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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Effect of phospholipase C papain on feathering defect in 11% homogenized UHT processed cream

Chung, Yong Joo 29 July 2009 (has links)
Commercial creamers that did and did not demonstrate feathering defect showed differences in feathering test, phospholipid proportion, and protein patterns of surface material of homogenized fat globules. Creams that did not feather were stable pH at in acetate buffer as low as 5.00; creams that did exhibit feathering defect were stable in acetate buffer at pH of 5.45 and higher. The proportion of phosphatidylethanoamine in feathering cream was higher than in stable cream while the proportions of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine in feathering cream were slightly less than in stable cream. Feathering cream had more caseins associated with milk fat globule than stable cream and more protein bands were observed in feathering cream than in stable cream. Feathering test with a series of acetate buffer solutions of different pHs revealed that papain treatment of cream (0.075 EU/ml) induced feathering defect near pH of 5.60 while phospholipase C treatment of cream (0.75 EU/ml) did not cause coagulation of protein and fat globules at pH 5.09. Papain-treated cream flocculated in coffee with pH 4.56 at 85°C but phospholipase C-treated cream did not. Small activity (0.075 EU/ml) of sulfhydryl protease (papain) in cream degraded most casein associated with newly formed membrane into small peptides when incubated at 4° and 21°C for 1 day. One of milk fat globule membrane proteins (butyrophilin) was hydrolyzed by papain while β-lactoglobulin was not degraded in papain-treated cream About 65-70% of phospholipid in the membrane material was degraded when 0.75 EU of phospholipase C was inoculated to 11% homogenized UHT processed cream and incubated at 4 and 21°C for 14 days. Major phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylethanolamine) were hydrolyzed by phospholipase C while sphingomyelin remained intact. Heat treatment of whey protein at 80°C for 7 minutes to cover newly formed fat globule did not prevent the feathering problem in papain-treated cream. / Master of Science
2

Desentrelaçamento de vídeo com suporte de um detector de efeito feathering e de um índice de concentração de artefatos / Video de-interlacing with support from a feathering effect detector and an artifact concentration index

Martins, André Luis 27 February 2018 (has links)
Este trabalho apresenta uma nova solução para conversão de campos de vídeo entrelaçado em quadros progressivos, processo conhecido como desentrelaçamento. Os algoritmos de desentrelaçamento \"estado da arte\", na tentativa de evitar a geração de artefatos de vídeo do tipo \"efeito feathering\", tendem a gerar borramento e degradar a qualidade da imagem. O objetivo é melhorar a qualidade dos quadros produzidos pelo processo de desentrelaçamento pela combinação de dois processos já existentes, sendo um deles do tipo intracampo e outro do tipo intercampos. A estratégia proposta se baseia na identificação de artefatos gerados por um processo de desentrelaçamento intercampos, com suporte de um detector de artefatos do tipo \"efeito feathering\" e da análise dos dados gerados por este detector utilizando um \"índice de aglomeração de artefatos\", que neste trabalho foi denominado Spot Index. As regiões afetadas pelo efeito feathering são identificadas e substituídas pelas regiões equivalentes extraídas de um quadro gerado por um método intracampo, normalmente pouco afetado por feathering. Os testes demonstraram que a estratégia proposta é capaz de produzir quadros desentrelaçados com maior qualidade visual do que a obtida com um único tipo de método aplicado de modo global, pois é capaz de explorar, extrair e combinar as qualidades de cada método. Uma avaliação estatística de hipóteses demonstrou que a estratégia proposta traz vantagens consideráveis em relação às técnicas aplicadas de modo global. / This work presents a new solution for converting interlaced video fields into progressive frames, a process known as video deinterlacing. Current state-of-the-art de-interlacing algorithms, in an attempt to avoid the generation of feathering effect video artifacts, tend to generate blurring and degrade image quality. The objective is to improve the quality of the frames produced by the de-interlacing process by combining two existing processes, one of them being intra-field and the other an inter-field type. The proposed strategy is based on the identification of artifacts generated by an inter-field deinterlacing process, supported by a \"feathering effect\" artifact detector and the analysis of the data generated by this detector using an \"agglomeration index of artifacts\", which in this work was called \"Spot Index\". The regions affected by the feathering effect are identified and replaced by the equivalent regions extracted from a frame produced by an intra-field process known as \"Edge-based Line Averaging\" (ELA). Tests have demonstrated that the proposed strategy is able to produce deinterlaced frames with higher quality than the one obtained with a single type of method applied in a global way, because it is able to explore, extract and combine the qualities of each method. A statistical evaluation of hypotheses has shown that the proposed strategy brings considerable advantages over globally applied deinterlacing techniques.
3

