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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

State capitalism and the agricultural sector : aspects of political and economic development of Algeria, 1962-1982

al-Heeti, Abd al-Majeed N. Mahmod January 1987 (has links)
This thesis aims to examine some aspects of Algerian state capitalism and to situate it within a theoretical context derived from similar experiences in the Third World. The main emphasis has been placed on the state's policies towards agriculture, the most socially, economically, and politically important sector in Algerian society. The thesis looks at state capitalism in general as a transitional phase which, although involving approaches identified by some writers as 'socialist', leads ultimately to the development of 'conventional' capitalism. Algeria is viewed as a country which, despite having had the opportunity to erase much of its past and to reconstruct its economy on entirely new lines, has ended up developing according to capitalist laws. This development is traced to the nature of the socio-political forces that took over the leadership of the anti-colonial struggle and subsequently of the Algerian state. The analysis extends to include various aspects of the National Liberation Movement under colonialism and its development after independence. The thesis then describes the main characteristics of the economy immediately before and after independence and the major steps taken towards social and economic reconstruction. The state's agrarian policies are considered in the context of the social and political objectives of the ruling strata. These include attitudes to the self-management movement as a whole and in agriculture in particular, and the various measures of agrarian reform applied in the private sector. The reform is viewed as an essential precondition of the full incorporation of the agricultural sector into the state capitalist economy.

The state, capital and the oil industry : with special reference to Britain and Norway

Bromley, Simon January 1987 (has links)
No description available.

The politics of wage reform in post-revolutionary China

Takahara, Akio January 1988 (has links)
No description available.

Does support for democracy matter? : a cross-national study of regime preferences and system change

Claassen, Christopher Bruce Phillips January 2004 (has links)
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 54-55). / Using survey data from the third World Values Survey and democracy scores from Freedom House, I outline and test a supply and demand model of democratic change and stability. While "support for democracy" is a common concept in political science, the only empirical studies of the relationship between these regime preferences and democracy (Inglehart, 2003; Inglehart & Welzel, 2003; Welzel, Inglehart and Klingemann 2003) do not control for reciprocal causation and use poorly conceptualised and measured variables. They claim that deeply-rooted cultural orientations called "self-expression values" are a better measure of implicit support for democracy than overt expressions of regime preference. However, I find that once I control for the possibility that democracy is exogenous, there is little difference between the explanatory power of cultural values versus overtly expressed preferences. Furthermore, I argue that popular regime preferences (or demand) affect the change in the level of democracy, but do so only in relation to its current supply. "Net demand" is the driver of system change rather than absolute levels of popular support for democracy.

Destabilisation and SADCC : the politics and economics of economic integration

Chingambo, Chanda Lloyd John January 1990 (has links)
No description available.

On the Economics and Politics of Mobility

Karadja, Mounir January 2016 (has links)
Exit, Voice and Political Change: Evidence from Swedish Mass Migration to the United States. During the Age of Mass Migration, 30 million Europeans immigrated to the United States. We study the long-term political effects of this large-scale migration episode on origin communities using detailed historical data from Sweden. To instrument for emigration, we exploit severe local frost shocks that sparked an initial wave of emigration, interacted with within-country travel costs. Because Swedish emigration was highly path dependent, the initial shocks strongly predict total emigration over 50 years. Our estimates show that emigration substantially increased membership in local labor organizations, the strongest political opposition groups at the time. Furthermore, emigration caused greater strike participation, and mobilized voter turnout and support for left-wing parties in national elections. Emigration also had formal political effects, as measured by welfare expenditures and adoption of inclusive political institutions. Together, our findings indicate that large-scale emigration can achieve long-lasting effects on the political equilibrium in origin communities. Mass Migration and Technological Innovation at the Origin. This essay studies the effects of migration on technological innovations in origin communities. Using historical data from Sweden, we find that large-scale emigration caused a long-run increase in patent innovations in origin municipalities. Our IV estimate shows that a ten percent increase in emigration entails a 7 percent increase in a muncipality’s number of patents. Weighting patents by a measure of their economic value, the positive effects are further increased. Discussing possible mechanisms, we suggest that low skilled labor scarcity may be an explanation for these results.  Richer (and Holier) Than Thou? The Impact of Relative Income Improvements on Demand for Redistribution. We use a tailor-made survey on a Swedish sample to investigate how individuals' relative income affects their demand for redistribution. We first document that a majority misperceive their position in the income distribution and believe that they are poorer, relative to others, than they actually are. We then inform a subsample about their true relative income, and find that individuals who are richer than they initially thought demand less redistribution. This result is driven by individuals with prior right-of-center political preferences who view taxes as distortive and believe that effort, rather than luck, drives individual economic success. Wealth, home ownership and mobility. Rent controls on housing have long been thought to reduce labor mobility and allocative efficiency. We study a policy that allowed renters to purchase their rent-controlled apartments at below market prices, and examine the effects of home ownership and wealth on mobility. Treated individuals have a substantially higher likelihood of moving to a new home in a given year. The effect corresponds to a 30 percent increase from the control group mean. The size of the wealth shock predicts lower mobility, while the positive average effect can be explained by tenants switching from the previous rent-controlled system to market-priced condominiums. By contrast, we do not find that the increase in residential mobility leads to a greater probability of moving to a new place of work.

