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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
41

Clinical registrars' perceptions of their specialist training on the University of Witwatersrand training circuit

Singh, Elvira 18 March 2010 (has links)
MMed (Community Health), Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 2009 / Introduction: This study sought to determine perceptions of registrars of their training on the Wits circuit as regards hospital, specialist and university support and their opinions on improving registrar MMed research output. Future career plans of registrars were also investigated. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaires consisting of Likert scales and open-ended questions. The study population comprised registrars in four clinical specialties on the Wits training circuit. Results: Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital received the lowest proportion of satisfactory responses for nursing support. Hospital management was considered unsatisfactory at three of the four hospitals. Specialist supervision was considered satisfactory although 70% (115/164) of registrars reported coping with situations beyond their expertise, which they attributed to specialists being off-site. Registrars reported insufficient time and a lack of qualified supervisors as barriers to undertaking research. Only 32% of respondents felt adequately prepared for independent practice. Most registrars intended to continue working in the public sector. Conclusions: Problems and recommendations identified by registrars could be used by the university to improve the registrar training experience.
42

Collaborative Dialogue during Tasks in Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication

Unknown Date (has links)
This dissertation, drawing on Swain's (2000; 2005) notion of collaborative dialogue, aimed to explore whether learners participating in SCMC based tasks engage in collaborative dialogue and, if so, to investigate the extent and characteristics of this behavior. In order to provide insights into the task type that may promote collaborative dialogue most effectively, the study compared two task types that are claimed to be contrasting (Swain & Lapkin, 2001) with regard to the degree of attention to form they promote: jigsaw and dictogloss. The following research questions were addressed: (1) To what extent do learners attempt to solve linguistic problems by way of collaborative dialogue during SCMC based tasks? (2) What are the characteristics of the collaborative dialogue with regard to focus, outcome, verbalization, collaboration, and source? (3) Does task type (dictogloss and jigsaw) have an effect on the amount of collaborative dialogue? (4) Does task type (dictogloss and jigsaw) have an effect on the characteristics of collaborative dialogue? The study involved 54 Turkish speaking English-as-a- Foreign-Language (EFL) learners. Learners were enrolled in four intact classes at two Turkish universities in Istanbul. Two jigsaw-dictogloss pairs were designed and matched for content. Following a practice task session, randomly formed dyads of students from each class performed one jigsaw and one dictogloss by using the MSN Messenger instant messaging and CoWord collaborative editing software. Language-Related Episodes (LREs) were identified in learner-learner interaction and categorized based on five levels: focus, outcome, verbalization, collaboration and source. It was found that LREs did occur during task-based SCMC. However, the frequency of LRES seemed to be low in comparison F2F studies. Results also showed that the dictogloss task elicited a higher number of LREs than the jigsaw task. At descriptive level, tasks were different with respect to the characteristics of LREs. While the dictogloss was characterized by orthographic and correctly solved LREs, the jigsaw was characterized by unresolved LREs. The results were discussed in light of the arguments about the effects of limited information-processing capacity on task performance (Skehan, 1998). / A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Middle and Secondary Education in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. / Degree Awarded: Summer Semester, 2008. / Date of Defense: October 19, 2007. / Synchronous Computer-mediated Communication, Computer-mediated Communication, Scmc, Negotiation of Meaning, Learner-learner Interaction, Output Hypothesis, Negative Feedback, Cmc, Focus on Form, Language-related Episodes, Second Language Acquisition, Task-based Instruction, Task Effects, Jigsaw, Dictoglosss / Includes bibliographical references. / Deborah J. Hasson, Professor Directing Dissertation; Michael Leeser, Professor Directing Dissertation; Alysia Roehrig-Bice, Outside Committee Member; Patrick Kennell, Committee Member.
43

Japanese Immigrant Parents' Views on Parental Participation in Early Childhood Education Settings in the United States