Desentrelaçamento de vídeo com suporte de um detector de efeito feathering e de um índice de concentração de artefatos / Video de-interlacing with support from a feathering effect detector and an artifact concentration index

André Luis Martins 27 February 2018 (has links)
Este trabalho apresenta uma nova solução para conversão de campos de vídeo entrelaçado em quadros progressivos, processo conhecido como desentrelaçamento. Os algoritmos de desentrelaçamento \"estado da arte\", na tentativa de evitar a geração de artefatos de vídeo do tipo \"efeito feathering\", tendem a gerar borramento e degradar a qualidade da imagem. O objetivo é melhorar a qualidade dos quadros produzidos pelo processo de desentrelaçamento pela combinação de dois processos já existentes, sendo um deles do tipo intracampo e outro do tipo intercampos. A estratégia proposta se baseia na identificação de artefatos gerados por um processo de desentrelaçamento intercampos, com suporte de um detector de artefatos do tipo \"efeito feathering\" e da análise dos dados gerados por este detector utilizando um \"índice de aglomeração de artefatos\", que neste trabalho foi denominado Spot Index. As regiões afetadas pelo efeito feathering são identificadas e substituídas pelas regiões equivalentes extraídas de um quadro gerado por um método intracampo, normalmente pouco afetado por feathering. Os testes demonstraram que a estratégia proposta é capaz de produzir quadros desentrelaçados com maior qualidade visual do que a obtida com um único tipo de método aplicado de modo global, pois é capaz de explorar, extrair e combinar as qualidades de cada método. Uma avaliação estatística de hipóteses demonstrou que a estratégia proposta traz vantagens consideráveis em relação às técnicas aplicadas de modo global. / This work presents a new solution for converting interlaced video fields into progressive frames, a process known as video deinterlacing. Current state-of-the-art de-interlacing algorithms, in an attempt to avoid the generation of feathering effect video artifacts, tend to generate blurring and degrade image quality. The objective is to improve the quality of the frames produced by the de-interlacing process by combining two existing processes, one of them being intra-field and the other an inter-field type. The proposed strategy is based on the identification of artifacts generated by an inter-field deinterlacing process, supported by a \"feathering effect\" artifact detector and the analysis of the data generated by this detector using an \"agglomeration index of artifacts\", which in this work was called \"Spot Index\". The regions affected by the feathering effect are identified and replaced by the equivalent regions extracted from a frame produced by an intra-field process known as \"Edge-based Line Averaging\" (ELA). Tests have demonstrated that the proposed strategy is able to produce deinterlaced frames with higher quality than the one obtained with a single type of method applied in a global way, because it is able to explore, extract and combine the qualities of each method. A statistical evaluation of hypotheses has shown that the proposed strategy brings considerable advantages over globally applied deinterlacing techniques.
4

Microminerais complexados a moléculas orgânicas sobre aspectos produtivos e qualitativos da carne de frangos de corte criados sob condições de estresse térmico

Boiago, Marcel Manente [UNESP] 28 May 2010 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:33:33Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2010-05-28Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T19:04:38Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 boiago_mm_dr_jabo.pdf: 456558 bytes, checksum: 5fedc7f36c4c91c58db0f60b0bc4ccb5 (MD5) / Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) / Avaliou-se o desempenho, qualidade e composição química da carne, resistência óssea e empenamento de frangos de corte arraçoados com dietas contendo selênio, zinco e manganês complexados ou não a moléculas orgânicas e criados sob condições de estresse térmico. Foram utilizados 980 pintos machos Cobb de um dia de idade, criados até 42 dias de idade em três câmaras climáticas, que proporcionaram temperaturas alta, termoneutra e baixa. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 X 2 + 1, sendo três temperaturas de criação, duas fontes de selênio, zinco e manganês: inorgânica e “orgânica”, mais o tratamento testemunha (criação em câmara termoneutra sem adição de Se, Zn e Mn na ração). As aves criadas em condições de estresse térmico apresentam desempenho inferior e ossos com densidade óssea e resistência à quebra menores. A fonte orgânica proporcionou melhor desempenho, principalmente em condições de temperaturas elevadas. Selênio e zinco foram melhor absorvidos na forma orgânica, já o manganês teve absorção similar nas duas formas. As aves criadas em temperaturas baixas apresentaram carne menos macia. O empenamento das aves não foi influenciado pelos fatores testados / It were evaluated performance, meat quality and composition, bone strength and feathering of broilers fed supplemented diets with different selenium, zinc and manganese sources (organic and inorganic) and raised under different environmental temperatures. Nine hundred and eighty one d. old Cobb male broilers were used during 42 days. It were used three climatic chambers (high, neutral and low temperatures) and twenty chickens per pen. It was used a 3x2 + 1 factorial arrangement (three breeding temperatures, two mineral sources and a control treatment that provided neutral temperature without mineral supplementation) with seven replicates. The means were compared by Tykey's test (5%).The thermal stressed broilers showed lower performance, bone density and strength. The organic source took to a better performance, mainly under high temperatures. Organic sources of selenium, zinc and manganese were highly absorbed, however, the absorption of both sources of manganese was similar. Chickens raised under low temperatures presented lower values of tenderness. The factors didn't influence the feathering of the chickens
5

