• Refine Query
  • Source
  • Publication year
  • to
  • Language
  • 37
  • 30
  • 6
  • 2
  • 1
  • Tagged with
  • 98
  • 98
  • 39
  • 33
  • 31
  • 26
  • 25
  • 24
  • 22
  • 17
  • 15
  • 13
  • 12
  • 11
  • 11
  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Fermentation – Enhanced Sustainable Biological Phosphorus Removal

Yuan, Qiuyan 06 January 2012 (has links)
The success of enhanced biological phosphorus removal depends on the constant availability of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). To reduce costs of purchasing external carbon, waste streams would be a preferred source for nutrient removal. VFAs were shown to vary in the incoming sewage and fermentate from primary sludge (PS). Another available source of organic to generate VFAs is waste activated sludge (WAS). The effect of solids retention time and biomass concentration, as well as the effect of temperature and requirement for mixing on generation of VFA from the fermentation of WAS were investigated. It was found that VFA yields from sludge fermentation increased with SRT. At the longest SRT of 10 days improved biomass degradation resulted in the highest soluble to total COD ratio and the highest VFA yield. WAS fermentation was found highly temperature-dependent. The overall VFA–COD concentration in the non-mixed reactors was much lower than the mixed reactors. The study of fermentation of PS, WAS and a mixture of WAS and PS demonstrated that PS fermentation predictably generated a significantly higher amount of soluble COD than WAS. Co-fermentation of WAS with PS enhanced soluble COD production and increased the release of phosphate and ammonium. Fermentation of combined PS and WAS sludge generated a concentration of phosphate high enough to allow phosphorus recovery as struvite The effect of using glycerol as an external carbon source in biological phosphorus removal was investigated. Using glycerol directly resulted in the failure of the process which maintained enhanced biological phosphorus removal. When glycerol was co-fermented with waste activated sludge, significant VFA production was observed. By 2 | P a g e supplying the system with the VFA-enriched supernatant of the fermentate, biological phosphorus removal was enhanced. It was concluded that, if glycerol was to be used as external carbon source for biological phosphorous removal, the effective approach was to ferment glycerol with waste activated sludge. According to the cost analysis, the economic benefit of WAS fermentation can be demonstrated in three ways: 1) cost saving in external carbon addition; 2) cost saving in sludge handling; 3) revenue from phosphorus. At current condition, the value of the recovered P product is insignificant relative to the cost of chemicals that required for recovery and capital cost of the facilities. However, P recovery becomes important when the sustainability take into account.
2

Fermentation – Enhanced Sustainable Biological Phosphorus Removal

Yuan, Qiuyan 06 January 2012 (has links)
The success of enhanced biological phosphorus removal depends on the constant availability of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). To reduce costs of purchasing external carbon, waste streams would be a preferred source for nutrient removal. VFAs were shown to vary in the incoming sewage and fermentate from primary sludge (PS). Another available source of organic to generate VFAs is waste activated sludge (WAS). The effect of solids retention time and biomass concentration, as well as the effect of temperature and requirement for mixing on generation of VFA from the fermentation of WAS were investigated. It was found that VFA yields from sludge fermentation increased with SRT. At the longest SRT of 10 days improved biomass degradation resulted in the highest soluble to total COD ratio and the highest VFA yield. WAS fermentation was found highly temperature-dependent. The overall VFA–COD concentration in the non-mixed reactors was much lower than the mixed reactors. The study of fermentation of PS, WAS and a mixture of WAS and PS demonstrated that PS fermentation predictably generated a significantly higher amount of soluble COD than WAS. Co-fermentation of WAS with PS enhanced soluble COD production and increased the release of phosphate and ammonium. Fermentation of combined PS and WAS sludge generated a concentration of phosphate high enough to allow phosphorus recovery as struvite The effect of using glycerol as an external carbon source in biological phosphorus removal was investigated. Using glycerol directly resulted in the failure of the process which maintained enhanced biological phosphorus removal. When glycerol was co-fermented with waste activated sludge, significant VFA production was observed. By 2 | P a g e supplying the system with the VFA-enriched supernatant of the fermentate, biological phosphorus removal was enhanced. It was concluded that, if glycerol was to be used as external carbon source for biological phosphorous removal, the effective approach was to ferment glycerol with waste activated sludge. According to the cost analysis, the economic benefit of WAS fermentation can be demonstrated in three ways: 1) cost saving in external carbon addition; 2) cost saving in sludge handling; 3) revenue from phosphorus. At current condition, the value of the recovered P product is insignificant relative to the cost of chemicals that required for recovery and capital cost of the facilities. However, P recovery becomes important when the sustainability take into account.
3

