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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

THEORETICAL STUDY TO IMPROVE THE ENERGY BALANCE IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT : Investigation of microalgae photobioreactor in biological treatment step and open algal pond in reject water treatment in Uppsala and Västerås

Marcin, Richard, Mucha, Matej January 2015 (has links)
The self-treatment system of nature cannot handle man-caused high rate water pollution on its own, therefore cleaning in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is necessary to avoid eutrophication – excessive enrichment of nature by nutrients. Current technologies applied in WWTPs are old, outdating and highly energy demanding, especially biological treatment step generally requires large amount of energy for aeration of water. The alternative to current system could be microalgae treatment step, which would use green algae to consume pollutants present in the waste water, namely nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals. Via photosynthesis it could produce oxygen required for biological oxidation of organic matter. Furthermore carbon source is necessary for microalgal growth, this can be added to the water as CO2 produced in other industries and so decrease global greenhouse gas footprint. Co-digestion of microalgae with undigested wastewater sludge under mesophilic conditions can give a synergic effect for biogas production, therefore harvested and co-digested microalgae could contribute to positive energy balance of WWTP. Full-scale microalgae cultivation in WWTP can be achieved only when good grow is guaranteed. This is a result of many factors, particularly access to nutrients, light condition, water temperature, and pH. The goal of master’s thesis was to understand and evaluate main factors influencing algal growth using literature review, propose design of microalgae treatment step with artificial lights and evaluate energy balance, of wastewater treatment plants in Uppsala and Västerås with new design. The work proposed two different designs of microalgae treatment steps, modelled in Excel and applied to current state of municipal WWTP in Västerås and Uppsala with belonging satellite plants. The first design of microalgae activated photobioreactor (MAASPBR) aimed to replace current biological treatment step. This is possible in Västerås and Uppsala WWTPs if microalgae can consume 75% of total nitrogen (Ntot) and produce at least 13.5 and 2.4 tonne O2/day in Västerås and Uppsala respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed that minimal volumetric algal yield of 0.15 kg/m3 ,day and 0.25 kg/m3 ,day is required for Västerås and Uppsala respectively, when oxygen production rate of 1.92 kg O2/kg microalgae is assumed. Furthermore harvested and co-digested algae with sewage sludge contributes to significant increase of biogas production and negligible transportation energy increase. The second design of open algal pond for reject water (OAPRW) aims to cultivate microalgae on reject water with high concentration of nutrients, generated in sludge centrifuge. The model assumed high algal growth due to excessive amount of nutrients and increased water temperature to 24°C. Results show a possible 23% and 20% electricity saving on blowers in the biological treatment in Västerås and Uppsala respectively. Both models have positive impact on energy balance in all WWTPs, however MAASPBR has greater uncertainties, because this type of photobioreactor has not been tested unlike OAPRW which has been tested in pilot plant scale.
2

Ultraviolet disinfection system for constructed wetlands /

Ly, Jong Chan. January 1900 (has links)
Thesis (M.S.)--Humboldt State University, 2008. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 40-44). Also available via Humboldt Digital Scholar.
3

Investigations of the Effects of Lowering the Temperature in Full Scale Mesophilic Biogas Digesters at a Wastewater Treatment Plant

Wilhelmsson, Ella January 2020 (has links)
This thesis has investigated the effects of running the two full scale biogas digesters at Slottshagen wastewater treatment plant at 34 °C compared to 37 °C, in terms of process stability, biogas production and energy savings with the aim of saving energy and money by not heating the digesters as much. The main objective was to investigate whether it is at all possible to operate the biogas process at 34 °C or if the process becomes inhibited or otherwise unstable. If the process could be operated at 34 °C it might mean savings of both energy and money, provided that there is still a sufficient production of biogas.The experiment lasted for three months and investigated the short-term effects of the reduction of temperature. The process was monitored closely, and samples from the reactors were collected and analysed twice a week to ensure the stability of the biogas process. Several parameters were monitored online, the biogas production and methane content amongst others. Other parameters were calculated, such as the degree of degradation and specific methane production. This was done to ensure process stability and a sufficient production of biogas. The energy balance was calculated to evaluate if energy was saved by lowering the temperature in the digesters.The results show that the biogas process does remain stable at 34 °C while still producing a satisfactory amount of biogas during the short time of the experiment. Calculations show that both energy and money has been saved during the experiment. However, the system is largely dependent on seasonal variations, therefore further studies over a longer time period would be desirable. During the course of the thesis it has also become evident that the biogas process at Slottshagen is irregular in several aspects, and that it would be beneficial to even the process out, especially with regards to the hydraulic retention time. Making the process more even would enable further improvements to be made and simplify interpretations and comparisons of processstability data.
4