Interação genótipo-ambiente e análise da variabilidade no melhoramento genético de linhagens de avós de frangos de corte / Genotype -environment interaction and the analysis of variability in genetic improvement of broilers’ parentals lines of breeding.

Silva, Marco Aurelio Neves da 07 March 2006 (has links)
O melhoramento genético de linhagens avícolas tem contribuído para a crescente eficiência da avicultura brasileira. No entanto, para que ocorra a seleção de genótipos superiores em programas de melhoramento, são necessárias avaliações da variabilidade existente, associadas à criação das aves em diferentes ambientes. Neste sentido, pretendeu-se com a esta pesquisa, avaliar o desempenho e a variabilidade existente entre linhagens de avós de frangos de corte, criadas em diferentes ambientes, considerando-se a interação genótipo-ambiente. Linhagens comerciais de avós de frangos de corte foram criadas até a idade de 42 dias em ambiente totalmente controlado de granja de pedigree, em condições comuns de criação de frangos de corte e em condições de ambiente de criação sob estresse, para avaliação de parâmetros zootécnicos e morfométricos e estudo da variabilidade existente entre as linhagens através de análise multivariada, bem como para a seleção de variáveis representativas dessa variabilidade. Foram utilizados índices de conforto térmico (Índice de temperatura e umidade e Entalpia) para avaliação do microclima interno das instalações a que as aves foram expostas. Realizaram-se comparações de médias dos parâmetros zootécnicos (peso vivo e rendimento de carcaça) e morfométricos (empenamento) das linhagens criadas nos ambientes de pedigree, frango de corte e estresse. Análises multivariadas foram desenvolvidas para formação de agrupamento das linhagens criadas nos ambientes de frango de corte e de estresse, buscando-se em seguida, a seleção de variáveis representativas da variabilidade existente. As linhagens apresentaram respostas diferenciadas nos parâmetros avaliados, em função do ambiente de criação utilizado. As linhagens da linha macho apresentaram maiores pesos vivos e rendimentos da carcaça eviscerada e do peito; as linhagens da linha fêmea atingiram maior rendimento das pernas e demonstraram melhores empenamentos do dorso e da perna. A análise multivariada permitiu o estudo da variabilidade entre as linhagens e a identificação de cruzamentos mais promissores para obtenção de genótipos superiores. Os ambientes de criação influenciaram a seleção e o tipo variáveis representativas da variabilidade existente entre as linhagens. O empenamento do dorso aos 28 dias de idade pode ser indicado na avaliação de características morfométricas no processo de seleção das linhagens estudadas. / The genetic improvement of aviary lines of breeding has contributed to the increasing efficiency of Brazilian poultry. Nevertheless, for the selection of superior genotypes in improvement programs, we must evaluate the existent variability, associated to the creation of birds in different environments. In this sense, with this research, we aimed at evaluating the performance and variability existent among broilers’ parentals lines of breeding, created in different environments, considering genotype-environment interaction. Broilers’ parentals commercial lines of breeding were created till they achieved the age of 42 days-old, in totally controlled environment of pedigree farms, both in common conditions for the creation of broilers and in stressed situations, in order to evaluate zootechnic and morphometric parameters and to study the existent variability among the lines of breeding through multivariate analysis, as well as for the selection of representative variables of this variability. We used thermal welfare status (Temperature and humidity index and Enthalpy) for the evaluation of installations’ internal microclimate to which the birds are exposed. We carried out average comparisons of zootechnic (body weight and carcass yield) and morphometric (feathering) parameters of the lines of breeding created in pedigree, broilers and stressed environments. We developed multivariate analysis in order to form lines of breeding grouping created at broilers and stressed environments. Next, we went through a selection of representative variables of existent variability. Lines of breeding presented different outcomes on the evaluated parameters, due to the creation environment used. Male lines of breeding presented greater body weight and yield of eviscerated carcass and breast; female lines of breeding achieved a greater legs yield and demonstrated greater legs and back featherings. Multivariate analysis allowed the study of variability among lines of breeding and the identification of the most promising crossbreedings in order to obtain superior genotypes. Creation environments influenced representative variable selection and types of existent variability among lines of breeding. The back feathering at 28 days of age may be indicated in morphometric characteristics evaluation on the selection process of the studied lines of breeding.
6

