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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Fluorescence enhanced optical tomography on breast phantoms with measurements using a gain modulated intensified CCD imaging system

Godavarty, Anuradha 29 August 2005 (has links)
Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging using near-infrared (NIR) light developed for in-vivo molecular targeting and reporting of cancer provides promising opportunities for diagnostic imaging. However, prior to the administration of unproven contrast agents, the benefits of fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging must be assessed in feasibility phantom studies. A novel intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) imaging system has been developed to perform 3-D fluorescence tomographic imaging in the frequency-domain using near-infrared contrast agents. This study is unique since it (i) employs a large tissue-mimicking phantom (~1087 cc), which is shaped and sized to resemble a female breast and part of the extended chest wall region, and (ii) enables rapid data acquisition in the frequency-domain by using a gain-modulated ICCD camera. Diagnostic 3-D fluorescence-enhanced optical tomography is demonstrated using 0.5-1 cc single and multiple targets contrasted from their surrounding by ??M concentrations of Indocyanine green (ICG) in the breast-shaped phantom (10 cm diameter), under varying conditions of target-to-background absorption contrast ratios (1:0 and 100:1) and target depths (up to 3 cm deep). Boundary surface fluorescence measurements of referenced amplitude and phase shift were used along with the coupled diffusion equation of light propagation in order to perform 3-D image reconstructions using the approximate extended Kalman filter (AEKF) algorithm, and hence differentiate the target from the background based on fluorescent optical contrast. Detection of single and multiple targets is demonstrated under various conditions of target depths (up to 2 cm deep), absorption optical contrast ratio (1:0 and 100:1), target volumes (0.5-1 cc), and multiple targets (up to three 0.5 cc targets). The feasibility of 3-D image reconstructions from simultaneous multiple point excitation sources are presented. Preliminary lifetime imaging studies with 1:2 and 2:1 optical contrast in fluorescence lifetime of the contrast agents is also demonstrated. The specificity of the optical imager is further assessed from homogeneous phantom studies containing no fluorescently contrasted targets. While nuclear imaging currently provides clinical diagnostic opportunities using radioactive tracers, molecular targeting of tumors using non-ionizing NIR contrast agents tomographically imaged using the frequency-domain ICCD imaging system could possibly become a new method of diagnostic imaging.
2

Graphene Quantum Dots as Fluorescent and Passivation Agents for Multimodal Bioimaging / Grafen-Kvantprickar som Fluorescerande Passiveringsmedel för Multimodal Bioavbildning

Kilic, Nüzhet Inci January 2021 (has links)
Zero-dimensional graphene (carbon) quantum dots have been drawing attention in bio-related applications since their discovery, especially for their optical properties, chemical stability, and easily modifiable surface.  This thesis focuses on the green synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (GQDs) for dual-mode bioimaging with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical fluorescence. Both conventional and microwave- (MW-)assisted solvothermal methods were followed to investigate the precursors’ effect on the synthesized GQDs. The MW-assisted method permitted the synthesis of uniform GQDs with an excitation-independent behavior, due to highly controllable reaction conditions. It was demonstrated that the molecular structure of the precursors influenced the optical fluorescence properties of the GQDs. Thus, both blue- (BQDs) and red-emitting (RQDs) GQDs were obtained by selecting specific precursors, leading to emission maxima at 438 and 605 nm under the excitation wavelengths of 390 and 585 nm, respectively.  Amine-functionalized Rh nanoparticles (NPs) were chosen as the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) active core, synthesized via MW-assisted hydrothermal method with a custom designed sugar ligand as the reducing agent. These NPs were conjugated with BQDs using EDC-NHS treatment. The hybrid Rh-GQDs NPs exhibited green emission (520 nm) under 490 nm excitation and led to a reduced cytotoxicity with respect to bare Rh NPs, highlighting the passivation role of the GQDs via the real-time cell analysis (RTCA) assay. The hybrid complex constituted a multimodal bioimaging contrastagent, tested with confocal microscopy (in vitro) and XRF phantom experiments. / Sedan deras upptäckt har nolldimensionella kvantprickar av grafen (kol) uppmärksammats inom biorelaterade applikationer, särskilt för deras optiska egenskaper, kemiska stabilitet och enkelt modifierbara yta. Denna avhandling fokuserar på en grön syntesmetod av kvävedopade grafen-kvantprickar för bimodal bioavbildning med röntgenfluorescens och optisk fluorescens. Både konventionella och mikrovågs-assisterade solvotermiska syntesmetoder användes för att undersöka metodernas effekt på de syntetiserade kvantprickarna. Den mikrovågs-assisterade metoden möjliggjorde syntes av uniforma kvantprickar med exciteringsoberoende egenskaper på grund av mycket kontrollerbara reaktionsförhållanden. Det demonstrerades att den molekylära strukturen hos prekursorerna påverkade de optiska fluorescensegenskaperna hos grafen-kvantprickarna. Genom att välja specifika prekursorer erhölls kvantprickar som emitterar i både blått och rött ljus, motsvarande emissionsmaxima vid 438 respektive 605 nm under excitering vid 390 respektive 585 nm. Amin-funktionaliserade Rh-nanopartiklar valdes som en aktiv kärna för röntgenfluorescens, syntetiserad genom en mikrovågs-assisterad hydrotermisk metod med en specialdesignad sockerligand som reduktionsmedel. Dessa nanopartiklar konjugerades med blåemitterande kvantprickar genom EDC-NHS-behandling. De hybrida nanopartiklarna uppvisade grön emission (520 nm) under 490 nm excitation och ledde till en minskad cytotoxicitet uppmätt genom cellanalys i realtid (RTCA) jämfört med endast Rh-nanopartiklar, vilket framhävde passiveringsrollen som kvantprickarna spelar. Hybridkomplexet utgjorde ett multimodalt kontrastmedel för bioavbildning, vilket demonstrerades med konfokalmikroskopi (in vitro) och fantomexperiment med röntgenfluorescens.

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