Online fluorescence monitoring of effluent organic matter in wastewater treatment plants

Carstea, E.M., Zakharova, Y.S., Bridgeman, John 16 February 2018 (has links)
Yes / Wastewater treatment is an energy-intensive operation. Energy consumption is forecast to increase by 60% in the forthcoming decade due to tightened legislation surrounding the discharge of final effluent to watercourses. Treatment plants rely on the time-consuming and unreliable biochemical oxygen demand to assess the quality of final effluent, leading to process inefficiencies. Here, the authors show that fluorescence spectroscopy is a robust technique for real-time monitoring of changes in effluent quality. Three portable fluorimeters were installed for one month at the final effluent discharge point of a large municipal wastewater treatment plant. The authors show that organic matter composition of the wastewater varies diurnally depending on the flow rate and antecedent rainfall. High fluorescence intensity and ammonia are attributed to sewage sludge liquor, which is regularly discharged to the treatment plant. Moreover, elevated fluorescence intensities were recorded as a result of process failure following a power outage. The study shows that online fluorescence analysis is capable of detecting both minor changes in effluent quality and issues with treatment process performance. / European Commission Framework Programme 7, Marie Curie IEF (PIEF-GA-2012-329962) and the Core Program, ANCS (PN 16.40.01.01).
5

Assessment of the Basis for Increased Illness in Workers Exposed to Biosolids

Niang, Mamadou 22 October 2020 (has links)
No description available.
6

Assessing the Sources of Microplastic Pollution in The Maumee Watershed: A Geospatial Approach

Ahmed, Tanzia Tasneem January 2021 (has links)
No description available.
7

Fate of Glucocorticoid Receptor Agonists During Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes

Wu, Shimin, Wu, Shimin January 2016 (has links)
In recent years, endocrine disruption of corticosteroid signaling pathways in wildlife and humans by environmental chemicals have attracted increasing attention. The integrated potential of chemicals in the aquatic environment that disrupt corticosteroid actions have been evaluated using in vitro glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mediated bioassays. Exogenous natural and synthetic corticosteroids (CSs), which are widely used in human and animal therapeutic applications, were demonstrated to be the most important GR agonists, that can potentially cause adverse effects, especially on aquatic organisms. To date, only a few studies have investigated the occurrence and behavior of GR agonists in the aquatic environment and their removal in conventional wastewater treatment plants. Furthermore, there are hardly any data reported on the removal of GR agonists by advanced water and wastewater treatment, especially those synthetic CSs with high potency. To further understand the fate of GR agonists in water and wastewater treatment processes, a sensitive and robust LC-MS/MS method was successfully developed for analyzing a wide range of GR agonists in various environmental waters. The occurrence of GR agonists in surface water and groundwater was monitored along the Lower Santa Cruz River (SCR). Several GR agonists were detected, and a trend of degradation was observed downstream the two WWTP outfalls for both surface water and groundwater. The fate of GR agonists in a local wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was investigated, and up to 14 GR agonists were detected at different stages. Highly potent synthetic CSs, including clobetasol propionate (CBP), fluticasone propionate (FTP), fluocinolone acetonide (FCA), and triamcinolone acetonide (TCA), were poorly removed in WWTP. Negative removal of some CSs was observed in primary treatment, which may due to the deconjugation of CS conjugates. Removal of GR agonists in secondary effluent during various advanced water treatment processes, including UV, ozonation, MF, RO and chlorination, were studied. UV and RO appeared to be the most efficient treatment process for the attenuation of GR agonists, followed by ozone, while chlorination had little effects on GR agonists in water. Bench-scale experiments were then carried out to investigate the removal of GR agonists by ultraviolet based advanced oxidation processes (UV/AOPs), and powder activated carbon (PAC). UV/chlorine and UV/H2O2 were demonstrated to be effective in removal GR agonists in wastewater, and UV photolysis would be the predominant mechanism in UV/AOP processes. Four types of PACs were tested for removing GR agonists in wastewater effluent, and Cabot HDB carbon was suggested, while Calgon PWA carbon was not recommended due to its low removal efficiency.
8

