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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Land Reforms: A Successful Course of Action?

Högman, Alve, Sällström, Pär January 2008 (has links)
<p>The problem with unequal distribution of land ownership, in developing countries, has been debated in numerous papers. It is important to solve this problem and one of the major contributions in finding a solution is the implementation of a land reform. The aim of this paper is to elucidate the outcome of two different approaches to land reform, i.e. coercive and market based, and to find out how successful they are in reducing the concentration of land ownership in a sustainable direction. The conclusion of this paper is that neither of the approaches alone is successful in this task, the strength lies instead in a combination of the coercive and market based approach.</p>

Princip solidarity kontra princip zásluhovosti v českém právu sociálního zabezpečení / The principle of solidarity versus the principle of equivalence in the Czech social security law

Koutník, Michal January 2015 (has links)
The principle of solidarity versus the principle of equivalence in the Czech social security law. This thesis deals with the principles of solidarity and equivalence in social security. The aim is to describe the importance of solidarity as a fundamental basis for the foundation of modern social security and to compare it with the principle of equivalence, which is often placed in contrast to solidarity. The work defines both principles generally and to capture their specific manifestations it focuses on pension security. The work consists of an introduction, two chapters which are divided into subsections, and a conclusion. The first chapter deals with both principles generally, describing their historical development and outlining ideas of selected domestic and foreign authors who have dealt with the principles in question. This chapter also summarizes the important jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court in the area. One of the subsections is dedicated to the principle of justice which is a principle closely related to the main principles in question. The second chapter is focused on pension security in the Czech Republic. It follows in detail the genesis of legal regulations of pension security in the Czech Republic in terms of the principles in question. It characterizes the current legal...

Essays in Political Economy of Redistribution and Immigration

Greco, Rosalia January 2016 (has links)
Thesis advisor: Hideo Konishi / Thesis advisor: Alberto Alesina / This dissertation studies the interaction of politicians’ and voters’ incentives and its effect on redistributive and immigration policies. The first chapter ``Redistribution, Polarization, and Ideology'' focuses on the effect of income inequality and party polarization on redistributive policy, both theoretically and empirically. I demonstrate that income inequality and party polarization on social issues push redistributive policy in opposite directions. In particular, when the importance of ideology for the voters rises with their income, polarization discourages redistribution. Using data from the American National Election Study and the Census, I verify that it is indeed the case that the importance attached to ideological issues is increasing in the voters' income. Effects of ``income elastic'' ideology can account for the observed stability of redistribution policy in the U.S. The second chapter, ``Foreign Born U.S. Citizens and Immigration Policy'', studies the impact of immigration on immigration reforms, and decomposes the effects of naturalized and non-naturalized immigrants. Using Census data and roll call votes for the House on 2005 and 2006 immigration bills, we find that immigration affects Democratic and Republican parties differently. While the effect of non-naturalized immigrants can be explained by congressional district's socio-economic characteristics, naturalized immigrants exert an additional effect linked to their ability to vote in congressional elections. Higher naturalized immigrant population increases the probability that Democrats vote in favor of immigration, and decreases it for Republicans, suggesting opposite electoral incentives for the two parties, that can be interpreted in a framework of rational office-motivated incumbents seeking reelection. / Thesis (PhD) — Boston College, 2016. / Submitted to: Boston College. Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. / Discipline: Economics.

The Impact of Pension Policy on Older Adults' Life Satisfaction: an Analysis of Longitudinal Mulitlevel Data

Calvo, Esteban January 2009 (has links)
Thesis advisor: John B. Williamson / This study assesses the influence of old-age pension policy on older adults' life satisfaction, and examines factors that shape this relationship. It theorizes that two distinct dimensions capture variation in the type of pension policy: individualization of risk (as opposed to socialization, or pooling, of risk) and redistribution of resources (that is, poverty prevention through income redistribution mechanisms such as non-contributory pensions). To empirically evaluate the presence of these two dimensions and to assess their influence of life satisfaction among older adults, this study analyzes data for 126,560 adults age 45 and over living in 91 countries over the period 1981-2008. Using principal component factor analysis, it finds support for the two-dimensional model of pension policy. Next, using three-level hierarchical linear regression, this study assesses the effects of pension policy individualization and redistribution on life satisfaction, generating three additional major findings. First, redistribution increases life satisfaction, but individualization--on average--has no significant effect on life satisfaction. Thus, the potential impact of individualization (whether positive or negative), and of the associated increased risk, choice, and opportunities for return, has been clearly overstated in theoretical debates on pension policy privatization. Second, the relationship between pension policy and life satisfaction is contingent on the macro-social context. Specifically, individualization that takes place in more affluent societies has beneficial impact on life satisfaction, while individualization unfolding in contexts of material scarcity has detrimental impact on life satisfaction. Further, the overall beneficial effects of redistribution on life satisfaction are substantially higher in the context of traditional cultures and lower in the context of secular-rational cultures. A third finding is that governmental commitment to social security (i.e., government expenditures on social security as a percentage of total government expenditures) also shapes the relationship between the type of pension policy and life satisfaction: Higher government commitment to social security substantially improves the life satisfaction outcomes of individualization. Findings from this study are used to integrate and advance theory on comparative public policy and the larger macro-social context shaping subjective well-being. Policy implications for pension reform are discussed, highlighting redistribution of resources and alleviation of need as more efficient avenues to increase older adults' life satisfaction than privatization or pooling of risk. / Thesis (PhD) — Boston College, 2009. / Submitted to: Boston College. Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. / Discipline: Sociology.

