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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

The statistical comparison of solution quality from automatic planning heurtstics

Hussain, Zahid January 2002 (has links)
No description available.

A multi-level hybrid framework for the deterministic job-shop scheduling problem

Jain, Anant Singh January 1998 (has links)
No description available.

Genetic algorithms and Lagrangean based heuristics for vehicle routing

Ayechew, Mossie A. January 2000 (has links)
No description available.

Hyperheuristics: Recent Developments

Chakhlevitch, K., Cowling, Peter I. 18 November 2008 (has links)
Yes / We present a thorough review of hyperheuristic research to date, and analyse/compare hyperheuristic papers based on the methods used.

On the Study of Efficient Metaheuristics via Pattern Reduction

Tsai, Chun-Wei 05 June 2009 (has links)
Over the past three decades or so, metaheuristics has been one of the most important and successful techniques for finding the true or near optimal solution of complex problems. Instead of systematically enumerating and checking all the candidate solutions that would take forever to accomplish, it works by guessing the right directions for finding the true or near optimal solution so that the space searched, and thus the time required, can be significantly reduced. However, our observation shows that most of the metaheuristic algorithms face a common problem. That is, because of the requirements of convergence, they all involve a lot of redundant computations during the convergence process. In this thesis, we present a simple but efficient algorithm for solving the problem, called the Pattern Reduction algorithm (or PR for short). The proposed algorithm is motivated by the observation that some of the sub-solutions that are repeatedly computed during the convergence process can be considered as part of the final solutions and thus can be first compressed and then removed to eliminate the redundant computations at the later iterations during the convergence process. Since PR is basically a concept that is not limited to any particular metaheuristic algorithm, we present several methods derived from the concept for eliminating the duplicate computations of metaheuristics in the thesis. Although our simulation results show that they all perform well in terms of the computation time reduced, they are not perfect in terms of the quality of the end results because in some cases they will cause a small loss of the quality. For this reason, rather than how much computation time the proposed algorithm can reduce, our ultimate goal is to eliminate all the redundant computations while at the same time preserving or even enhancing the quality of the end result of metaheuristics alone.

A bi-objective home care scheduling problem: Analyzing the trade-off between costs and client inconvenience

Braekers, Kris, Hartl, Richard F., Parragh, Sophie, Tricoire, Fabien January 2016 (has links) (PDF)
Organizations providing home care services are inclined to optimize their activities in order to meet the constantly increasing demand for home care. In this context, home care providers are confronted with multiple, often conflicting, objectives such as minimizing their operating costs while maximizing the service level offered to their clients by taking into account their preferences. This paper is the first to shed some light on the trade-off relationship between these two objectives by modeling the home care routing and scheduling problem as a bi-objective problem. The proposed model accounts for qualifications, working regulations and overtime costs of the nurses, travel costs depending on the mode of transportation, hard time windows, and client preferences on visit times and nurses. A distinguishing characteristic of the problem is that the scheduling problem for a single route is a biobjective problem in itself, thereby complicating the problem considerably. A metaheuristic algorithm, embedding a large neighborhood search heuristic in a multi-directional local search framework, is proposed to solve the problem. Computational experiments on a set of benchmark instances based on reallife data are presented. A comparison with exact solutions on small instances shows that the algorithm performs well. An analysis of the results reveals that service providers face a considerable trade-off between costs and client convenience. However, starting from a minimum cost solution, the average service level offered to the clients may already be improved drastically with limited additional costs. (authors' abstract)

