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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

DESIGN OF ALU AND DUAL PORT SRAM CELLS FOR IMPLEMENTATION IN RISC BASED PROCESSING ELEMENTS

VAGHEESWAR, V. SATHYA January 2003 (has links)
No description available.
2

Concurrent Telemetry Processing Techniques

Clark, Jerry 10 1900 (has links)
International Telemetering Conference Proceedings / October 28-31, 1996 / Town and Country Hotel and Convention Center, San Diego, California / Improved processing techniques, particularly with respect to parallel computing, are the underlying focus in computer science, engineering, and industry today. Semiconductor technology is fast approaching device physical limitations. Further advances in computing performance in the near future will be realized by improved problem-solving approaches. An important issue in parallel processing is how to effectively utilize parallel computers. It is estimated that many modern supercomputers and parallel processors deliver only ten percent or less of their peak performance potential in a variety of applications. Yet, high performance is precisely why engineers build complex parallel machines. Cumulative performance losses occur due to mismatches between applications, software, and hardware. For instance, a communication system's network bandwidth may not correspond to the central processor speed or to module memory. Similarly, as Internet bandwidth is consumed by modern multimedia applications, network interconnection is becoming a major concern. Bottlenecks in a distributed environment are caused by network interconnections and can be minimized by intelligently assigning processing tasks to processing elements (PEs). Processing speeds are improved when architectures are customized for a given algorithm. Parallel processing techniques have been ineffective in most practical systems. The coupling of algorithms to architectures has generally been problematic and inefficient. Specific architectures have evolved to address the prospective processing improvements promised by parallel processing. Real performance gains will be realized when sequential algorithms are efficiently mapped to parallel architectures. Transforming sequential algorithms to parallel representations utilizing linear dependence vector mapping and subsequently configuring the interconnection network of a systolic array will be discussed in this paper as one possible approach for improved algorithm/architecture symbiosis.
3

Off-chip Communications Architectures For High Throughput Network Processors

Engel, Jacob 01 January 2005 (has links)
In this work, we present off-chip communications architectures for line cards to increase the throughput of the currently used memory system. In recent years there is a significant increase in memory bandwidth demand on line cards as a result of higher line rates, an increase in deep packet inspection operations and an unstoppable expansion in lookup tables. As line-rate data and NPU processing power increase, memory access time becomes the main system bottleneck during data store/retrieve operations. The growing demand for memory bandwidth contrasts the notion of indirect interconnect methodologies. Moreover, solutions to the memory bandwidth bottleneck are limited by physical constraints such as area and NPU I/O pins. Therefore, indirect interconnects are replaced with direct, packet-based networks such as mesh, torus or k-ary n-cubes. We investigate multiple k-ary n-cube based interconnects and propose two variations of 2-ary 3-cube interconnect called the 3D-bus and 3D-mesh. All of the k-ary n-cube interconnects include multiple, highly efficient techniques to route, switch, and control packet flows in order to minimize congestion spots and packet loss. We explore the tradeoffs between implementation constraints and performance. We also developed an event-driven, interconnect simulation framework to evaluate the performance of packet-based off-chip k-ary n-cube interconnect architectures for line cards. The simulator uses the state-of-the-art software design techniques to provide the user with a flexible yet robust tool, that can emulate multiple interconnect architectures under non-uniform traffic patterns. Moreover, the simulator offers the user with full control over network parameters, performance enhancing features and simulation time frames that make the platform as identical as possible to the real line card physical and functional properties. By using our network simulator, we reveal the best processor-memory configuration, out of multiple configurations, that achieves optimal performance. Moreover, we explore how network enhancement techniques such as virtual channels and sub-channeling improve network latency and throughput. Our performance results show that k-ary n-cube topologies, and especially our modified version of 2-ary 3-cube interconnect - the 3D-mesh, significantly outperform existing line card interconnects and are able to sustain higher traffic loads. The flow control mechanism proved to extensively reduce hot-spots, load-balance areas of high traffic rate and achieve low transmission failure rate. Moreover, it can scale to adopt more memories and/or processors and as a result to increase the line card's processing power.
4

Interfaces parametrizáveis para aplicações interconectadas por uma rede-em-chip / Configurable interfaces for applications interconnected by a network-on-chip