Phosphorus removal by constructed wetlands : substratum adsorption

Mann, Robert A., University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury, Faculty of Science and Technology January 1996 (has links)
The phosphorus removal characteristics of several gravel-based constructed wetland systems (CWSs) in the treatment of secondary sewage effluent was studied.Investigations were conducted on water quality parameters (redox potential, pH, dissolved oxygen and temperature) which affect phosphorus adsorption to substrata.Laboratory phosphorus adsorption experiments on Richmond CWS gravel substrata, a gravel used in Griffith CWS trials and a locally available soil, Hawkesbury sandstone, involved ion-exchange experiments and calculation of Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and column adsorption/desorption trials.Six steelworks by-products were investigated in laboratory studies, to determine their potential for use as phosphorus adsorbers in a CWS: granulated blast furnace slag(GBF), blast furnace slag(BF), steel slag(SS), fly ash(FA), bottom ash(BA) and coal wash(CW).The ability to adsorb phosphorus was then correlated to the chemical attributes of each substratum.Of the six steelworks by-products screened in laboratory-based studies as substrata for P removal in a CWS, BF and SS slags showed the most potential due to their high phosphorus adsorption capacity and useable matrix size.Further research is recommended to evaluate the sustainability of using slags for P removal (as well as other contaminants present in wastewater), using full scale CWSs, which should include an evaluation of any likely environmental impacts using leachability and toxicity studies. / Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)(Environmental Science)
4

Investigation of effect of dynamic operational conditions on membrane fouling in a membrane enhanced biological phosphorus removal process

Abdullah, Syed 05 1900 (has links)
The membrane bioreactor (MBR) is becoming increasingly popular for wastewater treatment, mainly due to its capability of producing high quality effluent with a relatively small footprint. However, high plant maintenance and operating costs due to membrane fouling limit the wide spread application of MBRs. Membrane fouling generally depends on the interactions between the membrane and, the activated sludge mixed liquor, which in turn, are affected by the chosen operating conditions. The present research study aimed to explore the process performance and membrane fouling in the membrane enhanced biological phosphorus removal (MEBPR) process under different operating conditions by, (1) comparing two MEBPRs operated in parallel, one with constant inflow and another with a variable inflow, and by, (2) operating the MEBPRs with different solids retention times (SRT). On-line filtration experiments were conducted simultaneously in both MEBPR systems by using test membrane modules. From the transmembrane pressure (TMP) data of the test membrane modules, it was revealed that fouling propensities of the MEBPR mixed liquors were similar in both parallel reactors under the operating conditions applied, although the fouling propensity of the aerobic mixed liquors of both reactors increased when the SRT of the reactors was reduced. Routinely monitored reactor performance data suggest that an MEBPR process with a varying inflow (dynamic operating condition) performs similarly to an MEBPR process with steady operating conditions at SRTs of 10 days and 20 days. Mixed liquor characterization tests were conducted, including critical flux, capillary suction time (CST), time to filter (TTF) and, bound and soluble extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were quantified, to evaluate their role on membrane fouling. The tests results suggest that the inflow variation in an MEBPR process did not make a significant difference in any of the measured parameters. With decreased SRT, an increase in the concentrations of EPS was observed, especially the bound protein, and the bound and soluble humic-like substances. This suggests that these components of activated sludge mixed liquors may be related to membrane fouling. No clear relationship was observed between membrane fouling and other measured parameters, including critical flux, normalized CST and normalized TTF.
5

Investigation of effect of dynamic operational conditions on membrane fouling in a membrane enhanced biological phosphorus removal process

Abdullah, Syed 05 1900 (has links)
The membrane bioreactor (MBR) is becoming increasingly popular for wastewater treatment, mainly due to its capability of producing high quality effluent with a relatively small footprint. However, high plant maintenance and operating costs due to membrane fouling limit the wide spread application of MBRs. Membrane fouling generally depends on the interactions between the membrane and, the activated sludge mixed liquor, which in turn, are affected by the chosen operating conditions. The present research study aimed to explore the process performance and membrane fouling in the membrane enhanced biological phosphorus removal (MEBPR) process under different operating conditions by, (1) comparing two MEBPRs operated in parallel, one with constant inflow and another with a variable inflow, and by, (2) operating the MEBPRs with different solids retention times (SRT). On-line filtration experiments were conducted simultaneously in both MEBPR systems by using test membrane modules. From the transmembrane pressure (TMP) data of the test membrane modules, it was revealed that fouling propensities of the MEBPR mixed liquors were similar in both parallel reactors under the operating conditions applied, although the fouling propensity of the aerobic mixed liquors of both reactors increased when the SRT of the reactors was reduced. Routinely monitored reactor performance data suggest that an MEBPR process with a varying inflow (dynamic operating condition) performs similarly to an MEBPR process with steady operating conditions at SRTs of 10 days and 20 days. Mixed liquor characterization tests were conducted, including critical flux, capillary suction time (CST), time to filter (TTF) and, bound and soluble extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were quantified, to evaluate their role on membrane fouling. The tests results suggest that the inflow variation in an MEBPR process did not make a significant difference in any of the measured parameters. With decreased SRT, an increase in the concentrations of EPS was observed, especially the bound protein, and the bound and soluble humic-like substances. This suggests that these components of activated sludge mixed liquors may be related to membrane fouling. No clear relationship was observed between membrane fouling and other measured parameters, including critical flux, normalized CST and normalized TTF.
6

