Kloberdanz, Christine Marie
01 December 2010
No description available.
Croskell, Michael Sinclair
No description available.
Sher, Hilton Stanley
21 June 2012
This project documents my process of visual and hermeneutic enquiry centred on the Tswaing meteorite impact crater, north of Pretoria. In my visual investigation I attempt to apprehend the landscape through a cyclical process which involves walking within it, photographing it in 360° ‘visualisations’, editing the imagery and returning, often frustrated, to repeat both encounter and process. The cycle of reflection leads me to consider my circular process itself as a dialogical mode of interpretation and response to the primeval, circular landscape of the impact crater. Informed by Gadamer’s (1975) notion of a hermeneutic circle which extends interpretation and understanding, the reflexive process is extended and enriched through dialogue with the work of pertinent scientists, artists, poets and writers. Landscape is considered as an artefact of deep time, challenging entrenched traditions and notions while considering significant contemporary responses. The dissertation attempts to demonstrate the layered accretion of concept and meaning contained within the visual and theoretical components of the investigation
Characterization, geographic distribution, and number of upper Eocene impact ejecta layers and their correlations with source cratersLiu, Shaobin. January 2006 (has links)
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Delaware, 2006. / Principal faculty advisor: Billy P.Glass, Dept. of Geological Sciences. Includes bibliographical references.
Fitzgerald, Rebecca Hanna
Explosive volcanic eruptions frequently expel ballistic projectiles, producing a significant proximal hazard to people, buildings, infrastructure and the environment from their high kinetic and thermal energies. Ballistic hazard assessments are undertaken as a risk mitigation measure, to determine probabilities of eruptions occurring that may produce ballistics, identify areas and elements likely to be impacted by ballistics, and the potential vulnerabilities of elements to ballistics. The 6 August, 2012 hydrothermal eruption of Upper Te Maari Crater, Tongariro, New Zealand ejected blocks over a 6 km2 area, impacting ~2.6 km of the Tongariro Alpine Crossing (TAC), a walking track hiked by ~80,000 people a year, and damaging an overnight hut along the track. In this thesis ballistic hazard and risk from Upper Te Maari Crater are assessed through a review of its eruptive history, field and orthophoto mapping of the 6 August ballistic impact distribution, forward modelling and analysis of possible future eruption scenarios using a calibrated 3D ballistic trajectory model, and analysis of the vulnerability of hikers along the impacted Tongariro Alpine Crossing. Orthophoto mapping of the 6 August ballistic impact crater distribution revealed 3,587 impact craters with a mean diameter of 2.4 m. However, field mapping of accessible regions indicated an average of at least four times more observable impact craters and a smaller mean crater diameter of 1.2 m. By combining the orthophoto and ground-truthed impact frequency and size distribution data, it is estimated that approximately 13,200 ballistic projectiles were generated during the eruption. Ballistic impact distribution was used to calibrate a 3D ballistic trajectory model for the 6 August eruption. The 3D ballistic trajectory model and a series of inverse models were used to constrain the eruption directions, angles and velocities. When combined with eruption observations and geophysical observations and compared to the mapped distribution, the model indicated that the blocks were ejected in five variously directed eruption pulses, in total lasting 19 seconds. The model successfully reproduced the mapped impact distribution using a mean initial particle velocity of 200 m/s with an accompanying average gas flow velocity over a 400 m radius of 150 m/s. Assessment of the vulnerability of hikers to ballistics from the August eruption along the TAC utilised the modelled spatial density of impacts and an assumption that an average ballistic impact will cause serious injury or death (casualty) over an 8 m2 area. It is estimated that the probability of casualty ranged from 1% to 16% along the affected track (assuming an eruption during the time of exposure). Future ballistic hazard and vulnerability along the TAC are also assessed through application of the calibrated model. A magnitude larger eruption (than the 6 August) in which 10x more particles were ejected, doubled the affected length of the TAC and illustrated that the probability of casualty could reach 100% in localised areas of the track. In contrast, ballistics ejected from a smaller eruption did not reach the track as was the case with the 21 November 2012 eruption. The calibrated ballistic model can therefore be used to improve management of ballistic hazards both at Tongariro and also, once recalibrated, to other volcanoes worldwide.
