Design, Implementation, and Testing of a High-Power Electrified Powertrain for an American Muscle CarLau, Robert January 2017 (has links)
This thesis outlines the design and implementation process of an electrified powertrain for use in an American muscle car. Designed as McMaster University's entrant to the EcoCAR 3 Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC), an electrified powertrain was developed to provide a Chevrolet Camaro with the performance expected by the American muscle car market while maintaining ever increasing fuel economy regulations. A background of current trends in vehicle electrification, including the prominent market segments experiencing these trends, will be explored along with the history of the classic and modern American muscle car's technical specifications. Following an investigation into existing vehicle electrification trends, the selected hybrid architecture will be discussed. The process of converting a conventional combustion powertrain into a series-parallel hybrid electric powertrain will be explored from the component-level through to full system design. Following a review of the design process for the powertrain, a high-level testing plan will be proposed using a number of test cells available within the facility. This plan will begin at the component-level exploring specific areas of potential complication and move up to complete system-level testing of powertrain functionality. / Thesis / Master of Applied Science (MASc) / Until recently, hybrid electric vehicles have tended to be available in a fairly limited market segment with few offerings for performance-oriented vehicle customers. The introduction of high performance hybrid vehicles suggests that this trend is likely to change. Increasingly more stringent fuel economy and emissions standards means that performance vehicle segments such as American muscle cars must adopt new technologies to retain their performance characteristics. Hybrid powertrains are one solution to providing and improving on the iconic performance of American muscle while meeting future regulatory changes. The addition of a number of electrified components to a gasoline powertrain can assist in achieving desired performance while reducing fuel economy. This thesis investigates the detailed design process adopted to make these modifications while maintaining the functionality expected by muscle car owners. After the design and assembly of the hybrid muscle car powertrain, a specific testing plan was laid out to ensure that the system is capable of sustaining the expected power output. This design and testing process can help introduce new hybrid vehicles to the market which are capable of meeting both the upcoming fuel economy regulations as well as the ongoing performance expectations of the muscle car market.
This research investigates the effects of both a Hybrid Energy Storage System and an Electrified Turbocharger in a consumer performance vehicle. This research also attempts to support the development of a prototype vehicle containing a Hybrid Energy Storage System currently being developed at McMaster University. Using a custom simulation tool developed in Matlab Simulink, Simulink models of each of the technologies were developed to predict the behavior of these subsystems across multiple physical domains. Control modeling, optimization and testing was completed for both systems. In addition, controls modeling for the Hybrid Energy Storage System was integrated with the development effort for a prototype vehicle considering the specifics of real world components. To assess the impact of these technologies on a performance vehicle platform, the simulation tool tested each technology using multiple vehicle variations. Three vehicle variants were developed, representing: a conventional performance hybrid design, a hybrid vehicle containing an electrified turbocharger, and a vehicle containing a Hybrid Energy Storage System. Electrical system peak output power was the vehicle specification held constant between each vehicle variant. Each vehicle variant was simulated against a number of traditional drive cycles representing everyday driving scenarios in an attempt to compare fuel economy while identifying each technologies individual impact on the vehicles performance. Finally, each vehicle variant was simulated using a custom performance drive cycle in a virtual race. Both technologies as assessed and in comparison to a larger battery variant, did not result in improved fuel economies during conventional vehicle driving. Both the Hybrid Energy Storage System and electrified turbocharger demonstrated improved vehicle performance in particular scenarios. / Thesis / Master of Applied Science (MASc) / Electrified vehicles have not typically been viewed as performance vehicles. A recent trend has seen a growing number of manufacturers turn to hybrid and electric powertrains to produce high performing vehicles. However, a performance vehicle's electrical power is conventionally limited by the size and power of its battery, adding weight and cost. Two technologies offer the ability to increase the power of these electrified components without the need for a large battery. First, Hybrid Energy Storage System combines ultra-capacitors and batteries to increase the power density of the system. Second, an Electrified Turbocharger improves the turbo lag of a turbocharged engine and also recovers waste heat energy from the exhaust gases which is then used to propel the vehicle. This research identifies and demonstrates the potential impact these two technologies have when included in an American Muscle Car.
