The success of biological weed control programs has been limited by a lack of understanding of the stress physiology of insect damage and pathogen development. This case study with the perennial weed, Cirsium arvense, (L.) Scop. evaluated the stress of five natural enemies. Attack by a seed head predator, Orellia ruficauda (F.) caused about 21.5% predation and may reduce seed dispersal. The stress of stem gall formation (Urophora cardui (L.)) is greatest when the gall occurs on young plants and on the mainshoot and defoliation simulation (Cassida rubiginosa Muller) is most effective at high levels on young plants. In nature, however, the latter two natural enemies are not synchronized with these susceptible stages, thereby reducing their effectiveness. Although Cleonus piger Scop., a root crown inhabitant, can result in plant death, regeneration of damaged vascular tissue can occur. Plants which emerge systemically infected with Puccinia punctiformis (Str.) Rohl. (rust) rarely survive the season. A matrix model simulating the effects on Canada thistle population dynamics by the natural enemies was applied.
|Creators||Forsyth, Sheila Florence.|
|Source Sets||Library and Archives Canada ETDs Repository / Centre d'archives des thèses électroniques de Bibliothèque et Archives Canada|
|Type||Electronic Thesis or Dissertation|
|Coverage||Doctor of Philosophy (Department of Plant Science.)|
|Rights||All items in eScholarship@McGill are protected by copyright with all rights reserved unless otherwise indicated.|
|Relation||alephsysno: 000183044, proquestno: AAINK66571, Theses scanned by UMI/ProQuest.|
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