Development of an active pitch control system for wind turbines / F.M. den Heijer

Den Heijer, Francois Malan January 2008 (has links)
A wind turbine needs to be controlled to ensure its safe and optimal operation, especially during high wind speeds. The most common control objectives are to limit the power and rotational speed of the wind turbine by using pitch control. Aero Energy is a company based in Potchefstroom, South Africa, that has been developing and manufacturing wind turbine blades since 2000. Their most popular product is the AE1kW blades. The blades have a tendency to over-speed in high wind speeds and the cut-in wind speed must be improved. The objective of this study was to develop an active pitch control system for wind turbines. A prototype active pitch control system had to be developed for the AE1kW blades. The objectives of the control system are to protect the wind turbine from over-speeding and to improve start-up performance. An accurate model was firstly developed to predict a wind turbine’s performance with active pitch control. The active pitch control was implemented by means of a two-stage centrifugal governor. The governor uses negative or stalling pitch control. The first linear stage uses a soft spring to provide improved start-up performance. The second non-linear stage uses a hard spring to provide over-speed protection. The governor was manufactured and then tested with the AE1kW blades. The governor achieved both the control objectives of over-speed protection and improved start-up performance. The models were validated by the results. It was established that the two-stage centrifugal governor concept can be implemented on any wind turbine, provided the blades and tower are strong enough to handle the thrust forces associated with negative pitch control. It was recommended that an active pitch control system be developed that uses positive pitching for the over-speed protection, which will eliminate the large thrust forces. Keywords: pitch control, wind turbine, centrifugal governor, over-speed protection, cut-in wind speed, blade element-momentum theory, rotor, generator, stall, feathering. / Thesis (M.Ing. (Mechanical Engineering))--North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, 2009.
7

Development of an active pitch control system for wind turbines / F.M. den Heijer

Den Heijer, Francois Malan January 2008 (has links)
A wind turbine needs to be controlled to ensure its safe and optimal operation, especially during high wind speeds. The most common control objectives are to limit the power and rotational speed of the wind turbine by using pitch control. Aero Energy is a company based in Potchefstroom, South Africa, that has been developing and manufacturing wind turbine blades since 2000. Their most popular product is the AE1kW blades. The blades have a tendency to over-speed in high wind speeds and the cut-in wind speed must be improved. The objective of this study was to develop an active pitch control system for wind turbines. A prototype active pitch control system had to be developed for the AE1kW blades. The objectives of the control system are to protect the wind turbine from over-speeding and to improve start-up performance. An accurate model was firstly developed to predict a wind turbine’s performance with active pitch control. The active pitch control was implemented by means of a two-stage centrifugal governor. The governor uses negative or stalling pitch control. The first linear stage uses a soft spring to provide improved start-up performance. The second non-linear stage uses a hard spring to provide over-speed protection. The governor was manufactured and then tested with the AE1kW blades. The governor achieved both the control objectives of over-speed protection and improved start-up performance. The models were validated by the results. It was established that the two-stage centrifugal governor concept can be implemented on any wind turbine, provided the blades and tower are strong enough to handle the thrust forces associated with negative pitch control. It was recommended that an active pitch control system be developed that uses positive pitching for the over-speed protection, which will eliminate the large thrust forces. Keywords: pitch control, wind turbine, centrifugal governor, over-speed protection, cut-in wind speed, blade element-momentum theory, rotor, generator, stall, feathering. / Thesis (M.Ing. (Mechanical Engineering))--North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, 2009.
8