In an effort to reduce global emissions by electrifying vehicles and machines with internal combustion engines has led to the development of batteries that are more powerful and efficient than the common lead acid battery. One of the most popular batteries being used for such an installation is lithium ion, but due to its short effective usable lifetime, charging time, and costs has driven researcher to other technologies to replace it. Vanadium redox flow batteries have come into the spotlight recently as a means of replacing rechargeable batteries in electric vehicles and has previously be used mainly to store energy for load leveling. It possesses many qualities that would be beneficial to electrify vehicles. The battery has the ability for power and energy to be sized independently which is not dissimilar to internal combustion vehicles. It also has the potential for a tolerance to low discharges, fast response time, and can quickly be refueled by replacing the electrolyte; just like is done when a car refuels at the gas station. The purpose of the study is to determine the possibility of using vanadium redox flow batteries to power heavy construction equipment, a wheel loader, with a finite amount of space available for implementation. A model has been designed in MATLAB to determine how long the battery could last under typically applications for the wheel loader which needs a peak power of 200 kW. From the volume available it has been determined that the battery can be installed with an energy capacity of 148 kWh. The results of the model show that vanadium redox flow batteries can be used to power a wheel loader but due to the limiting energy density and cell components it remains to be impractical.
Electric Vehicles & Fuel Retailers : Challenges with the Provision of Fast Charging in Swedish Fuel Stations / Elektriska fordon & drivmedelsbolag : Utmaningar med tillhandhållandet av snabbladdning på svenska drivmedelsstationerThorsell, Gustav January 2020 (has links)
Battery-Electric Vehicles (BEVs) are gaining increasing momentum and their adoption is projected to continue at a rapid pace. In contrast to the predominate vehicle type, Internal-Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs), the BEVs rely on electricity rather than conventional fuels for propulsion. For the fuel retailers, the actors managing fuel stations and supply fuel to vehicle users, the shift towards BEVs may impose a demand decline for their core product. One way of mitigating the effects of this transition for fuel retailers, has been attributed to the provision of charging for electric vehicles in fuel stations, something that is offered to a limited extent by a few fuel retailers in Sweden today. The purpose of this study has been to explore the main challenges associated with the provision of fast charging in Swedish fuel stations. Anchored in a study of the four largest fuel retailers in Sweden, the findings suggest that the provision of fast charging is subject to financial challenges in terms of long investments horizons, with the associated investment risk being negatively influenced by uncertainties of technology development, future price levels for fast charging and future utilization rates of the chargers. Furthermore, with the lack of direct financial incentives of charging sales in the short-term, other motives have been observed for the provision of fast charging, namely goodwill and traffic building. The prevalence of different types of fuel retail formats have been shown to influence the extent of which benefits can be claimed from fast charging provision, and that this is manifested in a bias towards certain formats and locations for the choice of fuel stations to provide fast charging in. Challenges have also been identified in the sense of fulfillment of necessary preconditions to facilitate a business model suitable for fast charging provision. The study concludes that the main challenges revolve around the attainment of a financially sustainable business case for fast chargers. / Elfordon blir allt mer populära och utvecklingen förväntas försätta i hög takt. I kontrast med den vanligast förekommande motortekniken för vägfordon, förbränningsmotorn, så använder elfordon just el istället för konventionella bränslen för framdrift. För drivmedelsbolagen, de aktörer som ansvarar för drivmedelstationer och tillhandhåller drivmedel till fordonsanvändare, kan en övergång mot elfordon innebära en minskad efterfrågan på deras kärnprodukt. Ett sätt att hantera konsekvenserna av en minskad efterfrågan på drivmedel, har tillskrivits tillhandahållandet av laddning för elfordon på drivmedelsstationerna, ett erbjudande som idag tillhandahålls av ett fåtal drivmedelsbolag på ett begränsat antal