abstract: It has been hypothesized that the ~25 km Rochechouart-Chassenon impact structure (RCIS) in the NW Massif Central, France, was formed during a Late Triassic (ca. 214 Ma) terrestrial impact event that produced a catena of several large craters. Testing this hypothesis, and assessing its possible impacts on biological evolution, requires both accurate and precise dating of candidate impact structures. Like many of these structures, the age of the RCIS is controversial because geochronological datasets yield contradictory results, even when a single isotopic system is used; for example, the two most recent 40Ar/39Ar studies of RCIS yielded statistically inconsistent dates of 201 ± 2 Ma (2σ) and 214 ± 8 Ma (2σ). While the precision offered by various geochronometers used to date impact structures varies significantly, a fair way to assess the confidence scientists might have in the accuracy of an impact age is to establish whether or not multiple chronometers yield statistically indistinguishable ages when applied to that structure. With that in mind, I have applied the (U-Th)/He, U/Pb, and radiation damage chronometers to zircons separated from two different RCIS impactites. My best estimate of the zircon (U-Th)/He age of the impact event is 191.6 ± 9.1 Ma at the 95% confidence level. U/Pb zircon dates suggest that most zircons in the RCIS target rocks were not completely reset during impact, but a subset (n = 8) of zircons appear to have crystallized from the impact melt or to have been completely reset; these zircons indicate a U/Pb impact age of 202.6 ± 5.8 Ma (95% confidence level). Zircon radiation damage dates are highly variable, indicating that the RCIS event resulted only in partial annealing of pre-impact zircon in the country rock, but a small sub-population of zircons yielded a mean date of 211 ± 13 Ma (95% confidence level). These results – all statistically indistinguishable from the previously published 40Ar/39Ar date of 201 ± 2 Ma – collectively argue that the impact age was near the presently agreed upon Triassic-Jurassic boundary. This age raises the possibility that seismite and tsunamite deposits found in the present-day British Isles may be related to the RCIS. / Dissertation/Thesis / Masters Thesis Geological Sciences 2016
Harvey, Samuel Vernon
30 June 2004
Anomalously high groundwater salinities exist within the syn-impact sediment of the Chesapeake Bay impact crater, including an unexplained brine. This brine may be the result of phase-separation of seawater that occurred within the syn-impact sediments as underlying deformed and possibly melted basement rock cooled following impact. The 85 km wide crater has been described as a complex peak-ring crater; created 35.8 million years ago in the then submerged unconsolidated sediments of the Atlantic Coastal Plain and now completely buried by post-impact sediments. An annular trough with relatively undisturbed basement surrounds a ~38 km diameter inner basin with a peak ring and central uplift. The basement surface within the inner basin was modified by the impact and is projected to be approximately 1.6 km below sea level. Geothermometry and advective and conductive heat flow modeling was performed to characterize a possible post-impact hydrothermal system. Thermal maturity and radiogenic techniques were used to estimate the temperature history of the crater sediments. Core samples from one borehole just outside the crater, two within the annular trough, and one shallow borehole within the inner basin were examined. Numerical heat and fluid flow models were developed using a range of likely sediment parameters and basal heat flow values to determine if phase-separation temperatures were likely to have occurred, and to evaluate what affect, if any, lithostatic overpressures may have had on post-impact cooling. Geothermometry results indicate that no detectable thermal anomaly exists within the syn or post-impact sediments at these boreholes; however, no data are available within the deep inner basin where temperatures were likely to have been higher. Samples from existing boreholes suggest that sediment are organically immature and likely were never heated above ~40°C for a geologically significant period of time. These results support apatite He (U/Th) and