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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Inlined Reference Monitors : Certification,Concurrency and Tree Based Monitoring

Lundblad, Andreas January 2013 (has links)
Reference monitor inlining is a technique for enforcing security policies by injecting security checks into the untrusted software in a style similar to aspect-oriented programming. The intention is that the injected code enforces compliance with the policy (security), without adding behavior (conservativity) or affecting existing policy compliant behavior (transparency). This thesis consists of four papers which covers a range of topics including formalization of monitor inlining correctness properties, certification of inlined monitors, limitations in multithreaded settings and extensions using data-flow monitoring. The first paper addresses the problem of having a potentially complex program rewriter as part of the trusted computing base. By means of proof-carrying code we show how the inliner can be replaced by a relatively simple proof-checker. This technique also enables the use of monitor inlining for quality assurance at development time, while minimizing the need for post-shipping code rewrites. The second paper focuses on the issues associated with monitor inlining in a concurrent setting. Specifically, it discusses the problem of maintaining transparency when introducing locks for synchronizing monitor state reads and updates. Due to Java's relaxed memory model, it turns out to be impossible for a monitor to be entirely transparent without sacrificing the security property. To accommodate for this, the paper proposes a set of new correctness properties shown to be realistic and realizable. The third paper also focuses on problems due to concurrency and identifies a class of race-free policies that precisely characterizes the set of inlineable policies. This is done by showing that inlining of a policy outside this class is either not secure or not transparent, and by exhibiting a concrete algorithm for inlining of policies inside the class which is secure, conservative, and transparent. The paper also discusses how certification in the style of proof-carrying code could be supported in multithreaded Java programs. The fourth paper formalizes a new type of data centric runtime monitoring which combines monitor inlining with taint tracking. As opposed to ordinary techniques which focus on monitoring linear flows of events, the approach presented here relies on tree shaped traces. The paper describes how the approach can be efficiently implemented and presents a denotational semantics for a simple ``while'' language illustrating how the theoretical foundations is to be used in a practical setting. Each paper is concluded by a practical evaluation of the theoretical results, based on a prototype implementation and case studies on real-world applications and policies. / Referensmonitorinvävning, eller monitorinvävning, är en teknik som används för att se till att en given säkerhetspolicy efterföljs under exekvering av potentiellt skadlig kod. Tekniken går ut på att bädda in en uppsättning säkerhetskontroller (en säkerhetsmonitor) i koden på ett sätt som kan jämföras med aspektorienterad programmering. Syftet med den invävda monitorn är att garantera att policyn efterföljs (säkerhet) utan att påverka ursprungsprogrammets beteende, såvida det följer policyn (transparans och konservativitet). Denna avhandling innefattar fyra artiklar som tillsammans täcker in en rad ämnen rörande monitorinvävning. Bland annat diskuteras formalisering av korrekthetsegenskaper hos invävda monitorer, certifiering av invävda monitorer, begränsningar i multitrådade program och utökningar för hantering av dataflödesmonitorering. Den första artikeln behandlar problemen associerade med att ha en potentiellt komplex programmodifierare som del i den säkerhetskritiska komponenten av ett datorsystem. Genom så kallad bevisbärande kod visar vi hur en monitorinvävare kan ersättas av en relativt enkel beviskontrollerare. Denna teknik möjliggör även användandet av monitorinvävning som hjälpmedel för programutvecklare och eliminerar behovet av programmodifikationer efter att programmet distribuerats. Den andra artikeln fokuserar på problemen kring invävning av monitorer i multitrådade program. Artikeln diskuterar problemen kring att upprätthålla transparans trots införandet av lås för synkronisering av läsningar av och skrivningar till säkerhetstillståndet. På grund av Javas minnesmodell visar det sig dock omöjligt att bädda in en säkerhetsmonitor på ett säkert och transparent sätt. För att ackommodera för detta föreslås en ny uppsättning korrekthetsegenskaper som visas vara realistiska och realiserbara. Den tredje artikeln fokuserar även den på problemen kring flertrådad exekvering och karaktäriserar en egenskap för en policy som är tillräcklig och nödvändig för att både säkerhet och transparens ska uppnås. Detta görs genom att visa att en policy utan egenskapen inte kan upprätthållas på ett säkert och transparent sätt, och genom att beskriva en implementation av en monitorinvävare som är säker och transparent för en policy som har egenskapen. Artikeln diskuterar också hur certifiering av säkerhetsmonitorer i flertrådade program kan realiseras genom bevisbärande kod. Den fjärde artikeln beskriver en ny typ av datacentrisk säkerhetsmonitorering som kombinerar monitorinvävning med dataflödesanalys. Till skillnad mot existerande tekniker som fokuserar på linjära sekvenser av säkerhetskritiska händelser förlitar sig tekniken som presenteras här på trädformade händelsesekvenser. Artikeln beskriver hur tekniken kan implementeras på ett effektivt sätt med hjälp av abstraktion. Varje artikel avslutas med en praktisk evaluering av de teoretiska resultaten baserat på en prototypimplementation och fallstudier av verkliga program och säkerhetsegenskaper. / <p>QC 20130220</p>
2