stationer i Sverige. Syftet med den här studien har varit att undersöka de huvudsakliga utmaningarna med tillhandhållandet av snabbladdning på drivmedelsstationer i Sverige. Baserat på en studie av de fyra största drivmedelsbolagen i Sverige, pekar resultaten på att tillhandahållandet av snabbladdning medför stora finansiella utmaningar. Detta innefattar långa investeringshorisonter, med en investeringsrisk som påverkas negativt av osäkerheter kring teknikutveckling, framtida prisnivåer för snabbladdning och framtida användningsgrad av snabbladdare. Med en avsaknad av direkt kortsiktig finansiell vinning från försäljning av snabbladdning, så har det framgått att det finns andra motiv för tillhandahållandet av snabbladdning, det handlar då om kundflöde och goodwill. Förekomsten av olika stationsformat för drivmedelsförsäljning har visat sig påverka till vilken grad skapat värde från snabbladdningserbjudandet kan tillgodoses, och att det har påverkat val av stationsformat och plats för tillhandahållandet av snabbladdning. Ytterligare utmaningar har identifierats gällande att skapa nödvändiga förutsättningarna för att möjliggöra en affärsmodell anpassad för snabbladdning. En slutsats har dragits att de huvudsakliga utmaningarna med tillhandahållandet av snabbladdning handlar om att uppnå en finansiellt hållbar affär.
This thesis outlines the development of a control system for a series-parallel plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The vehicle, developed at McMaster University for the EcoCAR 3 Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition, was produced in an effort to provide a Chevrolet Camaro with a high-performance, fuel efficient, hybrid powertrain. A rational design methodology was adopted and guided the development of the control system and the implementation of its respective algorithms. A simulation tool was created using MATLAB and Simulink which, in turn, allowed for the effectiveness of the supervisory control logic to be evaluated by approximating the vehicle’s energy consumption, fuel consumption, and emissions. The impact of hybridizing the vehicle’s powertrain was similarly assessed by comparing it against its unelectrified counterpart, the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro LT. A solution to the vehicle’s energy management problem was proposed in the form of an Adaptive Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (A-ECMS) which was then evaluated against more common heuristic approaches as well as non-adaptive instantaneous minimization methods. An artificial neural network was selected as the strategy’s adaptation mechanism and it was used to identify specific vehicular driving patterns in real-time. The neural network addresses many issues that arise due to the sensitivity of algorithms that attempt to solve the energy management problem without prior knowledge of the driving cycle. The methods used during the process of the control system’s verification and calibration are also discussed in this thesis and, in addition, encompass the use of software representations of the vehicle’s Electronic Control Units (ECUs), the development of test cases, and the supervisory control software’s evaluation in the Model-in-the-Loop (MIL), Software-in-the-Loop (SIL), and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) environments. / Thesis / Master of Applied Science (MASc) / Compared to conventional combustion vehicles, an automobile with an electrified propulsion system has the potential to reduce fuel consumption and emissions due to the presence of an energy storage system and one or more electric machines. These benefits, however, come at the cost of increased control system complexity. The question of how and when to use alternative energy sources – whether it be electrical or fuel energy – in a hybrid vehicle is at the epicenter of research and development initiatives in the automotive industry. Traditional heuristic methods have proven to be unstable due to their sensitivity to driving conditions and that optimal control policies require prior knowledge of the vehicle’s route and destination, and therefore, are not suitable in most applications. Strategies which attempt to instantaneously minimize a vehicle’s fuel or energy consumption, however, can overcome these aforementioned obstacles. As such, this area of research and development has received much interest. The objective of this research was twofold: the first being to develop a control system for a series-parallel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle in a rational and systematic manner, and, secondarily, to evaluate the benefits of instantaneous minimization methods for energy management.
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