolution, in vivo imaging of the cortical canal network, which requires a higher resolution, has not been achieved. I hypothesized that using synchrotron propagation phase contrast µCT, cortical porosity could be imaged in vivo in rats at a dose on the same level as those used currently for trabecular bone analysis. Using the BMIT-BM beamline, I determined the optimal propagation distance and used ion chamber and lithium fluoride crystal thermoluminescent dosimetry to measure the absorbed dose of my in vivo protocol as well as several ex vivo protocols using synchrotron phase contrast µCT at 5 µm, 10 µm, and 11.8 µm and conventional desktop in vivo protocols using commercial µCT systems. Using synchrotron propagation phase contrast µCT, I scanned the forelimb of two adult Sprague-Dawley rats and measured an absorbed dose of 2.53 Gy. Using two commercial µCT system, I measured doses between 1.2-3.6 Gy for protocols at 18µm that are in common use. This thesis represents the first in vivo imaging of rat cortical porosity and demonstrates that an 11.8 µm resolution is enough to visualize cortical porosity in rats, with a dose within the scope of those used for imaging trabecular bone in vivo.
9

#### The development of a small animal model for assessing the 3D implications of loading on bone microarchitecture

Britz, Hayley M 09 September 2011