Sustainable Ambient Air Quality Monitoring System

Aleti, Poojitha 10 August 2016 (has links)
Deterioration of air quality is a growing concern in the world. Air pollution causes serious health problems and also can sometimes result in death. In order to assess air quality, long term and continuous monitoring of pollutant levels in ambient air are needed, such monitoring is often expensive, cumbersome, and resource intensive and so the monitoring programs often fail to succeed. This research focused on designing an ambient air monitoring system by integrating (1) low-cost sensor with a battery, (2) repurposed materials to fabricate all-weather housing for air monitors, and (3) electronics needed to download the data to an on-site secure digital (SD) card, and to push the data wirelessly to the server. This monitoring system was tested at the selected locations in Harvey and Marrero Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) by monitoring hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels. Preliminary analysis was done for few days and also, the results were analyzed.
9

Disposição de resíduos gerados em estações de tratamento de água em estações de tratamento de esgoto / Disposal of water treatment plants sludge in wastewater treatment plants

Scalize, Paulo Sergio 08 August 2003 (has links)
O presente trabalho foi realizado em duas fases. Na primeira, foram estimados os efeitos produzidos nos decantadores primários de uma ETE, após receber resíduo da ETA-SC, que utiliza sulfato de alumínio como coagulante. Foram realizados ensaios em colunas de sedimentação, onde os parâmetros SST, SSV, cor, turbidez, DQO, coliformes totais, Escherichia coli e parasitas, pesquisados no sobrenadante, diminuíram com o aumento da quantidade de resíduo adicionado. Com relação aos sedimentos obtidos nas colunas de sedimentação, foi encontrada maior quantidade de ST e menor resistência específica nos lodos provenientes das colunas que receberam os resíduos da ETA-SC. No teste de atividade metanogênica, a concentração molar de metano foi reduzida nos sistemas que receberam resíduo da ETA-SC, influenciando negativamente no desenvolvimento dos microrganismos metanogênicas. As espécies de microrganismos do gênero Methanothrix sp foram inibidas, sendo encontradas em maior número no frasco-reator controle e em menor quantidade a medida que se aumentou a quantidade do resíduo adicionado. Nesta etapa foi constatado que o resíduo da ETA-SC poderá apresentar interferências negativas sobre a digestão anaeróbia do lodo produzido em decantadores primários de uma ETE. Na segunda fase, na estação piloto, composta de lagoa de aeração seguida de lagoa de sedimentação, que recebeu resíduo da ETA-Fonte, que utiliza cloreto férrico como coagulante, foi verificado que tal resíduo melhorou a qualidade do efluente em termos de DQO, DBO, SST, turbidez, cor, amônio, nitrato, NTK e fosfato total. Os parâmetros ST, SDT, cloreto, nitrito, condutividade e pH não apresentaram diferenças significativas. Em relação ao exame microscópico não houve influências negativas no licor misto das lagoas de aeração. O lodo formado nas lagoas de sedimentação piloto apresentou-se em maior quantidade na lagoa que recebeu resíduo da ETA-Fonte. Neste lodo a resistência específica a filtração foi menor em comparação ao lodo da lagoa que não recebeu resíduo da ETA-Fonte. A desidratação deste lodo por centrifugação necessitou menor quantidade de polieletrólito. Baseado neste estudo não foi verificado interferências que possa impedir o lançamento do resíduo da ETA-Fonte na ETE-Araraquara. / This work was carried out in two phases. Effects of disposing the residues from a water treatment plant - ETASC, which uses alum as primary coagulant on the primary settling tanks was evaluated in the first one. Sedimentation tests using column indicated that parameters such as TSS, VSS, colour, turbidity, COD, total coliformes totais, Escherichia coli e parasites in the supernatant decreased with the increase of the amount of the water treatment wastes added to the column. With relation to the sediments produced in the column, it was found great amount of TS and lower specific solids resistance in those generated in the columns where the water treatment plant residues-WTPR were used. Molar concentration of methane was reduced in the tests performed with the sediments produced with water treatment plant residues and thus, altering negatively the development of methanogenic organisms. The growth of species of microorganism of genera Methanothrix sp was inhibited, which were found in great number in the control flask (with out WTPR) and in lower number as it was increased the amount of WTPR added to the column. It was observed that the WTPR generated in the city water treatment plant may interfere in the anaerobic digestion of sludge produced in primary settling tanks of a wastetreatment plant. A continuous pilot plant was operated in the second phase, which consisted of two aerated lagoon each one followed by a settling lagoon. Waste and WTPR from a watter treatment plant which ferric chloride were fed in one of the systems. It was observed that the use of WTPR improved the effluent quality of the settling lagoon evaluated in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, turbidity, color, ammonium, nitrate, TKN and total phosphate. Some parameters, such as TS, TDS, chloride, nitride, conductivity and pH did not present significant differences in both systems. Microscopic examinations indicated that no influence resulted in the aerated lagoon mixed liquor. A higher amount of sludge was formed in the lagoon system which received the WTPR. The specific resistance to filtration of this sludge was lower than that formed in the lagoon system with out WTPR addition. When dewatering both sludges, that one produced with the addition of WTPR required less amount of polymer. It was concluded that the WTPR produced in the water treatment plant of Araraquara may be disposed in the city wastewater treatment plant.
10