Tree automata, approximations, and constraints for verification : Tree (Not quite) regular model-checking / Automates d'arbres, approximations et contraintes pour la vérification : Model-checking d'arbres (pas tout à fait) régulier

Hugot, Vincent 27 September 2013 (has links)
Les automates d'arbres et leurs applications à la vérification forment le tronc commun de cette thèse. Dans la première parie, nous définissons une plate forme de model-checking complète [...] La seconde partie se penche sur un aspect important des automates que nous utilisons: leur contraintes [...] Finalement, nous étudions également les automates d'arbres cheminants [...] Nous améliorons leur conversion en automates parallèles, et nous développons une procédure de semi décision de leur vacuité, à la fois efficace et précise / Tree automata, and their applications to verification from the common thread of this thesis In the first part, we definie a complete model-cheking framework.[...] The second part focus on an important aspect of the automata involved: constraints.[...] Finaly, we also study the very different variety of tree-walking automata which have tight connections with navigational languages on semi-structured documents.
3

Automates d'arbres à contraintes globales pour la vérification de propriétés de sécurité / Tree automata with global constraints for the verification of security properties

Vacher, Camille 07 December 2010 (has links)
Nous étudions des classes d'automates à états finis calculant sur les arbres, étendus par des contraintes permettant de tester des égalités et diségalités entre sous-arbres. Nous nous concentrons sur des automates d'arbres à contraintes globales où les tests sont opérés en fonction des états que l'automate atteint lors de ses calculs. De tels automates ont été introduit dans le cadre de travaux sur les documents semi-structurés. Nous procédons ici à une comparaison détaillée en expressivité entre ces automates et d'autres modèles permettant de réaliser des tests similaires, comme les automates à contraintes entre frères ou les automates d'arbres avec une mémoire auxiliaire. Nous montrons comment de tels automates peuvent être utilisés pour vérifier des propriétés de sécurité sur les protocoles cryptographiques. Les automates d'arbres ont déjà été utilisés pour modéliser les messages échangés lors d'une session d'un protocole. En ajoutant des contraintes d'égalité, nous pouvons décrire précisement des sessions qui utilisent à plusieurs reprises un même message, évitant ainsi une approximation trop grande. Nous répondons ensuite positivement au problème de la décision du vide des langages reconnus par les automates à contraintes globales. En montrant que leur expressivité est très proche de celle des automates opérant sur des représentations de termes par des graphes orientés acycliques, nous en déduisons une procédure de décision du vide en temps non-déterministe doublement exponentiel. Finalement, nous étudions le problème de la décision du vide pour des automates à contraintes globales pour lesquels on autorise des contraintes dites de clé, exprimant intuitivement que tous les sous arbres d'un certain type dans un arbre en entrée sont distincts deux à deux. Le type des clés est classiquement utilisé pour représenter un identifiant unique, comme un numéro de sécurité sociale.Nous décrivons alors une procédure de décision du vide de complexité non-élementaire. Nous montrons que cette procédure est très robuste, et qu'il est possible d'étendre les automates avec des contraintes supplémentaires, comme des contraintes de comptage ou des tests locaux, tout en préservant la décidabilité du vide. / We study here several classes of finite state automata running on trees, extended with constraints that allow to test for equalities or disequalities between subterms. We focus on tree automata with global constraints where the tests are done depending on the states reached by the automaton on its runs. Such automata were introduced in studies on semi-structured documents. We do here a detailed comparison between those automata and other models that allow to operate similar tests, like tree automata with constraints between brothers, or tree automata with an auxiliary memory. We show how such automata may be used to verify security properties on cryptographic protocols. Tree automata have already been used to modelize the messages exchanged during a protocol session. By adding equality constraints, we can describe precisely protocol sessions that use a same message several times, hence avoiding an approximation. Then, we answer positively the decision problem of the emptiness of the languages recognized by tree automata with global constraints. By showing that their expressivity is very close from the one of the automata operating on directed acyclic graphs representations of terms, we infer an emptiness decision procedure in double exponential non-deterministic time. Finally, we study the emptiness decision problem for automata with global constraints where we authorize "key constraints", that intuitively allow that all subtrees of a given type in an input tree are distincts. We give an emptiness decision procedure of non-primitive recursive complexity. Key constraints are classicaly used to represent a unique identifier. We describe a non-primitive recusrive emptiness decision procedure. We show that this procedure is very robust and that it allows to extend the automata with additionnal constraints, like counting constraints or local tests, while preserving decidability.
4

Logics for n-ary queries in trees.