Matos, Débora da Silva Motta January 2010 (has links)
As redes-em-chip (NoCs) surgiram como uma alternativa aos atuais problemas de interconexão decorrentes da redução da escala de tecnologia de fabricação de circuitos integrados. O desenvolvimento de transistores com nanômetros de largura tem permitido a inserção de sistemas altamente complexos em uma única pastilha de silício. Dessa forma, os SoCs (Systems-on-Chip) passaram a constituir inúmeros elementos de processamentos (EPs) e as NoCs têm se apresentado como uma opção eficiente no provimento da interconexão dos mesmos, permitindo maior escalabilidade e paralelismo ao sistema. No entanto, esta conexão não é realizada de forma direta. Todo sistema conectado por uma NoC necessita de interfaces de rede (NIs) para intermediar a conexão dos elementos de processamento aos roteadores da rede. O objetivo desse trabalho é apresentar soluções arquiteturais de interfaces de rede para NoCs que atendam diferentes aplicações de forma genérica. Neste trabalho foram desenvolvidas interfaces de redes reutilizáveis e parametrizáveis, e para atender a estas características, as interfaces de rede possibilitam a configuração de diversos parâmetros arquiteturais, como largura da palavra de dados dos EPs, profundidade das FIFOs das interfaces, profundidade das FIFOs da NoC e largura de dados da rede, possibilitando prover a interconexão de qualquer aplicação com um mínimo de reprojeto. As interfaces de rede, juntamente com a NoC, são responsáveis pelo desempenho da comunicação da aplicação e, para isso, o projeto de uma NI deve ser capaz de atender aos requisitos do sistema, por isso, a importância de se obter um projeto de NIs flexível. Para validar as arquiteturas das NIs desenvolvidas, os módulos do decodificador de vídeo no contexto do padrão H.264 foram conectados à NoC através das interfaces projetadas. A partir dessa implementação, puderam-se levantar diversas necessidades que devem ser atendidas pelas NIs. Por fim, foram analisados os resultados de síntese das NIs para diferentes configurações. Também foram verificados os resultados de síntese e desempenho do decodificador de vídeo H.264 conectado pelas NIs à NoC. Com relação aos resultados de síntese em FPGA, a implementação do decodificador de vídeo com NoC e NIs não apresentou um grande aumento em área quando comparada a implementação com conexão ponto-a-ponto. Além disso, para diferentes configurações das NIs, a NoC pode ser utilizada atendendo aos requisitos de desempenho exigidos pela aplicação, sem a necessidade de operar na sua máxima taxa de operação para a resolução QCIF. / Networks-on-Chip (NoCs) have emerged as an alternative to the current interconnection problems arising from the scaling technology for manufacturing integrated circuits. The development of transistors with nanometer-wide has enabled the integration of highly complex systems on a single silicon wafer. Thus, SoCs (Systemson- Chip) have integrated numerous processing elements (EPs) and NoCs have been presented as an effective option in providing the interconnection of these elements, allowing scalability and parallelism to the system. However, this connection is not done directly. Every system connected by NoC needs network interfaces to intermediate the connection of processing elements to network routers. The goal of this thesis is to present architectural solutions for network interfaces for applications in general. In this work we developed a generic, reusable and configurable network interface. The proposed network interface enables the configuration of several architectural parameters, such as data width of the packets, FIFOs depth of the interfaces, FIFO depth and data width of the NoC, and thus, being able to provide the interconnection of any application with a minimal redesign. Network interfaces, together with the NoC, are responsible for application performance and, therefore, the design of an NI should be able to support the system requirements. To validate the architecture of developed NI, the modules of H.264 decoder were connected to NoC through designed interface. From this implementation, one could raise several needs that must be supported by the NIs. Finally, we analyzed the results of synthesis of the NIs for different configurations. It was also analyzed the results of synthesis and performance of H.264 video decoder connected by NIs to NoC. According to results for FPGA synthesis, the implementation of video decoder with NoC and NIs did not show a large increase in area when compared with the implementation of peer-to-peer. Moreover, for different configurations, the NoC can be used according to time requisitions required by the application, without the need to operate at its maximum operation frequency for QCIF resolution.
5

Interfaces parametrizáveis para aplicações interconectadas por uma rede-em-chip / Configurable interfaces for applications interconnected by a network-on-chip

