Pasek, Matthew Adam
Phosphorus is a key element for life. This work reviews the role of phosphorus in life. Theories on the origin of life are confounded by a lack of reactive phosphorus, and attempts to overcome the dearth of reactive phosphorus must employ unrealistic phosphorus compounds, energetic organic compounds, or unusual physical conditions.Meteoritic schreibersite provided an abundant source of reactive phosphorus for the early Earth. Water corrodes schreibersite to form a mixed valence series of phosphorus compounds. Schreibersite corrosion was studied by a variety of techniques, including NMR, MS, XRD, and EPR. Reduced phosphorus in schreibersite corrodes through release of phosphite radicals which react with other radicals to form the phosphorus compounds observed. These radicals are also capable of phosphorylating simple organic compounds to form P-C and P-O-C linkages.The meteoritic mass flux was calculated using the mass frequency distribution of several meteorite collections. Much of the meteoritic mass that falls to the Earth is composed of metallic material which supplies abundant reactive phosphorus. Meteorites are a comparatively poorer source of carbon. Craters concentrate both reduced phosphorus and organic compounds through geomorphologic processes.Phosphorus and sulfur biochemistry are intricately linked in metabolism. The cosmochemistry of sulfur was studied in depth using changing C/O ratios, sulfide formation kinetics, and gas diffusion. The results have implications for meteorites, studies of Jupiter, and of protoplanetary disks.
Quantitative analysis of the deformational history and timing of the Sierra Madera impact structure, West TexasHuson, Sarah Ann. January 2009 (has links) (PDF)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Washington State University, May 2009. / Title from PDF title page (viewed on June 12, 2009). "School of Earth and Environmental Science." Includes bibliographical references.
Multi-element neutron activation analysis development and application to a trace element study of the Bruderheim chondrite /Allen, Ralph O. January 1970 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Wisconsin--Madison, 1970. / Typescript. Vita. eContent provider-neutral record in process. Description based on print version record. Includes bibliographical references.
Meteorites on Mars as Planetary Research Tools with Special Considerations for Martian Weathering ProcessesJanuary 2011 (has links)
abstract: The occurrence of exogenic, meteoritic materials on the surface of any world presents opportunities to explore a variety of significant problems in the planetary sciences. In the case of Mars, meteorites found on its surface may help to 1) constrain atmospheric conditions during their time of arrival; 2) provide insights into possible variabilities in meteoroid type sampling between Mars and Earth space environments; 3) aid in our understanding of soil, dust, and sedimentary rock chemistry; 4) assist with the calibration of crater-age dating techniques; and 5) provide witness samples for chemical and mechanical weathering processes. The presence of reduced metallic iron in approximately 88 percent of meteorite falls renders the majority of meteorites particularly sensitive to oxidation by H2O interaction. This makes them excellent markers for H2O occurrence. Several large meteorites have been discovered at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum by the Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs). Significant morphologic characteristics interpretable as weathering features in the Meridiani suite of iron meteorites include a 1) large pit lined with delicate iron protrusions suggestive of inclusion removal by corrosive interaction; 2) differentially eroded kamacite and taenite lamellae on three of the meteorites, providing relative timing through cross-cutting relationships with deposition of 3) an iron oxide-rich dark coating; and 4) regmaglypted surfaces testifying to regions of minimal surface modification; with other regions in the same meteorites exhibiting 5) large-scale, cavernous weathering. Iron meteorites found by Mini-TES at both Meridiani Planum and Gusev Crater have prompted laboratory experiments designed to explore elements of reflectivity, dust cover, and potential oxide coatings on their surfaces in the thermal infrared using analog samples. Results show that dust thickness on an iron substrate need be only one tenth as great as that on a silicate rock to obscure its infrared signal. In addition, a database of thermal emission spectra for 46 meteorites was prepared to aid in the on-going detection and interpretation of these valuable rocks on Mars using Mini-TES instruments on both MER spacecraft. Applications to the asteroidal sciences are also relevant and intended for this database. / Dissertation/Thesis / Ph.D. Geological Sciences 2011
Combined nanostructural and isotopic analysis of baddeleyite : new horizons in solar system chronologyWhite, Lee Francis January 2017 (has links)
Baddeleyite (monoclinic-ZrO2) is an exceptionally common accessory phase in many of the mafic and ultra-mafic rocks prevalent throughout the Solar System. This study presents the first ground-truthing efforts in the development of this robust mineral into a diagnostic indicator, discrete barometer, and precise U-Pb geochronometer of shock metamorphism by combining electron backscatter diffraction and atom probe tomography to generate unique chemical and structural datasets. Microstructural analysis of variably shocked baddeleyite grains around the Sudbury impact structure (Ontario, Canada) highlights a series of crystallographic structures that can be correlated with discrete variations in formative pressure-temperature conditions. Decompression at high temperatures generates a series of interlocking reversion twinned structures, while quenching forms a quasi-amorphous matrix. These features are comparable to those observed in extra-terrestrial samples, where they can be directly linked with the severity and extent of lead loss and age resetting. This finding facilitates the application of baddeleyite as a shock indicator, barometer (>5 GPa) and chronometer in a wide range of planetary materials. This structural variability is also observable on the nanometre scale. Analysis of the most highly shocked Sudbury baddeleyite using atom probe tomography reveals planar and curvi-planar fractures, trace element enriched subgrain boundaries, and solid-state diffusion clusters. These micrometre and nanometre scale features encourage localised diffusion of lead, with whole-microtip U-Pb analyses yielding complex partially reset ages. The application of atom probe tomography allows these features to be spatially resolved on the nanometre scale, yielding highly accurate ages for protolith crystallization and impact metamorphism within a single grain. These results have significant implications for the isotopic analysis of baddeleyite-bearing planetary materials, where the mechanisms of U-Pb age resetting have until now been poorly understood.