Unknown Date (has links)
Researchers in the field agree that there is too little research on the experience of immigrant children and their families in the ECE arena (Adair & Tobin, 2007; Brandon, 2002). Furthermore, despite the presence of Japanese immigrants in the U.S. for nearly 150 years, there is not a lot of research to suggest why they have not become fully integrated into society and there has been too little research conducted on the experiences of young Japanese immigrant children and their families in the field of Early Childhood Education (ECE). Using a multi-method case approach including interviews, surveys and observations, this study examined the extent to which varying degrees of individualism and collectivism influence Japanese immigrant mothers' decisions concerning early childhood education and out-of –home care. Moreover, the experiences of Japanese immigrant children in early education and the barriers related to language and cultures are also examined. The challenges Japanese immigrant mothers' face in making decisions about ECE in North Florida is additionally explored. Pattern coding was used to analyze the phenomenon in greater detail as the informants answered questions and shared stories on their most intimate experiences in early childhood education. This study included 11 mothers from Japan who recently immigrated to the U.S. The length of time the participants had lived in the U.S. varied from 3 months up to 108 months and the mean of participants living in the U.S. was 49 (34.7) months. The parents alluded to English proficiency as a barrier when making decisions about early childhood education and out of home care. Participants cited losing their Japanese culture, their expectations, a lack of awareness of programs offered, and American culture as barriers related to language and culture. This study examines those barriers referred to by the informants and concludes with recommendations for future practice when working with Japanese immigrant families. / A Dissertation submitted to the School of Teacher Education in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. / Degree Awarded: Summer Semester, 2011. / Date of Defense: May 25, 2011. / Individualism, Collectivism, Immigrant Mothers, Early Childhood, Japanese Immigrants / Includes bibliographical references. / Ithel Jones, Professor Directing Dissertation; Robert A. Schwartz, University Representative; Vickie E. Lake, Committee Member; Diana Rice, Committee Member.
44

The Effects of Dialogic Reading on the Expressive Vocabulary of Children with Autism Characteristics

Unknown Date (has links)
Delayed language development is often the primary concern for parents of children with autism. It is this delay that initially provokes parents to have children evaluated for this disorder. Delayed oral language affects an array of important life skills such as social communication and emergent literacy. This study has been designed to target expressive vocabulary, a fundamental aspect of language, using a storybook reading intervention based on dialogic reading. The differential effects of dialogic reading enhanced with attention cues compared to dialogic reading alone on expressive language behaviors were measured using an alternating treatment design. The results of this study indicate that the participants with autism spectrum characteristics benefited from dialogic reading with or without attention cues. All the children with autism were able to increase their vocabulary use by the completion of the intervention regardless of the treatment condition. Additionally, positive gains were noticed on the standardized assessments related to vocabulary acquisition. The teachers of the children with autism reported the interventions resulted in favorable changes in their students' vocabulary use during storybook reading sessions and in spontaneous language use within the classroom. / A Dissertation submitted to the School of Teacher Education in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. / Degree Awarded: Spring Semester, 2011. / Date of Defense: February 22, 2011. / Adult Child Book Reading, Naturalistic Intervention, Pictorial Cue, Spontaneous Verbalization, Early Literacy Skills, Joint Book Reading / Includes bibliographical references. / Bruce M. Menchetti, Professor Directing Dissertation; Chris Schatschneider, University Representative; Stephanie Dent Al Otaiba, Committee Member; Beth Phillips, Committee Member.
45