previously published apatite fission track radiogenic ages indicating no Cenozoic resetting. Heat flow simulations indicate that a high temperature (>400°C) hydrothermal system could have existed within the inner basin and not caused any measurable effect on thermal maturity in the annular trough and shallow portion of the inner basin. Results also indicate that phase-separation could have occurred in the syn-impact sediments using reasonable estimates of basal heat flow, permeability, thermal conductivity, and porosity values, and that overpressures resulting from rapid deposition of syn-impact sediments dissipate within a few thousand years and are not an important heat transport mechanism. / Master of Science
Strategies for (U-Th)/Pb Geochronology of Impact Structures: Lessons from the West Clearwater Lake Crater, CanadaJanuary 2019 (has links)
abstract: Establishing the timing of impact crater formation is essential to exploring the relationship between bolide impact and biological evolution, and constraining the tempo of planetary surface evolution. Unfortunately, precise and accurate impact geochronology can be challenging. Many of the rock products of impact (impactites) contain relict, pre-impact phases that may have had their isotopic systematics completely reset during the impact event, only partially reset, or not reset at all. Of the many isotopic chronometers that have been used to date impactites, the U/Pb zircon chronometer (ZrnPb) seems least susceptible to post-impact disturbances, and ZrnPb dates are typically much more precise than those obtained using other chronometers. However, the ZrnPb system is so resistant to resetting that relict zircons in impactites often yield dates that reflect the igneous or metamorphic ages of the target rocks rather than the age of the impact itself. The present study was designed to answer a simple question: is there a straightforward sample collection and analysis strategy for high-accuracy ZrnPb dating of an impact structure if the impactites collected from it may contain inherited zircons? To study this, ZrnPb dates were determined for impactites from a single crater with a well-constrained impact age: the West Clearwater Lake impact structure, located at Lake Wiyâshâkimî, Québec, Canada. The amount of ZrnPb resetting and the mechanisms responsible for resetting varied amongst the samples. Each sample characteristically contained either: newly crystallized zircons from the impact melt ("neocrystalline"), relict zircons ~50-100% reset, or, relict zircons ~0-50% reset. The variably reset relict zircons define a discordia line from ~2700 Ma to ~286 Ma – consistent with the ages of the target rock and the impact, respectively (Schmieder et al., 2015a; Simard, 2004). ZrnPb measurements from the neocrystalline zircons provided a new preferred impact age of 286.64 ± 0.35 Ma (2σ), a ~10x improvement in precision. The characteristics of the West Clearwater ZrnPb data vary between samples yet become easily interpretable as a whole, showing that efforts to measure robust, precise impact ages benefit from strategies that prioritize applying multiple analytical techniques to multiple types of impactite from the same crater. / Dissertation/Thesis / Masters Thesis Geological Sciences 2019
Vývoj reliéfu v oblasti impaktního kráteru Siljan / Relief evolution in region of the Siljan impact craterLulák, Martin January 2015 (has links)
Impact events and associated processes can significantly reshape the natural environment of the Earth and other bodies in the Solar system. The Siljan impact crater in the middle of Sweden was created in late Devonian and it is the biggest known morphostructure of this kind in Europe. The presented paper aims at the relief evolution of the Siljan impact crater area. Landforms of the region are studied, including relicts of the impact event, and main stages of relief evolution from the Paleozoic to the present are determined. Special attention is focused to discussion about the range and types of erosional and denudational processes in relation to the level of preservation of morphological and geological indices about the Devonian impact. Ascertained knowledge about relicts of the Siljan impact event are compared with selected impact craters on the Earth, the Moon and Mars.