The Origins of Secessionist Violence: Culture, Redistribution, and Security

January 2017 (has links)
abstract: This dissertation attempts to explain the variation in violence at the time of state secession. Why do some governments respond to secessionist demands with violence and others settle such disputes peacefully? Previous research emphasized the high value of the secessionist region, the state’s fear of a domino effect, and the political fragmentation of the state and secessionist region elites, as the primary explanations for the violent response of the state to secession. I seek to provide a more comprehensive theory for the variation of secessionist violence that integrates individual, regional, state, and international factors. Drawing on a rational choice approach, and recent research on dehumanization, I argue that the state’s response to secessionist claims depends on the degree of economic redistribution in the country, the cultural differential between the dominant group of the state and the secessionist group, and the international security of the state. My theory predicts that the state is less likely to use violence against secessionists when there is a high degree of economic redistribution, a small cultural difference between the dominant and secessionist group, and the state enjoys a high level of external security. A state willing to redistribute in favor of the secessionist region dampens support for secession in the region and reduces the need to use violence by the state. Due to cognitive biases of the human brain, it is easier to marginalize culturally distinct groups than culturally similar groups. As a result, a high cultural differential is often associated with greater probability of secessionist violence. When the international security of the state is under threat, the government of the state can more easily convince its population to use force against the secessionist region, regardless of other considerations. In sum, my theory implies that economic redistribution, cultural differences, and international security shape state responses to secessionist claims. I test these theoretical conjectures using a new dataset on peaceful and violent secessionist campaigns, along with several case studies based on field research and primary source materials and find strong supportive evidence for them. / Dissertation/Thesis / Doctoral Dissertation Political Science 2017

Why do some illiberal democracies fall into conflict while others do not? : evaluating formal and informal mechanisms of distribution through elite bargaining

Rodríguez, Liliana Narváez January 2018 (has links)
Civil conflict is a complex multi-layered event. As an outcome it represents a product of both the structural framework in place and decision-making between the different elite groups. From a historical neoinstitutionalist perspective, this dissertation will provide an answer as to why some illiberal democracies fall into civil conflict while others do not. It argues that horizontally unequal elites bargain for (re)distribution of political participation, economic assets and social services through formal and informal institutions in order to expand the shares of the goods distributed. The presence of cleavages and grievances amongst groups are enhanced when exclusion through inefficient redistribution takes place; therefore, a bargain failure with the potential to activate violent means, implies a disagreement amongst the elites over the allocation of resources to different societal groups. Bargain failures occur in the presence of non-credible commitments and information asymmetries. Inefficiency in the distribution can also be captured through informal institutions in the form of patronage networks, a side of the transaction spectrum which has been understudied. The contribution of this thesis to the general debate stems from this acknowledgement and alleviates this by incorporating the full spectrum of institutions which operate effectively within illiberal democratic regimes. Patronage networks despite being a fundamental part of how politics is conducted in illiberal democratic regimes have surprisingly been neglected in the contemporary study of conflict onset. By conducting two-level fsQCA along a selection of 21 cases of illiberal democracy across 1980-2012 including cases of ethnic conflict onset, the analysis will show that distribution through patronage networks does play a role in triggering conflict or in aiding to control violence depending on the efficiency of the distribution across grieved groups. Further comparative analysis of a most likely and least likely case for cases of conflict (Thailand and India Bodo conflict) and peace (Namibia and Bolivia) reveals that the effect of the patronage mechanisms when redistributive, plays a larger role as an instrument of preventing violent disputes across horizontally unequal ethnic groups.