Essays on economics of information and incentives

Redlicki, Jakub January 2017 (has links)
The first chapter addresses a common presumption in organisational design that employees should not be given discretion about performance measures when offered performance pay. The concern is that they would make a self-serving choice, for example, one that allows them to boost their apparent performance by working on tasks which they find easy but bring little benefit to the company. I investigate this problem in a model in which the principal decides whether to delegate the choice of performance measure to an agent who is privately informed about the degree of substitutability of his effort on different tasks. I show that when the principal is using menus of contracts as a screening device, allowing the agent to choose his performance measure privately - and possibly in a self-serving way - can alleviate the problem of hidden information. Consequently, delegating the choice of performance measure can be complementary to provision of incentives and may increase the principal's payoff. The second chapter analyses the incentives of authoritarian regimes to manipulate information by adding noise to the citizens' information, which is a tactic that is increasingly common in the real world. I consider a global games model in which a regime controls the amount of noise in the citizens' private information and is overthrown if enough citizens attack it. The analysis sheds light on recent findings in political science which show that the Chinese regime uses censorship to prevent collective action rather than criticism of the state per se, and that it employs social media commentators to distract the citizens rather than to persuade them. I show that the better the citizens are informed about the regime, the more its incentives to add noise are driven by the criticism of the state rather than by the need to minimise the size of collective attacks. Furthermore, the incentives to add noise may become stronger if citizens' better coordination comes at the cost of impeded information aggregation. The third chapter, which is co-authored with Bartosz Redlicki (University of Cambridge), studies a game between a biased sender (an interest group) and a decision maker (a policy maker) where the former can falsify scientific evidence at a cost. The sender observes scientific evidence and knows that it will also be observed by the decision maker unless he falsifies it. If he falsifies, then there is a chance that the decision maker observes the falsified evidence rather than the true scientific evidence. First, we investigate the decision maker's incentives to privately acquire independent evidence, which not only provides additional information to her but can also strengthen or weaken the sender's falsification effort. We characterise the circumstances under which the benefit from the additional information is boosted, unaffected, dampened, and fully offset by the adjustment in the sender's falsification strategy. Second, we analyse the decision maker's incentives to acquire information from the sender. We show that she may be better off by committing to pay less than full attention to the sender as this can discourage falsification.

The Political-Economic and Demographic Causes of Metropolitan Income Inequality and Its Components

Chen, XI 2009 May 1900 (has links)
This research project examines variations in inequality in individual earned incomes across U.S. metropolitan areas. The main analysis includes thirteen explanatory variables from three major perspectives - the political economy perspective, the demand-side perspective and the labor force supply-side perspective. In addition, I applied path models to explain causalities between some independent variables and used the decomposition of the Theil index to show the between-group effects. The results indicate that most demand-side and supply-side factors significantly contribute to variances in metropolitan income inequalities, while the impact of political economic factors are very limited. The paper is organized in the following manner: Chapter I is the introduction; Chapter II reviews literature focusing on the level of earning inequality and its predictors; Chapter III describes data and measures of variables; Chapter IV introduces statistical methods (including OLS regression model, path analysis, and decomposition of the Theil index); Chapter V presents the results of OLS regression model and its explanations; Chapter VI explains path analysis and decomposition analysis and their results; and finally, Chapter VII discusses the current research project and its implications for future studies.