Microminerais complexados a moléculas orgânicas sobre aspectos produtivos e qualitativos da carne de frangos de corte criados sob condições de estresse térmico /

Boiago, Marcel Manente. January 2010 (has links)
Resumo: Avaliou-se o desempenho, qualidade e composição química da carne, resistência óssea e empenamento de frangos de corte arraçoados com dietas contendo selênio, zinco e manganês complexados ou não a moléculas orgânicas e criados sob condições de estresse térmico. Foram utilizados 980 pintos machos Cobb de um dia de idade, criados até 42 dias de idade em três câmaras climáticas, que proporcionaram temperaturas alta, termoneutra e baixa. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 X 2 + 1, sendo três temperaturas de criação, duas fontes de selênio, zinco e manganês: inorgânica e "orgânica", mais o tratamento testemunha (criação em câmara termoneutra sem adição de Se, Zn e Mn na ração). As aves criadas em condições de estresse térmico apresentam desempenho inferior e ossos com densidade óssea e resistência à quebra menores. A fonte orgânica proporcionou melhor desempenho, principalmente em condições de temperaturas elevadas. Selênio e zinco foram melhor absorvidos na forma orgânica, já o manganês teve absorção similar nas duas formas. As aves criadas em temperaturas baixas apresentaram carne menos macia. O empenamento das aves não foi influenciado pelos fatores testados / Abstract: It were evaluated performance, meat quality and composition, bone strength and feathering of broilers fed supplemented diets with different selenium, zinc and manganese sources (organic and inorganic) and raised under different environmental temperatures. Nine hundred and eighty one d. old Cobb male broilers were used during 42 days. It were used three climatic chambers (high, neutral and low temperatures) and twenty chickens per pen. It was used a 3x2 + 1 factorial arrangement (three breeding temperatures, two mineral sources and a control treatment that provided neutral temperature without mineral supplementation) with seven replicates. The means were compared by Tykey's test (5%).The thermal stressed broilers showed lower performance, bone density and strength. The organic source took to a better performance, mainly under high temperatures. Organic sources of selenium, zinc and manganese were highly absorbed, however, the absorption of both sources of manganese was similar. Chickens raised under low temperatures presented lower values of tenderness. The factors didn't influence the feathering of the chickens / Orientadora: Hirasilva Borba / Coorientador: Pedro Alves de Souza / Banca: Alexandre Oba / Banca: Antônio Carlos de Laurentiz / Banca: Otto Mack Junqueira / Banca: Maria Regina Barbieri de Carvalho / Doutor
9

Interação genótipo-ambiente e análise da variabilidade no melhoramento genético de linhagens de avós de frangos de corte / Genotype -environment interaction and the analysis of variability in genetic improvement of broilers’ parentals lines of breeding.