Willingness to Communicate of Foreign Language Learners in a Chinese Setting

Unknown Date (has links)
This study examined willingness to communicate (WTC) of language learners who were studying English as a foreign language in a Chinese college setting by adapting variables from four theoretical sources: McCroskey and Richmond's (1987) WTC construct, Gardner's (2001a) Socio-Educational model, MacIntyre et al.'s (1998) WTC model, and Wen and Clément's (2003) conceptualization of WTC in a Chinese setting. Three objectives guided this study: 1) to examine the relationships among willingness to communicate, communication apprehension, and self-perceived communication competence in Chinese and English language contexts respectively; 2) to examine the relationships between integrativeness, attitudes toward the learning situation, motivation, and instrumental orientation with WTC in English; 3) to test the proposed relationships among communication variables (i.e., communication apprehension and self-perceived communication competence), affective variables (i.e., integrativeness, attitudes toward the learning situation, motivation, and instrumental orientation), teacher immediacy, and WTC in English. Two hundred and thirty-five (235) sophomores and juniors majoring in English at a public university in China participated in this study. A quantitative research method using self-report questionnaires was employed to collect data that addressed ten different aspects or variables concerning the participants' communication and affective orientations, as well as the perceived teacher immediacy behaviors. Pearson correlation coefficient, multiple regression, and a path model were utilized as statistical analysis methods in line with each research question. The results of the study showed that all of the communication variables were significantly correlated with each other at the .01 level in both Chinese and English communication settings. Moreover, the correlations between Chinese and English for communication apprehension, self-perceived communication competence, and willingness to communicate were all positive and statistically significant, indicating their trait-like predisposition which remained constant across languages used in communication settings. All of the four affective variables (i.e., integrativeness, attitudes toward the learning situation, motivation, and instrumental orientation) and the variable of willingness to communicate in English were significantly correlated with each other at the .05 level. However, only attitudes toward the learning situation and motivation contributed significant predicative power to WTC in English. Communication apprehension and self-perceived communication competence were the only two direct effects on WTC in English. Communication apprehension also had indirect effect on WTC in English through its negative effect on self-perceived communication competence. Teacher immediacy had direct positive effect on communication apprehension and negative effect on self-perceived communication competence. WTC in English was indirectly dependent on teacher immediacy through the mediation of communication apprehension and self-perceived communication competence. Motivation had direct effect on communication apprehension and self-perceived communication competence. The hypothesized predictive relationships from attitudes toward learning situation, integrativeness, and instrumental orientation to motivation were supported. Motivation could indirectly predict WTC in English through the mediation of communication apprehension and self-perceived communication competence. The importance of this study lies in its theoretical contributions to the WTC research and the pedagogical implications for second language teaching and learning. / A Dissertation submitted to the School of Teacher Education in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. / Degree Awarded: Spring Semester, 2009. / Date of Defense: December 12, 2008. / Chinese, Self-Perceived Communication Competence Foreign Language Learner, Willingness to Communicate, Communication Apprehension / Includes bibliographical references. / Susan Nelson Wood, Professor Directing Dissertation; Gretchen Sunderman, Outside Committee Member; Alysia D. Roehrig, Committee Member; John Keller, Committee Member.
46

The Politics of Change in Teacher Education: Responses to Alternative Certification Policy Among Florida Institutions of Higher Education

Unknown Date (has links)
The purpose of this study is to seek a greater understanding of the political dynamics influencing the involvement of Florida institutions of higher education in alternative teacher certification policies and programs. Adapting J. Victor Baldridge's Interest Articulation Model, the analysis focuses on three stages of organization-level policy formation: social context, interest articulation, and legislative transformation. The political analysis centers on deans (authorities) and teacher education faculty (partisans) as they maneuver within an institutional context that is influenced by a number of external forces such as state policy, market forces, and competing ideas about the future of teacher education and certification. Differences among teacher education institutions and alternative certification programs are considered in the analysis. Data are drawn from 26 semi-structured interviews with administrators and faculty members from the colleges of education at Florida's state universities and a web-based survey of 64 higher education administrators across the state. The study found that state policy has catalyzed and legitimized new alternative pathways and has influenced state universities and community colleges to engage in alternative preparation. Twenty-two (68%) of the 32 survey respondents report that their institutions have been involved in the development or implementation of AC programs, and 12 IHE-operated programs were identified in the survey. Administrators perceive that their faculty are supportive of both the district-based and state AC programs. Survey data suggest that community college administrators are more supportive of AC than their counterparts in the state universities and independent colleges and universities. Deans and faculty at state universities have put up little resistance, realizing that the process will move forward with or without them. Many deans feel obligated to engage so they can be seen as team players in the state. In addition, deans are using their support of a state alternative certification initiative as quid pro quo for more flexibility in the state's regulatory framework for approved teacher education programs. For the most part, however, programs at the state universities are campus-based, center on graduate coursework, and are modified variations of "traditional" programs, which is far from the on-the-job, competency-based programming envisioned by the state. / A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. / Degree Awarded: Fall Semester, 2005. / Date of Defense: September 12, 2005. / Colleges of Education, Teacher Education, Alternative Teacher Certification, Politics of Education / Includes bibliographical references. / Lora Cohen-Vogel, Professor Directing Dissertation; Dave Foulk, Outside Committee Member; Carolyn Herrington, Committee Member; Sande Milton, Committee Member.
47

Pre-Service Teachers Feel Ready, Set, Go on Day One?: Comparing Pre-Service Teachers Teaching Efficacy from a Center of Excellence Teacher Preparation Model and a Traditional Model