Klassisk och molekylärbiologisk bedömning av meteoriters biologi : En kort undersökning av vilka organismer som kan leva på meteoriter och hur släktskapen ser ut mellan dem / Classical and molecular biological evaluation of the biology on meteorites : A brief examination on which type of organisms on Earth that can colonize meteorites and the phylogenetic relationships among themOlsson, Jenny January 2017 (has links)
Meteorites were not acknowledged as truly extraterrestrial until in the 19th century. In this report, the ability of organisms to colonize meteorites was examined with classical and molecular biological methods. A table of organisms found on meteorites was constructed from published data and compared with phylogenetic trees based on a molecular biological database containing small subunit ribosomal gene sequences from different meteorite studies. Statistical analyzes between the southern and northern hemisphere were made using Mann-Whitney U test on the data in the table of organisms. Microbiological growth was also examined on the surface of four different meteorites from the desert of Oman. Twenty-one isolates were selected for further characterization of gram-properties, microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The table of organisms contains a wide variety of organisms associated with meteorites, e.g. angiosperms, lichens and different types of microorganisms. The phylogenetic trees for all three domains show that most gene sequences obtained from so far published studies belong to several different phyla. The FISH results of own experiments showed that 62 % of the 21 isolates belong to Actinobacteria, 9 % to Firmicutes and 5 % to Betaproteobacteria. The statistical analysis shows that there is no significant difference between the southern and the northern hemisphere. The number of studies is however too low to allow proper conclusions about correlations between meteorites and colonizing organisms, though the results so far suggest that organisms associated with meteorites often represent novel, unknown genera.
Mass dependent isotope fractionation of stable isotopes between meteorites and planetary materials has been used to assess processes that occurred during formation of Earth and its core. However, thus far little is known about the mass dependent isotope fractionation of Mo in the solar system, and at high temperatures in the Earth, in particular during mantle processes. Molybdenum is a refractory and moderately siderophile element. The processes that might have fractionated Mo in the early solar system include condensation and evaporation of dust grains, metal-silicate segregation, core crystallization, silicate and sulphide melting and aqueous alteration. In order to investigate the processes fractionating Mo isotopes, it is first necessary to assess how much fractionation takes place during mantle melting, estimate the isotopic composition of the bulk silicate Earth, and then make comparisons with primitive and differentiated meteorites. I present double spike Mo isotope data for forty-two mafic and seven ultramafic samples from diverse locations, and nineteen extra-terrestrial samples. The delta<sup>98/95</sup>Mo values of all the terrestrial samples (normalized to NIST SRM 3134) exhibit a significant range from +0.53±0.21 to -0.56±0.09‰. The compositions of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) (+0.03±0.07‰, 2s.d.) and ultramafic rocks (+0.38±0.15‰, 2 s.d.) are relatively uniform and well resolved, providing evidence of fractionation associated with partial melting. In contrast intraplate and ocean island basalts (OIBs) display significant variability within a single locality from MORB-like to strongly negative (-0.56‰). The most extreme values measured are for nephelinites from the Cameroon Line and Trinidade, which also have anomalously high Ce/Pb and low Mo/Ce relative to normal oceanic basalts. The observed relationships between delta<sup>98/95</sup>Mo and Ce/Pb, U/Pb and Mo/Ce provide evidence that sulphide plays a critical role in retaining Mo in the mantle and fractionating its isotopic composition in basaltic magmas. If residual sulphides are responsible the Mo isotopic composition, Mo budget of the bulk silicate Earth will be misrepresented by values estimated from basalts. On this basis a revised best estimate of the Mo content in the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) ranging between 251 to 268 ppb is derived, approximately 6 times higher than previously assumed, and similar to the levels of depletion in refractory siderophile elements such as W, Ni and Co. This significantly ameliorates the argument for Mo removal via late stage sulphide extraction to the core. The Mo isotopic composition of the BSE (0.35‰) is distinct from the delta<sup>98/95</sup>Mo values found in primitive and iron meteorites. Although Mo isotopic fractionation varies between different phases within a single iron meteorite, and occurs during fractional crystallization in asteroidal cores, most iron meteorites have ddelta<sup>98/95</sup>MoSRM3134 (-0.14 to -0.06‰) that are similar to ordinary and CI carbonaceous chondrite (-0.12 to -0.09‰). This range of delta<sup>98/95</sup>Moo is not only significantly lighter than the BSE, but also enstatite chondrites, which have delta<sup>98/95</sup>Mo values of 0.04 to 0.13‰. Several possible explanations are proposed. (A) Core-mantle differentiation fractionates Mo isotopes. The recently proposed Mo effect of sulphide liquid removal is likely to be minor because this should have generated a light Mo isotope composition for the BSE. However, isotopic fractionation associated with metal-silicate partitioning may be responsible for the heavy Mo in the BSE. (B) A distinct isotopic composition for the late material that contributed Mo to the BSE. Enstatite chondrites (or other putative groups of chondrites with a heavy Mo isotope composition) and sulphur-rich components form the cores of impacting bodies are the most likely candidates that could deliver heavy Mo to Earth. (C) The Mo isotopic composition of the Solar System is heterogeneous in a mass dependent fashion such that heavier Mo isotopes are enriched in the section of the disk from which Earth accreted. There are some difficulties behind each of these models and further work is needed to determine which is correct.
Prokaryotic Biodiversity of Lonar Meteorite Crater Soda Lake Sediment and Community Dynamics During Microenvironmental pH Homeostasis by MetagenomicsBiswas, Soumya 04 August 2016 (has links)
No description available.
Mowry, Jeremy Len,
Thesis (M.S.)--Mississippi State University. Department of Mechanical Engineering. / Title from title screen. Includes bibliographical references.
The Search for the Missing Mantles of Differentiated Asteroids: Evidence from Taxonomic A-class Asteroids and Olivine-Dominated Achondrite MeteoritesLucas, Michael Peter 01 January 2011 (has links)
The apparent rarity of taxonomic A-class asteroids poses a significant paradox for understanding asteroid differentiation and the dynamical evolution of the early solar system. Based on results from asteroid taxonomic surveys, and on the abundances and mineralogy of different achondrite meteorites, it appears that olivine-dominated mantle remnants are missing from both the asteroid population and in meteorite collections. Several scenarios to explain this paradox have been proposed: (1) olivine mantle material has been stripped away by collisions and only remains as small fragments (< ~5 km), (2) A-class asteroids are abundant but have been altered in some way masking their presence, or (3) differentiated asteroids did not form thick olivine-rich mantles. We have approached these questions through the collection of taxonomic and observational data on known A-class asteroids, and the geochemical characterization of olivine grains from pallasite and ureilite igneous meteorites. Examination of four taxonomic surveys reveals discrepancies in the classification of A-class objects. Recent data with spectral coverage to 2.45 μm have reclassified some asteroids previously thought to belong to the class. Data complied from these taxonomies reveal only 17 A-class asteroids out of ~2100 individual objects surveyed (<1%). Physical and orbital characteristics of A-class asteroids indicate that the majority are small (<13 km) collisional fragments that reside in orbits interior to, or within the inner main-belt. Photometric observations of five A-class asteroids obtained during this study have constrained the rotational periods of, 246 Asporina, 289 Nenetta, 446 Aeternitas, 1600 Vyssotsky, and the Mars-crossing asteroid 1951 Lick. Robust photometric data for 446 Aeternitas collected over three apparitions yielded a precise rotation period (15.737496 ± 0.000005 h) and a pole orientation of Β = 49º, and λ = 342º. A shape model produced from these data revealed that 446 Aeternitas has a distinctly angular shape suggestive of a collisional fragment. Olivine compositions between our pallasite meteorites span a narrow range (Fa10.5 - Fa13.4), while the ureilite olivine compositions, generally more fayalitic, display wide variations in the eight examined meteorites (Fa8.5 - Fa22.1). Major and trace element behavior in olivines from pallasite meteorites is consistent with a model of slow, in situ cooling and crystallization, allowing for near-equilibrium exchange between crystallizing olivines and coexisting silicate and FeNi melt, preserving near-uniform olivine major element compositions, and limited trace element variation. Trace element signatures of ureilite silicates (olivine and pigeonite) show large variations, consistent with residual solids from fractional melting processes. Ureilite olivines are uniformly more enriched in both compatible lithophile and siderophile elements (Ca, Li, Sc, V, Cr, Ni, and Mn) than pallasite olivines. corroborating models for ureilite petrogenesis as low-degree partial melting residues in the absence of an FeNi melt phase. Uniformity of elemental signatures among different pallasites point to a chemically homogeneous parent body.
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