Smith, Merle E.
Thesis (M.S.)--Boston University
Objective: Medicine administration is the last process of the medication cycle. However, errors can happen during this process. Children are at an increased risk from these errors. This has been extensively investigated but evidence is lacking on effective interventions. Therefore, the aim of this research is to propose safety measures to reduce medication administration errors (MAE) in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Method: The research was carried out over five studies; 1) systematic literature review, 2) national survey of PICU medication error interventions, 3) retrospective analysis of medication error incidents, 4) prospective observation of the administration practice, and 5) survey of PICU healthcare professionals' opinions on MAE contributory factors and safety measures. Results: Hospital MAE in children found in literature accounted for a mean of 50% of all reported medication error reports (n= 12552). It was also identified in a mean of 29% of doses observed (n= 8894). This study found MAE retrospectively in 43% of all medication incidents (n= 412). Additionally, a total of 269 MAEs were observed (32% per dose observation). The characteristics of the interventions used to reduce MAE are diverse but it illustrated that a single approach is not enough. Also for an intervention to be a success it is fundamental to build a safety culture. This is achieved by developing a culture of collaborative learning from errors without assigning blame. Furthermore, MAE contributing factors were found to include; interruptions, inadequate resources, working conditions and no pre-prepared infusions. The following safety measures were proposed to reduce MAE; 1) dose banding, 2) improved lighting conditions, 3) decision support tool with calculation aid, 4) use of pre-prepared infusions, 5) enhance the double-checking process, 6) medicine administration checklist, and 7) an intolerant culture to interruption. Conclusion: This is one of the first comprehensive study of to explore MAE in PICU from different perspectives. The aim and objectives of the research were fulfilled. Future research includes the need to implement the proposed safety measures and evaluate them in practice.
Influence of Organizational, Operational, Financial AndEnvironmental Factors on Hospitals' Adoption of Computerized Physician Order Entry Systems for Improving Patient Safety: A Resource Dependence ApproachSolti, Imre 01 January 2006 (has links)
This study examines specific organizational, operational, financial and environmental characteristics to identify factors that are associated with increased likelihood of hospitals' CPOE adoption decision in six rollout regions of the Leapfrog initiatives.Resource dependence theory provides theoretical basis for the study. The study is retrospective observational in design. Individual hospitals are the unit of analysis. The Leapfrog Group's 2002-survey collection serves the primary data source. Univariate statistical methods along with bivariate and ordinal logistic regression models are used to analyze the data. The models provided support for multiple hypotheses for both the adoption and early adoption decisions of study hospitals. The operational characteristics of ownership, in-house physician staff, case mix index and the environmental characteristic of HMO penetration rate had a positive effect on management's adoption decisions. The operational characteristic excess capacity, the organizational characteristic community orientation, the financial characteristic of operating income per admission, and the environmental characteristic of number of HMO contracts had a significant negative effect on CPOE adoption decisions.
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