The Problem of Tuning Metaheuristics as seen from a Machine Learning Perspective

Birattari, Mauro 20 December 2004 (has links)
<p>A metaheuristic is a generic algorithmic template that, once properly instantiated, can be used for finding high quality solutions of combinatorial optimization problems. For obtaining a fully functioning algorithm, a metaheuristic needs to be configured: typically some modules need to be instantiated and some parameters need to be tuned. For the sake of precision, we use the expression <em>parametric tuning</em> for referring to the tuning of numerical parameters, either continuous or discrete but in any case ordinal. On the other hand, we use the expression <em>structural tuning</em> for referring to the problem of defining which modules should be included and, in general, to the problem of tuning parameters that are either boolean or categorical. Finally, with <em>tuning</em> we refer to the composite <em>structural and parametric tuning</em>.</p> <p>Tuning metaheuristics is a very sensitive issue both in practical applications and in academic studies. Nevertheless, a precise definition of the tuning problem is missing in the literature. In this thesis, we argue that the problem of tuning a metaheuristic can be profitably described and solved as a machine learning problem.</p> <p>Indeed, looking at the problem of tuning metaheuristics from a machine learning perspective, we are in the position of giving a formal statement of the tuning problem and to propose an algorithm, called F-Race, for tackling the problem itself. Moreover, always from this standpoint, we are able to highlight and discuss some catches and faults in the current research methodology in the metaheuristics field, and to propose some guidelines.</p> <p>The thesis contains experimental results on the use of F-Race and some examples of practical applications. Among others, we present a feasibility study carried out by the German-based software company <em>SAP</em>, that concerned the possible use of F-Race for tuning a commercial computer program for vehicle routing and scheduling problems. Moreover, we discuss the successful use of F-Race for tuning the best performing algorithm submitted to the <em>International Timetabling Competition</em> organized in 2003 by the <em>Metaheuristics Network</em> and sponsored by <em>PATAT</em>, the international series of conferences on the <em>Practice and Theory of Automated Timetabling</em>.</p>

Ant Colony Optimization and Local Search for the Probabilistic Traveling Salesman Problem: A Case Study in Stochastic Combinatorial Optimization

Bianchi, Leonora 29 June 2006 (has links)
In this thesis we focus on Stochastic combinatorial Optimization Problems (SCOPs), a wide class of combinatorial optimization problems under uncertainty, where part of the information about the problem data is unknown at the planning stage, but some knowledge about its probability distribution is assumed. Optimization problems under uncertainty are complex and difficult, and often classical algorithmic approaches based on mathematical and dynamic programming are able to solve only very small problem instances. For this reason, in recent years metaheuristic algorithms such as Ant Colony Optimization, Evolutionary Computation, Simulated Annealing, Tabu Search and others, are emerging as successful alternatives to classical approaches. In this thesis, metaheuristics that have been applied so far to SCOPs are introduced and the related literature is thoroughly reviewed. In particular, two properties of metaheuristics emerge from the survey: they are a valid alternative to exact classical methods for addressing real-sized SCOPs, and they are flexible, since they can be quite easily adapted to solve different SCOPs formulations, both static and dynamic. On the base of the current literature, we identify the following as the key open issues in solving SCOPs via metaheuristics: (1) the design and integration of ad hoc, fast and effective objective function approximations inside the optimization algorithm; (2) the estimation of the objective function by sampling when no closed-form expression for the objective function is available, and the study of methods to reduce the time complexity and noise inherent to this type of estimation; (3) the characterization of the efficiency of metaheuristic variants with respect to different levels of stochasticity in the problem instances. We investigate the above issues by focusing in particular on a SCOP belonging to the class of vehicle routing problems: the Probabilistic Traveling Salesman Problem (PTSP). For the PTSP, we consider the Ant Colony Optimization metaheuristic and we design efficient local search algorithms that can enhance its performance. We obtain state-of-the-art algorithms, but we show that they are effective only for instances above a certain level of stochasticity, otherwise it is more convenient to solve the problem as if it were deterministic. The algorithmic variants based on an estimation of the objective function by sampling obtain worse results, but qualitatively have the same behavior of the algorithms based on the exact objective function, with respect to the level of stochasticity. Moreover, we show that the performance of algorithmic variants based on ad hoc approximations is strongly correlated with the absolute error of the approximation, and that the effect on local search of ad hoc approximations can be very degrading. Finally, we briefly address another SCOP belonging to the class of vehicle routing problems: the Vehicle Routing Problem with Stochastic Demands (VRPSD). For this problem, we have implemented and tested several metaheuristics, and we have studied the impact of integrating in them different ad hoc approximations.