Investigation of effect of dynamic operational conditions on membrane fouling in a membrane enhanced biological phosphorus removal process

Abdullah, Syed Zaki 05 1900 (has links)
The membrane bioreactor (MBR) is becoming increasingly popular for wastewater treatment, mainly due to its capability of producing high quality effluent with a relatively small footprint. However, high plant maintenance and operating costs due to membrane fouling limit the wide spread application of MBRs. Membrane fouling generally depends on the interactions between the membrane and, the activated sludge mixed liquor, which in turn, are affected by the chosen operating conditions. The present research study aimed to explore the process performance and membrane fouling in the membrane enhanced biological phosphorus removal (MEBPR) process under different operating conditions by, (1) comparing two MEBPRs operated in parallel, one with constant inflow and another with a variable inflow, and by, (2) operating the MEBPRs with different solids retention times (SRT). On-line filtration experiments were conducted simultaneously in both MEBPR systems by using test membrane modules. From the transmembrane pressure (TMP) data of the test membrane modules, it was revealed that fouling propensities of the MEBPR mixed liquors were similar in both parallel reactors under the operating conditions applied, although the fouling propensity of the aerobic mixed liquors of both reactors increased when the SRT of the reactors was reduced. Routinely monitored reactor performance data suggest that an MEBPR process with a varying inflow (dynamic operating condition) performs similarly to an MEBPR process with steady operating conditions at SRTs of 10 days and 20 days. Mixed liquor characterization tests were conducted, including critical flux, capillary suction time (CST), time to filter (TTF) and, bound and soluble extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were quantified, to evaluate their role on membrane fouling. The tests results suggest that the inflow variation in an MEBPR process did not make a significant difference in any of the measured parameters. With decreased SRT, an increase in the concentrations of EPS was observed, especially the bound protein, and the bound and soluble humic-like substances. This suggests that these components of activated sludge mixed liquors may be related to membrane fouling. No clear relationship was observed between membrane fouling and other measured parameters, including critical flux, normalized CST and normalized TTF. / Applied Science, Faculty of / Civil Engineering, Department of / Graduate
7

Improving settleability and achieving biological phosphorus removal through the application of sidestream gravimetric selectors

Welling, Claire Marie 21 December 2015 (has links)
This project utilizes hydrocyclones in wastewater treatment to select for heavier solids, and has been used before in multiple small-scale systems. This is the first implementation of hydrocyclones in a full-scale plant for the purpose of increased settleability, while also achieving enhanced biological phosphorus removal without the use of an anaerobic selector. Hydrocyclones receive mixed liquor tangentially and separate light solids from more dense solids through their tapered shape, increasing the velocity of liquid as it moves downward and allowing for selection of a certain solids fraction. The hydrocyclones receive flow from the waste stream, selecting for dense solids to recycle through the process while light solids are wasted, creating a balance of granules and flocs with superior settling characteristics in which phosphorus is removed through phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAO). This project was implemented at a wastewater treatment plant rated at 20 MGD utilizing a 4-stage Bardenpho configuration with an IFAS system. This plant routinely experienced moderate settleability issues with an average SVI of 141 and a 90th percentile SVI of 179. Over time data was collected to characterize settleability and activity of PAO, GAO, and filaments. Using an external selector to achieve biological phosphorus is significant in that most wastewater treatment plants cannot do this without the use of an anaerobic selector. This has the potential to apply external selectors to existing infrastructure throughout plants worldwide to achieve not only biological phosphorus removal, but also improved settleability with a very minor capital investment. / Master of Science
8

Natural wetlands as additional wastewater treatment for phosphorus removal in First Nations communities in Manitoba