Unknown Date (has links)
This qualitative study examined the unique perspectives of participants, who recently completed their elementary teacher education training, of their sense of effectiveness in leading students to learn, also known as teacher efficacy. This study used a comparative case study approach to compare and contrast the differences in teacher efficacy as impacted by the internship experiences and supervision of cooperating teachers, within two different teacher preparation models. Volunteers were selected from a population of 2017 elementary teacher education graduates from Florida Atlantic University and Florida State University who had completed their pre-service internships during the 2016-2017 academic year. Participants responded to open-ended questions during telephone interviews. Data were analyzed to compare participants’ descriptions of their teacher efficacy, how their teacher efficacy may have developed through the progress of their programs and impacted by their internship experiences. This study also examined whether comprehensive training in coaching and mentorship, as provided by one of the two state universities, contributed to the participants’ level of teacher efficacy. The outcomes corroborated current research literature but also revealed unique findings in the formation and development of perceived teaching effectiveness through the preparation program experience. The findings for show that pre-service teachers do not succinctly connect their perceived teacher efficacy to students’ learning and accomplishing instructional goals. Also, that internships need to provide frequent, timely and diverse experiences within an environment of learning and support. The key differences between FAU and FSU were in consistency within placements and in diversity of student populations. Impactful events were noted by participants of both FAU and FSU as opportunities for instructional growth and improvement. Finally, the deepest connection with pre-service teachers in developing their teacher efficacy is the mentor/mentee relationship that encourages and supports instructional practice and improvement. Although FAU has provided multiple professional development trainings for supervising pre-service teachers, other factors such as support, encouragement, flexibility and empathy led to developing a more positive teacher efficacy. / A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education. / Summer Semester 2018. / June 13, 2018. / Includes bibliographical references. / Courtney Preston, Professor Directing Dissertation; Fengfeng Ke, University Representative; Stacey Rutledge, Committee Member; Marytza Gawlik, Committee Member.
48

Development and Validation of an Instrument to Evaluate Science Teachers' Assessment Beliefs and Practices

Unknown Date (has links)
The primary purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to examine science teachers' assessment beliefs and practices in science classrooms. The study also investigated the relationship between teachers' beliefs and practices regarding assessment issues, the certain factors, influencing their assessment practices and teachers' feelings towards high-stakes testing. The participants of the study were 408 science teachers, teaching at middle and high school levels in the State of Florida. Data were collected through two modes of administration of the instrument as a paper-and-pencil and a web-based form. The response rate for paper-and-pencil administration was estimated as 68% whereas the response for the web administration was found to be 27%. Results from the various dimensions of validity and reliability analyses revealed that the 24 item-four-factor belief and practice measures were psychometrically sound and conceptually anchored measures of science teachers' assessment beliefs and self-reported practices. Reliability estimates for the belief measure ranged from .83 to .91 whereas alpha values for the practice measure ranged from .56 to .90. Results from the multigroup analysis supported that the instrument has the same theoretical structure across both administration groups. Therefore, future researchers may use either a paper-and-pencil or web-based format of the instrument. This study underscored a discrepancy between what teachers believe and how they act in classroom settings. The majority of teachers reported that instruction time, class size, professional development activities, availability of school funding, and state testing mandates were the primary factors, influencing their assessment routines. Many teachers drew attention to several negative impacts and consequences of the high-stakes testing both on teaching and learning. Teachers stated that both the preparation process and the results of the test created unbelievable tension both on students and teachers. Implications of the study indicated that it would be valuable to conduct alignment studies to examine whether state tests are fully aligned with the state standards and classroom assessment. Perhaps, such analyses would assist state level decision makers in reconsidering the current policies and "unintended" influences of mandated tests on classroom practices. / A Dissertation submitted to the Department of Middle and Secondary Education in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. / Degree Awarded: Fall Semester, 2005. / Date of Defense: November 7, 2005. / Self-Reported Practice, Teachers' Beliefs, Instrument Development, Assessment, Science Education / Includes bibliographical references. / Alejandro J. Gallard, Professor Directing Dissertation; Paul H. Ruscher, Outside Committee Member; Akihito Kamata, Committee Member; Nancy T. Davis, Committee Member.
49