Automatic Instance-based Tailoring of Parameter Settings for Metaheuristics

Dobslaw, Felix January 2011 (has links)
Many industrial problems in various fields, such as logistics, process management, orproduct design, can be formalized and expressed as optimization problems in order tomake them solvable by optimization algorithms. However, solvers that guarantee thefinding of optimal solutions (complete) can in practice be unacceptably slow. Thisis one of the reasons why approximative (incomplete) algorithms, producing near-optimal solutions under restrictions (most dominant time), are of vital importance. Those approximative algorithms go under the umbrella term metaheuristics, each of which is more or less suitable for particular optimization problems. These algorithmsare flexible solvers that only require a representation for solutions and an evaluation function when searching the solution space for optimality.What all metaheuristics have in common is that their search is guided by certain control parameters. These parameters have to be manually set by the user andare generally problem and interdependent: A setting producing near-optimal resultsfor one problem is likely to perform worse for another. Automating the parameter setting process in a sophisticated, computationally cheap, and statistically reliable way is challenging and a significant amount of attention in the artificial intelligence and operational research communities. This activity has not yet produced any major breakthroughs concerning the utilization of problem instance knowledge or the employment of dynamic algorithm configuration. The thesis promotes automated parameter optimization with reference to the inverse impact of problem instance diversity on the quality of parameter settings with respect to instance-algorithm pairs. It further emphasizes the similarities between static and dynamic algorithm configuration and related problems in order to show how they relate to each other. It further proposes two frameworks for instance-based algorithm configuration and evaluates the experimental results. The first is a recommender system for static configurations, combining experimental design and machine learning. The second framework can be used for static or dynamic configuration,taking advantage of the iterative nature of population-based algorithms, which is a very important sub-class of metaheuristics. A straightforward implementation of framework one did not result in the expected improvements, supposedly because of pre-stabilization issues. The second approach shows competitive results in the scenario when compared to a state-of-the-art model-free configurator, reducing the training time by in excess of two orders of magnitude.