The impact of performance management on Moletele Communal Property Association's performance at Maruleng Local Municipality of the Limpopo Province

Masoga, Morongwa Virgina January 2013 (has links)
Thesis (M. Dev.) -- University of Limpopo, 2013 / Recent changes in the allocation of land through the results of land redistribution have compelled members of communities to form committees, that is, Communal Property Associations (CPAs) that would be responsible for managing the claimed land. The Maruleng Local Municipality was not excluded from this process. Five of the CPAs have been formed under the above mentioned municipality to manage claimed land. The research investigated the impact of performance management on the Moletele CPA’s performance at Maruleng Local Municipality of the Limpopo Province. The management of Moletele CPA was not without challenges, problems such as lack of resources, adequate training programmes, lack of clear policy and objectives were also found in the study. This research also seeks to investigate why Moletele CPA is performing better than the other CPAs in the municipality. In order to understand the total context of the challenges faced by Moletele CPA, an empirical research and interviews were conducted to collect data from the members of Moletele CPA. The findings of the study suggest that a lack of resources and relevant training programmes are contributing negatively towards the performance of the Moletele CPA in particular, and other CPAs in general. To conclude, the study revealed that performance management is not determined by one factor, but other challenges such as clarity of policies and cooperation amongst stakeholders also contribute towards the success of the Moletele CPA ;hence the recommendations made in chapter five.

An investigation of the success of comprehensive agricultural support programme projects on the farms allocated under land redistribution for agricultural development : a case study approach in the Waterberg District, Limpopo Province

Chabalala, Botana Robert January 2008 (has links)
Thesis (MBA.) --University of Limpopo, 2008 / Land reform is divided into three sub-programmes, which are redistribution programmes, restitution and tenure reform. The redistribution programme consists of Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development settlement and non-agricultural enterprises. Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development programme was established to redress the imbalances of land owners aroused from the previous government and its policies. A person who qualifies to purchase farms through the Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development programme is a previously disadvantaged person, that is, an African, Coloured and Indian. If a person belongs to a previously disadvantaged group and that particular person works for the government he/she does not qualify to be funded by the Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development programme. The National Department of Agriculture introduced a new programme called the Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme. The primary aim of the Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme is to make provision for agricultural support to targeted beneficiaries of the land reform and agrarian reform programme. This dissertation proposed an investigation of the success factors of Comprehensive agricultural Support programme on the farms allocated under the Land redistribution for Agricultural Development in the Waterberg District of the Limpopo Province. The objectives of study were: i. To determine factors influencing the success of the Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme projects on farms allocated under the Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development farms ii. To suggest recommendations for the improvement of the implementation of the Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme. iv A case study approach was used to investigate the Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme funded projects. Personal interview questions were posed to participants who were the farmers who receiving the Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme grant and managers who were managing the Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development farms. Open-ended questionnaires were used to collect data and four farms allocated under Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development funded by the Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme and four municipal managers in the Waterberg District of the Limpopo Province were interviewed. The qualitative approach was used to process the data The chapter layouts of this research are as follows: Chapter 1: Problem Statement, Aims and Objectives of the Study, Chapter 2: Literature Survey, Chapter 3: Research Design, Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Interpretation, and Chapter 5: Recommendations and Conclusion. The analysis of the data revealed that Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme is a success on the farms allocated under the Land redistribution for Agricultural Development in the Waterberg District of the Limpopo Province.

An analysis of the impact of land redistribution projects in Modimolle Municipality,Limpopo Province

Buys, Michael January 2012 (has links)
Thesis (M.Dev.) --University of Limpopo, 2012

The Financial Crisis effects on asset allocation. : A study regarding the individuals in Umeå financial behaviour in response to the financial crisis of 2008.

Essner, Nichlas, Rosenius, Niklas January 2012 (has links)
This study presents the financial behavior of individuals in Umeå and how their allocation of financial assets has changed as an effect of the financial crisis of 2008. We have also elaborated further on what variables that has had the most impact on individuals’ reallocation behavior. We have chosen a quantitative approach and based our findings on the data derived from 210 participants. Our entire sample was drawn from the geographical area of Umeå and the data was collected through the use of a survey. Our research is built upon a deductive approach; hence we are not generating new theory but rather drawing our conclusions from the comparison of our collected data with previous made research. Our analysis led us to the conclusion that the majority of the individuals in Umeå have not chosen to reallocate their financial assets due to the financial crisis of 2008. Our research was to most parts in line with previous research made within this area. We were also able to determine some main variables that have had a evident effect on the individuals decision to reallocate or not. Some of the most prominent variables are; gender, income and risk willingness.

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