Bosumtwi impact crater : use of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to map the geometry of the inner wall of the crater and the impact related structures / L'impact du cratère du lac Bosumtwi : l'utilisation de la tomographie de la résistivité électrique (TRE) pour tracer la carte géométrique de la paroi internet du cr&tère et de l'impact associé à la structureAning, Akwasi acheampong 25 July 2012 (has links)
Des mesures de résistivité électrique et des campagnes d’observations géologiques ont été menées pour cartographier le contact sédiment/roche basale ainsi que les structures d’impact associées au cratère d’impact Bosumtwi datant de 1,07 millions d’années. Le cratère de 10,5 km de diamètre s’est formé dans des roches métamorphiques du Précambrien (2,1 à 2,2 milliard d’années), d’origine sédimentaire et volcanique. Il est actuellement rempli par le lac Bosumtwi de 8,5 km de diamètre. Ce cratère est la source des tektites et microtektites dispersées jusqu’en Côte d’Ivoire et au large des côtes ouest africaine. La campagne de mesures éophysiques consiste en 16 tomographies de résistivité électrique effectuées radialement des rives du lac vers les bords du cratère d’impact. Chaque profil utilise un système d’acquisition multi – électrodes avec une distance minimum entre les électrodes de 5 m. Les données ont été corrigées des effets topographiques et inversées en utilisant le programme commercial d’inversion Res2DInv, avec la norme L1 considérée plus robuste. La zone comprise entre les rives du lac et le bord externe du cratère de divise en trois formations géologiques principales. Les régions de faibles résistivités (< 64 .m) représentent les sédiments de lac. Les zones de resistivités moyennes (entre 128 et 200 .m) sont interprétées comme des brèches liées à l’impact, en dikes, allochtones ou parautochtones. Les régions de hautes résistivités (> 128 .m) représentent les roches métamorphiques sous-jacentes, d’origine volcanique ou sédimentaire. Les profils de résistivités permettent de retrouver la géométrie et l’extension latérale de ces trois types de roches. Une correspondance directe entre la lithologie observée en surface et les structures mises en évidence par les mesures de résistivité électrique dans le sous-sol est observée à Dwamam au Sud-Est dulac. À Dwamam, les sédiments sont environ à 200 m de la rive du lac et s’étendent environ sur 400 m vers les les bords du cratère, à la différence des autres zones où ont pu être cartographiés les sédiments. La topographie du contact sédiment/roche basale présente une direction particulière NE-SO avec un pendage variant entre 16 degrés au NE et 36 degrés au SO. Une majorité de fractures ont été remarquées dans le SO, remplies par des clasts et des brèches d’impacts. Les failles sont surtout présentent à l’Ouest du lac. En moyenne elles présentent un pendage variant entre 60o à l’Est et 80 degrés à l’Ouest du cratère. Des analyses statistiques ont été effectuées sur les directions et les pendages des failles selon les loi de von Mises et Fisher. Elles démontrent que les failles s’alignent préférentiellement le long de deux directions principales. L’analyse cumulée de la surface de contact sédiment/roche, des failles et de la localisation du champ de dispersion des tektites indique que le bolide d’environ 0,8 à 1 km de diamètre responsable du cratère est arrivé du NE. Les résultats démontrent que les panneaux de résistivité électrique fournissent des informations utiles pour l’étude des cratères d’impact. / Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and geological field surveys have been used to map the sediment/bedrock contact and impact related structures of the 1.07 Myr old Bosumtwi impact crater. The 10.5 km complex crater excavated in 2.1–2.2 Gyr Precambrian metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks is filled by the 8.5 km Lake Bosumtwi. It is the source crater of the tektites and microtektites of the Ivory Coast strewn field. Electrical resistivity survey was carried out sixteen (16) profiles running from the shore of the lake towards the rim of the crater. The multi-electrode gradient array method with minimum electrode separation of 5 m was used. The data were corrected for topography and inverted using the L1–norm (robust inversion) techniqueof the Res2DInv software. The area extending from the lake shore towards the crater rim contains essentially three formations. The low resistivity regions (< 64 .m) represent the lake sediments. The moderately high resistivity regions with values between 128 and 200 .m were interpreted as impact related breccias (dikes, allochthonous or parautochthonous) depending on their geometries. Lastly, the model clearly differentiate the resistive basement metamorphic rocks (> 128 .m) fromthe lake sediments and the breccias due to their geometry and lateral extent. Also observed was a direct correspondence between the lithology on the surface and the subsurface resistivity structures at Dwamam in the southeast section of the lake. At Dwamam, the sediments were about 200 m away from the shore and stretch about 400 m towards the crater rim unlike in other areas where the sediments were mapped from the shore. The gradient of the sediments/bedrock contact showsa symmetry in the NE–SW direction and dips between the lowest of 16 degrees in the NE to the highest 36 degrees in the SW. Majority of the fractures marked were in the southwest and were filled with clasts or impact breccia matrix. The faults were mostly delineated in the west. Averagely, the dips of the faults are about 60 degrees and 80 degrees for the east and west sections of the crater respectively. The dips of the faults were statistically treated using the von Mises and Fisher statistics, it was found that the faults have a preferred direction and it is possible to determine at least two different orientations. Theanalysis of the results of the sediments/bedrock surface and the faults combined with the location of the tektite strewn field indicate that the about 0.8–1 km bolide that created the complex crater came from the NE. The findings have shown that the ERT is efficient and a useful tool in impact cratering science research.
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