Hybrid algorithms for solving routing problems

Guimarans Serrano, Daniel 27 July 2012 (has links)
Un component important de molts sistemes de distribució és el càlcul de les rutes dels vehicles per servir els clients. El Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) proporciona el marc teòric per tractar aquest tipus de problemes logístics relacionats amb la distribució física de béns. Per la seva complexitat i aplicabilitat, aquest tipus de problemes logístics es troba entre les línies de recerca més populars en optimització combinatòria. Aquesta tesi de doctorat té com a objectiu la introducció de tres metodologies diferents per resoldre el VRP. Aquestes metodologies han estat especialment dissenyades per ser flexibles, en el sentit que poden ser utilitzades, amb adaptacions menors, per resoldre diferents variants del VRP presents en casos d’aplicació industrial. En les tres metodologies descrites en aquest treball s’utilitzen diferents tècniques per aconseguir la flexibilitat, l’eficiència i la robustesa desitjades. Constraint Programming (CP) ha estat escollit com a paradigma de modelat per descriure les principals restriccions presents en el VRP. CP proporciona la flexibilitat desitjada per les tres metodologies, atès que afegir restriccions addicionals presents en molts casos d’aplicació real només afecta al modelat del problema, però no a la definició dels algorismes de cerca. En les dues primeres metodologies descrites, el model de CP només s’utilitza per comprovar la factibilitat de les solucions durant la cerca. La tercera metodologia presenta un model més ric del VRP que permet tractar diferents variants del problema. En aquest cas, la cerca es realitza i es controla fent servir els mecanismes que CP proporciona. La Relaxació Lagrangiana (LR) i una versió probabilística de l’heurística Clarke and Wright Savings (RCWS) s’utilitzen amb una finalitat molt específica dins de les metodologies. LR s’utilitza per minimitzar la distància total recorreguda pels vehicles, mentre que la RCWS es fa servir per calcular una solució inicial de bona qualitat. Ambdós mètodes proporcionen una aproximació eficient als problemes respectius. A més, la utilització de LR permet reduir la complexitat computacional dels processos de cerca local i, d’aquesta manera, redueix el temps computacional necessari per resoldre el VRP. Totes les metodologies es basen en la metaheurística coneguda com Variable Neighborhood Search (VNS). El VNS està format per una família d’algorismes que aprofiten sistemàticament la idea de canviar el veïnat explorat al voltant d’una solució, tant en el procés de cerca per trobar un mínim local com en el procés de pertorbació, per escapar de la vall corresponent. Malgrat que és un mètode bastant estès, hi ha pocs exemples d’aplicació en el VRP. En tot cas, fins i tot els mètodes VNS més simples han aconseguit bons resultats quan han estat aplicats en aquest problema. Aquesta tesi té com a objectiu contribuir en la recerca de l’aplicació de la metaheurística VNS en el VRP. Aquesta ha estat escollida com a marc en el que integrar les tècniques mencionades. Així, la metaheurística s’utilitza per guiar la cerca, mentre que l’eficiència desitjada s’aconsegueix mitjançant els mètodes que s’hi integren. D’altra banda, utilitzar CP com a paradigma de modelat proporciona la flexibilitat requerida. Aquesta característica és especialment rellevant en el cas de la darrera metodologia descrita. En aquest cas, la cerca de CP es guia mitjançant una combinació de les metaheurístiques VNS i Large Neighborhood Search (LNS). Aquesta metodologia representa una primera aproximació a la resolució eficient de problemes VRP més complexos, similars a casos d’aplicació real. / An important component of many distribution systems is routing vehicles to serve customers. The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) provides a theoretical framework for approaching this class of logistics problems dealing with physical distribution. Because of its complexity and applicability, this class of logistics problems is among the most popular research areas in combinatorial optimization. This PhD. Thesis is aimed to introduce three different yet related hybrid methodologies to solve the VRP. These methodologies have been especially designed for being flexible in the sense that they can be used, with minor adaptations, for solving different variants of the VRP present in industrial application cases. In the three methodologies described in this work, different technologies are used to achieve the desired flexibility, efficiency, and robustness. Constraint Programming (CP) has been chosen as the modeling paradigm to describe the main constraints involved in the VRP. CP provides the pursued flexibility for the three methodologies, since adding side constraints present in most real application cases becomes a modeling issue and does not affect the search algorithm definition. In the first two hybrid methodologies, the CP model is used to check solution's feasibility during search. The third methodology presents a richer model for the VRP capable of tackling different problem variants. In this case, the search is performed and controlled from a CP perspective. Lagrangian Relaxation (LR) and a probabilistic version of the Clarke and Wright Savings (CWS) heuristic are used for specific purposes within the proposed methodologies. The former is used for minimizing the total traveled distance and the latter to provide a good initial solution. Both methods provide an efficient approach to the respectively faced problems. Moreover, the use of LR permits reducing the computational complexity of the performed local search processes and therefore reduces the required computational time to solve the VRP. All methodologies are based on the so-called Variable Neighborhood Search (VNS) metaheuristic. The VNS is formed by a family of algorithms that exploits systematically the idea of neighborhood changes both in the search phase to find a local minimum, and in perturbation phase, to escape from the corresponding valley. Although it is an extended method, there are few examples of its application to the VRP. However, interesting results have been obtained even applying the simplest VNS algorithms to this problem. The present thesis is aimed to contribute to the current research on the application of the VNS metaheuristic to the VRP. It has been chosen as the framework where the mentioned techniques are embedded. Hence, the metaheuristic is used to guide the search, while the desired efficiency is provided by the composing methods. On the other hand, using CP as the modeling paradigm provides the required flexibility. This characteristic is enhanced in the last described methodology. In this case, the CP search is guided by a combination of the VNS and the Large Neighborhood Search (LNS) metaheuristics. This methodology represents an initial approach for tackling efficiently more complex and richer VRP, similar to real application cases.

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