Avaliação da disposição de lodo gerado numa estação de tratamento de água em reator anaeróbio de fluxo ascendente e manto de lodo UASB. / Evaluation of throwing sludge generated on a treatment water station with an upflow anaerobic sludge blank reactor (UASB).

Alvarez Rosario, Carlos Gonzalo 13 March 2007 (has links)
As estações de tratamento de água de abastecimento (ETAs) têm a finalidade de fornecer água potável. Neste processo de tratamento de água são gerados resíduos, os quais historicamente têm sido lançados em cursos de água, aumentando o nível de degradação destes. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o impacto do lançamento desses resíduos numa estação de tratamento de esgoto (ETE) com reator anaeróbio de fluxo ascendente e manto de lodo (UASB), buscando estudar uma alternativa para a disposição adequada desses resíduos. Para o estudo da influência do lançamento do lodo da ETA em um reator de fluxo ascendente e manto de lodo (UASB) foram utilizados dois reatores em escala piloto. O esgoto utilizado para alimentar o sistema de tratamento foi proveniente do Conjunto Residencial da Universidade de São Paulo, já o lodo utilizado foi obtido na ETA da cidade de Juquitiba. A presente pesquisa foi dividida em três fases: a primeira etapa (Fase 1) constituiu-se na partida dos reatores UASB 1 e UASB 2; na segunda etapa (Fase 2) estudou-se o desempenho dos sistemas sob regime estabilizado; e na terceira e última etapa (Fase 3) o reator UASB 2 recebeu adição de duas dosagens de lodo de ETA, sendo a primeira de 50 mg/L (Fase 3a) e a segunda de 75 mg/L (Fase 3b), em termos de sólidos em suspensão totais. As condições operacionais adotadas foram: vazão de 50 L/h e tempo de detenção hidráulico (TDH) de 8 horas. Os resultados apresentados no texto indicaram que, com o acréscimo de lodo da ETA, o reator UASB 2 não teve seu desempenho afetado negativamente, e a remoção de matéria orgânica em termos de DQO, DBO e fósforo foi muito próxima entre os reatores UASB 1 e UASB 2. Conclui-se que com a disposição de lodo em um reator UASB, não haverá interferência prejudicial no desempenho operacional do mesmo. / Water treatment stations have the purpose of providing potable water. In this process of water treatment, a variety of residuals are produced; these, historically have been discharged into water streams, increasing the water pollution. The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of discharging residuals in a treatment station with an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blank Reactor (UASB), and try to find an alternative for the appropriate treatment of these. For the study of the influence of discharging WTA sludge into a UASB reactor, two reactors in pilot scale were used. The disposals used to feed the treatment system came from the apartment building where Sao Paulo University students live, while the sludge used was obtained in the water treatment station from Juquitiba city. This research has been divided into three stages: The first one (Stage 1) consisted of the setting of the reactors UASB1 and UASB2. In the second stage (Stage 2) it was studied the performance of the systems in the balance regime. In the third one (Stage 3), the reactor UASB2 received the supply of two portions of WTA sludge, the first one of 50 mg/L (Stage 3a) and the second one of 75 mg/L (Stage 3b). These amounts are determined in terms of the TSS. The operational conditions adopted were flow of 50 L/h and TDH of eight hours. The results obtained indicated that with the addition of WTA sludge the reactor UASB2 did not show inferior performance. At the same time the organic material removal, in terms of DQO, DBO and phosphorous content, was similar between the reactors UASB1 and UASB2, concluding that with the supply of WTP sludge in the reactor UASB, there won\'t he detrimental effects in the reactor performance.

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