Matos, Débora da Silva Motta January 2010 (has links)
As redes-em-chip (NoCs) surgiram como uma alternativa aos atuais problemas de interconexão decorrentes da redução da escala de tecnologia de fabricação de circuitos integrados. O desenvolvimento de transistores com nanômetros de largura tem permitido a inserção de sistemas altamente complexos em uma única pastilha de silício. Dessa forma, os SoCs (Systems-on-Chip) passaram a constituir inúmeros elementos de processamentos (EPs) e as NoCs têm se apresentado como uma opção eficiente no provimento da interconexão dos mesmos, permitindo maior escalabilidade e paralelismo ao sistema. No entanto, esta conexão não é realizada de forma direta. Todo sistema conectado por uma NoC necessita de interfaces de rede (NIs) para intermediar a conexão dos elementos de processamento aos roteadores da rede. O objetivo desse trabalho é apresentar soluções arquiteturais de interfaces de rede para NoCs que atendam diferentes aplicações de forma genérica. Neste trabalho foram desenvolvidas interfaces de redes reutilizáveis e parametrizáveis, e para atender a estas características, as interfaces de rede possibilitam a configuração de diversos parâmetros arquiteturais, como largura da palavra de dados dos EPs, profundidade das FIFOs das interfaces, profundidade das FIFOs da NoC e largura de dados da rede, possibilitando prover a interconexão de qualquer aplicação com um mínimo de reprojeto. As interfaces de rede, juntamente com a NoC, são responsáveis pelo desempenho da comunicação da aplicação e, para isso, o projeto de uma NI deve ser capaz de atender aos requisitos do sistema, por isso, a importância de se obter um projeto de NIs flexível. Para validar as arquiteturas das NIs desenvolvidas, os módulos do decodificador de vídeo no contexto do padrão H.264 foram conectados à NoC através das interfaces projetadas. A partir dessa implementação, puderam-se levantar diversas necessidades que devem ser atendidas pelas NIs. Por fim, foram analisados os resultados de síntese das NIs para diferentes configurações. Também foram verificados os resultados de síntese e desempenho do decodificador de vídeo H.264 conectado pelas NIs à NoC. Com relação aos resultados de síntese em FPGA, a implementação do decodificador de vídeo com NoC e NIs não apresentou um grande aumento em área quando comparada a implementação com conexão ponto-a-ponto. Além disso, para diferentes configurações das NIs, a NoC pode ser utilizada atendendo aos requisitos de desempenho exigidos pela aplicação, sem a necessidade de operar na sua máxima taxa de operação para a resolução QCIF. / Networks-on-Chip (NoCs) have emerged as an alternative to the current interconnection problems arising from the scaling technology for manufacturing integrated circuits. The development of transistors with nanometer-wide has enabled the integration of highly complex systems on a single silicon wafer. Thus, SoCs (Systemson- Chip) have integrated numerous processing elements (EPs) and NoCs have been presented as an effective option in providing the interconnection of these elements, allowing scalability and parallelism to the system. However, this connection is not done directly. Every system connected by NoC needs network interfaces to intermediate the connection of processing elements to network routers. The goal of this thesis is to present architectural solutions for network interfaces for applications in general. In this work we developed a generic, reusable and configurable network interface. The proposed network interface enables the configuration of several architectural parameters, such as data width of the packets, FIFOs depth of the interfaces, FIFO depth and data width of the NoC, and thus, being able to provide the interconnection of any application with a minimal redesign. Network interfaces, together with the NoC, are responsible for application performance and, therefore, the design of an NI should be able to support the system requirements. To validate the architecture of developed NI, the modules of H.264 decoder were connected to NoC through designed interface. From this implementation, one could raise several needs that must be supported by the NIs. Finally, we analyzed the results of synthesis of the NIs for different configurations. It was also analyzed the results of synthesis and performance of H.264 video decoder connected by NIs to NoC. According to results for FPGA synthesis, the implementation of video decoder with NoC and NIs did not show a large increase in area when compared with the implementation of peer-to-peer. Moreover, for different configurations, the NoC can be used according to time requisitions required by the application, without the need to operate at its maximum operation frequency for QCIF resolution.
6