Karpisek, Vanja 13 January 2017 (has links)
At least 60% of First Nation communities in Manitoba, including the Lake Manitoba First Nation, are in wetland areas.47% of First Nations communities in Manitoba served by facultative lagoons failed to achieve the total phosphorus (TP) concentration of 1 mg/L in proposed regulations for effluent discharge into the environment. The Lake Manitoba First Nation community facultative lagoon system treats domestic wastewater and seasonally discharges effluent into a wetland that connects to Lake Manitoba. This research was performed to estimate phosphorus removal efficiency through the natural wetland during the vegetation growing season.The average TP concentration reduction utilizing the natural treatment area of 1.3 ha was more than 70%, achieving the desired total phosphorus below 1 mg/L.These short-term study results indicate the potential of natural wetland treatment applications under cold continental climate conditions, as an effluent polishing step to satisfy regulatory requirements for phosphorus reduction in smaller First Nations communities. / February 2017
9

Improving understanding of the chemical and biological nutrient removal mechanisms in existing wastewater lagoons

Vendramelli, Richard Adam 24 June 2016 (has links)
Many rural communities in Manitoba use wastewater lagoons to treat sewage, but the nutrient removal process is not fully understood. This thesis’ purpose is to improve understanding of chemical and biological nutrient removal mechanisms of wastewater lagoon treatment and compare two different stabilization ponds – one aerated and one facultative. Samples were collected from stabilization ponds and analysed for a pond average. The facultative lagoon achieved overall ammonia-N removals similar to those of the aerated lagoon, and lower orthophosphate removals. Nitrogen appears to be removed by ammonia volatilization; and assimilation into biomass. Phosphorus appears to be removed by assimilation into biomass; and precipitation at alkaline pH. There appears to be nitrogen limiting conditions in the secondary cells of both stabilization systems based on nitrogen-phosphorus ratios. There does not appear to be any significant advantage between aerated or facultative lagoons; they will meet their ammonia limits, but will require additional phosphorus treatment. / October 2016
10

Raman spectroscopy as a tool to improve Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal

Cope, Helen Anne January 2016 (has links)
Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) is an established process in wastewater treatment that uses bacteria to reduce phosphorus levels below regulatory discharge limits. Recently, in light of growing political concern over phosphorus sustainability, EBPR has also been recognised as a platform from which phosphorus may be recovered and recycled onto land as fertiliser. Operating EBPR to optimise performance and efficiency is therefore extremely important, but remains a challenge due to poor understanding of these bacterial ecosystems. Raman spectroscopy is a non-invasive, label-free, culture-independent technique capable of analysing live, single cells. Despite its advantages, Raman spectroscopy has been applied to study EBPR bacteria in just a handful of studies and thus has a low profile in this field of research. More work is required to investigate potential areas of application for Raman spectroscopy in EBPR research. The principal thesis presented here is that Raman spectroscopy could be used as a tool to improve EBPR. The Raman spectra used for this investigation were acquired from individual EBPR bacteria dried onto a calcium fluoride substrate. The bacterial samples were collected from three different sources, namely lab-scale sequencing batch reactors located in Edinburgh (University of Edinburgh, UK) and Boston (Northeastern University, USA), and a full-scale EBPR plant in Slough (Thames Water, UK). Using these spectra, some potential applications and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for improving EBPR were explored. In this foundation work, a particular emphasis on spectral analysis methods was kept in light of the benefits of automating analysis as well as the need for standardisation to be able to compare results between different studies and groups. Nine methods were compared for baselining Raman spectra of individual EBPR bacteria. From these, the “small-window moving average” (SWiMA) method was determined to be the best baselining technique for our purposes at the current time. In agreement with earlier studies, the Raman spectroscopic signatures of three key EBPR metabolites – polyphosphate, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and glycogen – were shown to be clearly identifiable in individual EBPR bacteria when present. The Raman shifts of characteristic spectral bands arising from polyphosphate were shown to vary significantly between samples and the implications of this were discussed. Examples of how the Raman spectra of individual bacteria can be modelled with multivariate tools to open up new areas for research were given. MCR modelling was demonstrated to offer a novel way to normalise the Raman spectra of individual EBPR bacteria prior to quantitative analysis. With the instrumental set-up in this work, the limit of detection (LOD) of aqueous polyphosphate samples was estimated to be approximately 0.08 M and 0.02 M for 10 second and 200 second acquisitions respectively. Future work is required to research ways in which a more comparable form of polyphosphate ‘standard’ might be prepared so that direct correlation can be drawn between measurements made on such a standard and measurements made in bacterial cells. Overall, several applications and challenges of Raman spectroscopy for the investigation of EBPR bacteria are presented in this work together with recommendation for how to process the spectral data. The conclusions drawn from this work indicate that Raman spectroscopy could be used as a tool to improve EBPR but further work is required to refine and apply these methods.

Page generated in 0.0698 seconds