Filiot, Emmanuel 13 October 2008 (has links) (PDF)
In computer science many data are shaped as trees. In the context of the Web, it is the case for XML formatted data in particular. XML is a markup language that has rapidly become a standard for information storage and data exchange. As query languages for relational databases are not well-suited to XML data, the need to have query languages specific to XML documents has increased. We distinguish unary queries which select a set of subparts of a document from n-ary queries which select a set of n-tuples of subparts of a document. Many logical formalisms for unary queries have been proposed, but less work has been done on logical formalisms for n-ary queries. This thesis is a fundamental study of n-ary queries that proposes two logical formalisms for n-ary queries: an extension of the navigational paradigm of the W3C standard XPath to n-ary queries, called the composition language, and an adapation of the spatial logic TQL introduced by Cardelli and Ghelli. The question of expressive power, the complexity of the query evaluation problem as well as the satisfiability problem are considered. In particular, the satisfiability problem for a TQL fragment is proved to be decidable by reduction to the emptiness test of a new class of tree automata with global constraints that is studied independently.
5

Reduction Techniques for Finite (Tree) Automata

Kaati, Lisa January 2008 (has links)
Finite automata appear in almost every branch of computer science, for example in model checking, in natural language processing and in database theory. In many applications where finite automata occur, it is highly desirable to deal with automata that are as small as possible, in order to save memory as well as excecution time. Deterministic finite automata (DFAs) can be minimized efficiently, i.e., a DFA can be converted to an equivalent DFA that has a minimal number of states. This is not the case for non-deterministic finite automata (NFAs). To minimize an NFA we need to compute the corresponding DFA using subset construction and minimize the resulting automaton. However, subset construction may lead to an exponential blow-up in the size of the automaton and therefore even if the minimal DFA may be small, it might not be feasible to compute it in practice since we need to perform the expensive subset construction. To aviod subset construction we can reduce the size of an NFA using heuristic methods. This can be done by identifying and collapsing states that are equal with respect to some suitable equivalence relation that preserves the language of the automaton. The choice of an equivalence relation is a trade-off between the desired amount of reduction and the computation time since the coarser a relation is, the more expensive it is to compute. This way we obtain a reduction method for NFAs that is useful in practice. In this thesis we address the problem of reducing the size of non-deterministic automata. We consider two different computation models: finite tree automata and finite automata. Finite automata can be seen as a special case of finite tree automata and all of the previously mentioned results concerning finite automata are applicable to tree automata as well. For non-deterministic bottom-up tree automata, we present a broad spectrum of different relations that can be used to reduce their size. The relations differ in their computational complexity and reduction capabilities. We also provide efficient algorithms to compute the relations where we translate the problem of computing a given relation on a tree automaton to the problem of computing the relation on a finite automaton. For finite automata, we have extended and re-formulated two algorithms for computing bisimulation and simulation on transition systems to operate on finite automata with alphabets. In particular, we consider a model of automata where the labels are encoded symbolically and we provide an algorithm for computing bisimulation on this partial symbolic encoding.
6

Lidské rozhraní k automatovým knihovnám nástroje MONA / Human Interface to Automata Libraries of MONA Tool

Pyšný, Radek January 2011 (has links)
Finite tree automata is formalism used in many different areas of computer science, among others in the area of formal verification. Nowdays there are few tools used for handling of finite tree automata, however libraries of MONA tool are the best choice. The finite tree automata are a frequent tool for formal verification of computer systems which work with dynamic data structures. The input format of finite tree automata for libraries of MONA tool is very difficult for humans because it is necessary to enter the move function of the finite tree automaton in a form of several multiterminal binary decision diagrams. The aim of this thesis is to design and implement tool to convert the finite set of move rules into internal format of the MONA tool.
7

A Decision Procedure for the WSkS Logic / A Decision Procedure for the WSkS Logic