Interfaces parametrizáveis para aplicações interconectadas por uma rede-em-chip / Configurable interfaces for applications interconnected by a network-on-chip

Matos, Débora da Silva Motta January 2010 (has links)
As redes-em-chip (NoCs) surgiram como uma alternativa aos atuais problemas de interconexão decorrentes da redução da escala de tecnologia de fabricação de circuitos integrados. O desenvolvimento de transistores com nanômetros de largura tem permitido a inserção de sistemas altamente complexos em uma única pastilha de silício. Dessa forma, os SoCs (Systems-on-Chip) passaram a constituir inúmeros elementos de processamentos (EPs) e as NoCs têm se apresentado como uma opção eficiente no provimento da interconexão dos mesmos, permitindo maior escalabilidade e paralelismo ao sistema. No entanto, esta conexão não é realizada de forma direta. Todo sistema conectado por uma NoC necessita de interfaces de rede (NIs) para intermediar a conexão dos elementos de processamento aos roteadores da rede. O objetivo desse trabalho é apresentar soluções arquiteturais de interfaces de rede para NoCs que atendam diferentes aplicações de forma genérica. Neste trabalho foram desenvolvidas interfaces de redes reutilizáveis e parametrizáveis, e para atender a estas características, as interfaces de rede possibilitam a configuração de diversos parâmetros arquiteturais, como largura da palavra de dados dos EPs, profundidade das FIFOs das interfaces, profundidade das FIFOs da NoC e largura de dados da rede, possibilitando prover a interconexão de qualquer aplicação com um mínimo de reprojeto. As interfaces de rede, juntamente com a NoC, são responsáveis pelo desempenho da comunicação da aplicação e, para isso, o projeto de uma NI deve ser capaz de atender aos requisitos do sistema, por isso, a importância de se obter um projeto de NIs flexível. Para validar as arquiteturas das NIs desenvolvidas, os módulos do decodificador de vídeo no contexto do padrão H.264 foram conectados à NoC através das interfaces projetadas. A partir dessa implementação, puderam-se levantar diversas necessidades que devem ser atendidas pelas NIs. Por fim, foram analisados os resultados de síntese das NIs para diferentes configurações. Também foram verificados os resultados de síntese e desempenho do decodificador de vídeo H.264 conectado pelas NIs à NoC. Com relação aos resultados de síntese em FPGA, a implementação do decodificador de vídeo com NoC e NIs não apresentou um grande aumento em área quando comparada a implementação com conexão ponto-a-ponto. Além disso, para diferentes configurações das NIs, a NoC pode ser utilizada atendendo aos requisitos de desempenho exigidos pela aplicação, sem a necessidade de operar na sua máxima taxa de operação para a resolução QCIF. / Networks-on-Chip (NoCs) have emerged as an alternative to the current interconnection problems arising from the scaling technology for manufacturing integrated circuits. The development of transistors with nanometer-wide has enabled the integration of highly complex systems on a single silicon wafer. Thus, SoCs (Systemson- Chip) have integrated numerous processing elements (EPs) and NoCs have been presented as an effective option in providing the interconnection of these elements, allowing scalability and parallelism to the system. However, this connection is not done directly. Every system connected by NoC needs network interfaces to intermediate the connection of processing elements to network routers. The goal of this thesis is to present architectural solutions for network interfaces for applications in general. In this work we developed a generic, reusable and configurable network interface. The proposed network interface enables the configuration of several architectural parameters, such as data width of the packets, FIFOs depth of the interfaces, FIFO depth and data width of the NoC, and thus, being able to provide the interconnection of any application with a minimal redesign. Network interfaces, together with the NoC, are responsible for application performance and, therefore, the design of an NI should be able to support the system requirements. To validate the architecture of developed NI, the modules of H.264 decoder were connected to NoC through designed interface. From this implementation, one could raise several needs that must be supported by the NIs. Finally, we analyzed the results of synthesis of the NIs for different configurations. It was also analyzed the results of synthesis and performance of H.264 video decoder connected by NIs to NoC. According to results for FPGA synthesis, the implementation of video decoder with NoC and NIs did not show a large increase in area when compared with the implementation of peer-to-peer. Moreover, for different configurations, the NoC can be used according to time requisitions required by the application, without the need to operate at its maximum operation frequency for QCIF resolution.

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