Essays on Applied Economics

Saberianranjbar, Fatemeh 23 April 2018 (has links)
Chapter 1. In the 1970s, competition policy in the United States banking sector changed from exempting competition to liberalization and deregulation. Competition not only plays an important role in allocational efficiency but it is also essential for long-term economic growth. This chapter develops a model of banking contributions to evaluate to what extent banks affect the level of competition in the banking sector, and tests the model's predictions using a novel detailed dataset which includes all contributions made by banks from 1993 to 2010 in the United States. Controlling for banks' characteristics, the results are consistent with the model's predictions and show show that a higher level of contributions increases the Lerner index (as a measure of competition) or in the other words, decreases the level of competition. Chapter 2. This chapter provides the first empirical evidence that market structure affects the electoral power of firms as special interest groups. Firms not only affect the election outcomes by making contributions to their preferred candidates, they also enforce social norms among their members by encouraging them to vote for the candidate with the most closely-aligned interests. This chapter uses a linear probability model to analyze 574 open-seat races for the House of Representatives in the United States between 1990 and 2014. The results show that, even when controlling for the total value of contributions made to a candidate, political donations made by firms with high market power have a positive effect on the candidates' probability of winning. The findings are consistent with the idea from collective action theory that concentrated industries are more likely to behave as an organized interest group to advance their interests. Chapter 3. Ethnic heterogeneity is an important factor in the formation of human sexual network and the prevalence of STDs. Racial and ethnic ties create closed social networks with rigid in-group boundaries and hampers the intra-group dissemination of information. Slow information flow among groups facilitates the spread of STDs by encouraging individuals to ethnically diversify their sexual partners in order to lower the chance of getting caught cheating. Analyzing a cross-province sample of 39,830 sexually active adults driven from the 2013-2014 Canadian Community Health Survey, we find that individuals who live in a highly ethnically diversified neighbourhood are more susceptible to STDs compared to ones who live in a ethnically homogenous neighbourhood. Evidence from several robustness checks suggests that the relationship is causal.

On the Move : Essays on the Economic and Political Development of Sweden

Prawitz, Erik January 2017 (has links)
This thesis consists of four self-contained essays in economics. Their abstracts are presented below: Exit, Voice and Political Change: Evidence from Swedish Mass Migration to the United States. We study the political effects of mass emigration to the United States in the 19th century using data from Sweden. To instrument for total emigration over several decades, we exploit severe local frost shocks that sparked an initial wave of emigration, interacted with within-country travel costs. Our estimates show that emigration substantially increased the local demand for political change, as measured by labor movement membership, strike participation and voting. Emigration also led to de facto political change, increasing welfare expenditures as well as the likelihood of adopting more inclusive political institutions. Mass Migration, Cheap Labor, and Innovation. Migration is often depicted as a major problem for struggling developing countries, as they may lose valuable workers and human capital. Yet, its effects on sending regions are ambiguous and depend crucially on local market responses and migrant selection. This paper studies the effects of migration on technological innovation in sending communities during one of the largest migration episodes in human history: the Age of Mass Migration (1850-1913). Using novel historical data on Sweden, where about a quarter of its population migrated, we find that migration caused an increase in technological patents in sending municipalities. To establish causality, we use an instrumental variable design that exploits severe local growing season frost shocks together with within-country travel costs to reach an emigration port. Exploring possible mechanisms, we suggest that increased labor costs, due to low-skilled emigration, induced technological innovation.                                                    On the Right Track: Railroads, Mobility and Innovation During Two Centuries. We study the construction of the 19th-century Swedish railroad network and estimate its effects on innovation during two centuries. To address endogenous placement of the network, our analysis exploits the fact that the main trunk lines were built with the overarching aim to connect particular city centers, while at the same time considering construction costs. Estimates show that innovative activities increased substantially in areas traversed by the railroads. The number of active innovators increased and, moreover, they became more productive. Exploring potential mechanisms, we highlight the importance of knowledge diffusion across space by studying spatial patterns of collaboration between innovators. Our analysis shows that innovators residing in areas connected by the railroad start to collaborate more and over longer distances, especially with other innovators located along the railroad network. Finally, we show that the differences in innovative activities were intensified over the 20th century. Areas traversed by the historical railroads exhibit much higher rates of innovation in the present day.                           Homeownership, Housing Wealth and Socioeconomic Outcomes: Evidence from Sweden 1999-2007. This paper studies a government supported homeownership wave in Sweden, where tenants bought their apartments at prices below the market value in the ownership market. Using detailed administrative register data paired with a difference-in-differences strategy, it compares individuals subject to an ownership transfer to similar individuals who never got the opportunity to buy their homes. After establishing that the new homeowners instantly increased their net wealth, the effects of homeownership and housing wealth on a set of socioeconomic outcomes are measured over time. Although the lump-sum transfer is large, the average individual only modestly adjusts her behavior in terms of labor market participation and demographic decision-making. Studying differences across age, younger tenants increase childbearing and decrease labor income, although modestly. Individuals near their retirement age decrease their labor market participation.

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