Fiedor, Tomáš January 2014 (has links)
Různé typy logik se často používají jako prostředky pro formální specifikaci systémů. Slabá monadická logika druhého řádu s k následníky (WSkS) je jednou z nich a byť má poměrně velkou vyjadřovací sílu, stále je rozhodnutelná. Ačkoliv složitost testování splnitelnosti WSkS formule není ani ve třídě ELEMENTARY, tak existují přístupy založené na deterministických automatech, implementované např. v nástroji MONA, které efektně řeší omezenou třídu praktických příkladů, nicméně nefungují pro jiné. Tato práce rozšiřuje třídu prakticky řešitelných příkladů, a to tak, že využívá nedávno vyvinutých technik pro efektní manipulaci s nedeterministickými automaty (jako je například testování universality jazyka pomocí přístupu založeného na antichainech) a navrhuje novou rozhodovací proceduru pro WSkS využívající právě nedeterministické automaty. Procedura je implementována a ve srovnání s nástrojem MONA dosahuje v některých případech řádově lepších výsledků.
8

Weighted tree automata and quantitative logics with a focus on ambiguity

Paul, Erik 20 October 2017 (has links)
We relate various restrictions of a quantitative logic to subclasses of weighted tree automata. The subclasses are defined by the level of ambiguity allowed in the automata. This yields a generalization of the results by Stephan Kreutzer and Cristian Riveros, who considered the same problem for weighted automata over words. Along the way we also prove that a finitely ambiguous weighted tree automaton can be decomposed into unambiguous ones and define and analyze polynomial ambiguity for tree automata.
9

Charakterisierung erkennbarer Baumreihen über starken Bimonoiden durch gewichtete MSO-Logik

Märcker, Steffen 20 October 2017 (has links)
Endliche Wortautomaten ermöglichen es, reguläre Wortsprachen sowohl zu erkennen als auch zu erzeugen. Julius Richard Büchi gelang es, diese erkennbaren Wortsprachen mithilfe der monadischen Logik zweiter Stufe, kurz MSO, zu charakterisieren [7, 19]. Dieses Ergebnis wurde dann auf erkennbare Baumsprachen, das heißt Mengen von geordneten Bäumen, die durch einenAufwärtsbaumautomaten erkannt werden, erweitert [11, 28]. Anstelle der <-Relation auf den Positionen eines Wortes tritt dabei die Kindrelation edgei(x; y) für die Positionen eines Baumes. Die erkennbaren Wort- und Baumsprachen haben breite Anwendung in der Informatik gefunden. Zu den bekanntesten gehören beispielsweise reguläre Ausdrücke und Syntaxbäume vieler Programmiersprachen. Im Zusammenspiel mit XML ist die Schemasprache RelaxNG zur Dokumentvalidierung [9, 29], im Gegensatz zu XML-Schema, durch die reiche Theorie erkennbarer Baumsprachen fundiert.
10

Repairing strings and trees

Riveros Jaeger, Cristian January 2013 (has links)
What do you do if a computational object fails a specification? An obvious approach is to repair it, namely, to modify the object minimally to get something that satisfies the constraints. In this thesis we study foundational problems of repairing regular specifications over strings and trees. Given two regular specifications R and T we aim to understand how difficult it is to transform an object satisfying R into an object satisfying T. The setting is motivated by considering R to be a restriction -- a constraint that the input object is guaranteed to satisfy -- while T is a target -- a constraint that we want to enforce. We first study which pairs of restriction and target specifications can be repaired with a ``small'' numbers of changes. We formalize this as the bounded repair problem -- to determine whether one can repair each object satisfying R into T with a uniform number of edits. We provide effective characterizations of the bounded repair problem for regular specifications over strings and trees. These characterizations are based on a good understanding of the cyclic behaviour of finite automata. By exploiting these characterizations, we give optimal algorithms to decide whether two specifications are bounded repairable or not. We also consider the impact of limitations on the editing process -- what happens when we require the repair to be done sequentially over serialized objects. We study the bounded repair problem over strings and trees restricted to this streaming setting and show that this variant can be characterized in terms of finite games. Furthermore, we use this characterization to decide whether one can repair a pair of specifications in a streaming fashion with bounded cost and how to obtain a streaming repair strategy in this case. The previous notion asks for a uniform bound on the number of edits, but having this property is a strong requirement. To overcome this limitation, we study how to calculate the maximum number of edits per character needed to repair any object in R into T. We formalize this as the asymptotic cost -- the limit of the number of edits divided by the length of the input in the worst case. Our contribution is an algorithm to compute the asymptotic cost for any pair of regular specifications over strings. We also consider the streaming variant of this cost and we show how to compute it by reducing this problem to mean-payoff games.

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