Implementing a District -Wide Professional Development Initiative: What It Means to Educate for the 21st Century

Villanueva, Alison January 2013 (has links)
Focus on education for the future, often termed 21st Century education, is on the minds of educators and much is being said about particular ways to enact curricula and teaching that supports the needs of 21 century thinking, learning, and teaching. 21st century skills, frameworks, system/practitioner examples that apply these skills and a variety of literature on the different structures and content have been disseminated through articles, professional development, and district-wide initiatives. However, there is an absence of literature that focuses on how system wide initiatives, rooted in 21st Century research, impacts teachers and their perceptions of teaching and learning. In this study, the discourse on 21st Century education is defined in relation to educational frameworks that outline specific skills students and teachers need in order to be successful in academic and workplace settings in the 21st Century. The objective of the study was to answer the following research questions (1) How does a district-wide PD initiative focused on educating students for the 21st Century impact teachers' examinations and revisions of assessments, curricula, and instructional activities? (2) How does a district-wide PD initiative focused on educating students for the 21st Century impact three 10th Grade English teachers' examinations and revisions of their literature curricula and instructional activities? (3) What factors influence the ways teachers react to the PD plan implemented in the EEF initiative? Through a qualitative examination of a professional development initiative called Envisioning Education for the Future (EEF) 2010-2013, this research study aims to bridge a gap between theory and practice by examining how Parnell School District attempts to achieve the goal of enhancing their teaching and preparation of students for the 21st Century. I explore how Parnell School District provided its teachers opportunities to focus on providing a more global-focused education by offering, a coherent professional development plan that focused on activities that included: assessment creation, instructional activity adaptation, curriculum design, practitioner reflection, and student work analysis. Outcomes from this study include recommendations for how to overcome logistical obstacles; address teachers' varying levels of self-efficacy; adapt curricula, teaching strategies/activities, and classroom assessments to reflect more 21st Century skills. What was also revealed during this study was the emergence of a new discourse amongst teachers and researchers as they attempted to create a common language around 21st Century education. This discourse is referred to as a Critical 21st Century Discourse. The EEF PD initiative encouraged individuals to examine their assumptions and biases by engaging teachers in deep questioning about their teaching philosophies in their particular disciplines, providing teachers with activities that facilitate teachers reflections on existing beliefs and ideologies and the impact thereof, and by providing teachers with the research literature and experiences that help broaden perspectives of underlying critical issues to investigate how teaching is impacted
50

Factors Affecting the Development of Second Grade Spelling at the Teacher, Student, and Word Level

Unknown Date (has links)
The purpose of this study was to explore the development of second graders' spelling knowledge across the academic year using a researcher developed, word-dictated spelling test administered in fall, winter, and spring of second grade. Second grade students (N =100) from 10 classes were the participants in this study. Students' spelling tests were analyzed for patterns of overall growth, spelling pattern, and linguistic knowledge (i.e., phonological, orthographic, and morphological). Words were crossed with students to identify significant predictors of spelling accuracy. Hierarchical linear modeling and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results revealed that students demonstrated significant growth in their spelling performance from fall to spring. Number of letters predicted spelling accuracy at the end of the year, but word frequency and number of phonemes did not. Females were more accurate at spelling words than males. Students struggled with mastery of the spelling patterns expected to be taught and learned during second grade. There were relatively few phonological errors made in comparison to orthographic and morphological ones. Students in second grade, even those who made many spelling errors, tended to represent all the phonemes in their spellings. Orthographic errors occurred most frequently and there were no significant differences based on student demographics. Morphology remained difficult for all students throughout the year and would benefit from explicit instruction. Interestingly, results indicated that students and classes varied significantly in their spelling performance at the beginning of the year, but did not vary in their rate of growth. It is speculated this could be due, in part, to the lack of meaningful spelling instruction occurring at school. / A Dissertation submitted to the School of Teacher Education in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. / Degree Awarded: Spring Semester, 2010. / Date of Defense: December 8, 2009. / Second Grade, Spelling, Literacy / Includes bibliographical references. / Barbara R. Foorman, Professor Directing Dissertation; Christopher Schatschneider, University Representative; Stephanie Dent Al Otaiba, Committee Member; Young-Suk Kim, Committee Member.

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