Marco Aurelio Neves da Silva 07 March 2006 (has links)
O melhoramento genético de linhagens avícolas tem contribuído para a crescente eficiência da avicultura brasileira. No entanto, para que ocorra a seleção de genótipos superiores em programas de melhoramento, são necessárias avaliações da variabilidade existente, associadas à criação das aves em diferentes ambientes. Neste sentido, pretendeu-se com a esta pesquisa, avaliar o desempenho e a variabilidade existente entre linhagens de avós de frangos de corte, criadas em diferentes ambientes, considerando-se a interação genótipo-ambiente. Linhagens comerciais de avós de frangos de corte foram criadas até a idade de 42 dias em ambiente totalmente controlado de granja de pedigree, em condições comuns de criação de frangos de corte e em condições de ambiente de criação sob estresse, para avaliação de parâmetros zootécnicos e morfométricos e estudo da variabilidade existente entre as linhagens através de análise multivariada, bem como para a seleção de variáveis representativas dessa variabilidade. Foram utilizados índices de conforto térmico (Índice de temperatura e umidade e Entalpia) para avaliação do microclima interno das instalações a que as aves foram expostas. Realizaram-se comparações de médias dos parâmetros zootécnicos (peso vivo e rendimento de carcaça) e morfométricos (empenamento) das linhagens criadas nos ambientes de pedigree, frango de corte e estresse. Análises multivariadas foram desenvolvidas para formação de agrupamento das linhagens criadas nos ambientes de frango de corte e de estresse, buscando-se em seguida, a seleção de variáveis representativas da variabilidade existente. As linhagens apresentaram respostas diferenciadas nos parâmetros avaliados, em função do ambiente de criação utilizado. As linhagens da linha macho apresentaram maiores pesos vivos e rendimentos da carcaça eviscerada e do peito; as linhagens da linha fêmea atingiram maior rendimento das pernas e demonstraram melhores empenamentos do dorso e da perna. A análise multivariada permitiu o estudo da variabilidade entre as linhagens e a identificação de cruzamentos mais promissores para obtenção de genótipos superiores. Os ambientes de criação influenciaram a seleção e o tipo variáveis representativas da variabilidade existente entre as linhagens. O empenamento do dorso aos 28 dias de idade pode ser indicado na avaliação de características morfométricas no processo de seleção das linhagens estudadas. / The genetic improvement of aviary lines of breeding has contributed to the increasing efficiency of Brazilian poultry. Nevertheless, for the selection of superior genotypes in improvement programs, we must evaluate the existent variability, associated to the creation of birds in different environments. In this sense, with this research, we aimed at evaluating the performance and variability existent among broilers’ parentals lines of breeding, created in different environments, considering genotype-environment interaction. Broilers’ parentals commercial lines of breeding were created till they achieved the age of 42 days-old, in totally controlled environment of pedigree farms, both in common conditions for the creation of broilers and in stressed situations, in order to evaluate zootechnic and morphometric parameters and to study the existent variability among the lines of breeding through multivariate analysis, as well as for the selection of representative variables of this variability. We used thermal welfare status (Temperature and humidity index and Enthalpy) for the evaluation of installations’ internal microclimate to which the birds are exposed. We carried out average comparisons of zootechnic (body weight and carcass yield) and morphometric (feathering) parameters of the lines of breeding created in pedigree, broilers and stressed environments. We developed multivariate analysis in order to form lines of breeding grouping created at broilers and stressed environments. Next, we went through a selection of representative variables of existent variability. Lines of breeding presented different outcomes on the evaluated parameters, due to the creation environment used. Male lines of breeding presented greater body weight and yield of eviscerated carcass and breast; female lines of breeding achieved a greater legs yield and demonstrated greater legs and back featherings. Multivariate analysis allowed the study of variability among lines of breeding and the identification of the most promising crossbreedings in order to obtain superior genotypes. Creation environments influenced representative variable selection and types of existent variability among lines of breeding. The back feathering at 28 days of age may be indicated in morphometric characteristics evaluation on the selection process of the studied lines of breeding.
10

Blackening Character, Imagining Race, and Mapping Morality: Tarring and Feathering in Nineteenth Century American Literature

Trninic, Marina 16 December 2013 (has links)
This study examines the ritual of tarring and feathering within specific American cultural contexts and literary works of the nineteenth-century to show how the discourse surrounding the actual and figurative practice functioned as part of a larger process of discursive and visual racialization. The study illustrates how the practice and discourse of blackening white bodies enforced embodiment, stigmatized imagined interiority, and divorced the victims from inalienable rights. To be tarred and feathered was to be marked as anti-social, duplicitous and even anarchic. The study examines the works of major American authors including John Trumbull, James Fenimore Cooper, Edgar Allan Poe, and Nathaniel Hawthorne, analyzing how their works evidence a larger national conflation of character, race, and morality. Sometimes drawing on racial imagery implicitly, and sometimes engaging in the issues of race and slavery explicitly, their works feature tarring and feathering to portray their anxieties about social coercion and victimization in the context of the “experiment” of democracy. Trumbull’s mock-epic genre satirizes the plight of the Tory and diminishes the forms of the revolution; Cooper’s novel works as a rhetorical vehicle to prevent a perceived downfall of the republic; the short fiction of Poe exaggerates the horror of uneven and racialized power relations; and Hawthorne’s body of work ironizes the original parody of tar and feathers to expose the violent nature of democratic foundation. Relying on an interdisciplinary approach, this first, in-depth study of tarring and feathering in America reveals that the ritual is a fertile ground for understanding the multivalent social constructs of the time. Examining tarring and feathering incidents can tell scholars about the status of racial feeling, moral values (including sexual and gender norms), and economic fissures of the context in which they occur. Abjecting the body of the victim, the act rewrites the individual’s relationship to the body politic, and the performance of the ritual reveals the continuously emergent, publically sanctioned forms of belonging to the community and the nation. Moreover, examining the representation of tarring and feathering can tell scholars about an author’s relationship to the ideology of an American way.

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