Attachment has long been viewed as the fundamental mechanism underlying the way in which one relates to others. However little attention has been paid to the impact of attachment on spending time alone with the self. This would seem of particular importance to the adolescent population where spending time alone increases and is seen as part of the developmental process of individuation. It has been proposed that this increase in solitude coincides with advancing cognitive skills with which to make constructive-reflection. To explore the possible relationship between solitude (choosing to spend time alone), attachment, self-reflection and the ability to cope with emotional distress. Non-experimental, cross-sectional between subjects design. Using self-report measures, differences in level of preference for solitude were explored in relation to attachment styles, reflection, rumination and emotional self-efficacy.
Boardman, Frederick Henry
No description available.
The following narrative literature review considers the historical and social context in which understandings of mental health difficulties in women have developed. The review examines how these understandings have influenced certain women's accounts of their own psychological distress. It explores the conceptual frameworks used by some women to construct their mental health narratives. These include: the use of metaphors to represent the duality between their difficulties and their sense of self; the importance of accepting the illness and the limits it places on women; and the social context surrounding women with mental health difficulties. This review argues that within the peer-reviewed literature women's narratives of psychological distress remain relatively consistent despite shifts in services. Furthermore, commonalities in these women's mental health accounts reflect the influence of historical beliefs about mental health difficulties (e.g. 'madness' and 'badness') and socially constructed conceptualisations (e.g. the medical model of psychological distress). The findings of the literature review are discussed in relation to the development of mental health services.
Shaw, Daniel Joel
Adolescence is a developmental phase during which social relationships take on particular importance, placing high demands on inter-personal interactions. Social cognition continues to mature throughout adolescence, as do many of the brain systems involved in its individual facets. This thesis comprises analyses applied to data collected from adolescents under the first longitudinal study to employ an action-observation design while measuring brain response to hands and faces with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the first of these analyses (Chapter 3) I assess developmental trajectories of brain response within discrete nodes of the action-observation network (AON). Using univariate mixed-model regression I reveal linear and quadratic trajectories within this fronto-parietal network. In Chapter 4, a multivariate statistical approach to functional connectivity reveals a greater recruitment of the social-emotional network during the observation of angry hand actions in male relative to female adolescents. In Chapter 5, by applying the same multivariate statistical approach used in Chapter 4 to measure functional connectivity within a pre-defined face-processing network, further sex differences in patterns of age-related changes in functional connectivity are identified. Finally, the analyses comprising Chapter 6 illustrate not only a relationship between relative increases in heart rate and brain response during the observation of hand- and face-actions, but also that this relationship is modulated by higher scores on a measure of resistance to peer influence.
Childhood maltreatment: Developmental effects on executive functioning and inner speech during adolescenceKirke-Smith, Mimi January 2013 (has links)
Research over the past decade indicates that adolescents subjected to childhood maltreatment have more emotional and behavioural disturbances and lower cognitive abilities than typically developing (TD) adolescents. These difficulties are consistent with weaknesses in executive functioning (EF) skills. The main aim of the research reported in this thesis was to investigate whether maltreated adolescents have impairments in EF abilities compared to TD adolescents. It further assessed whether emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) could explain any potential differences, and whether variances in trauma symptomatology had differential effects on EF. A secondary aim was to investigate whether disruption to inner speech during a planning task had a greater effect on the planning efficiency of TD adolescents than maltreated adolescents. To mirror the investigations into EF, EBD as well as variations in trauma symptomatology were also examined. Forty adolescents subjected to child maltreatment, together with 40 TD adolescents for comparison, completed a battery of tasks designed to assess their EF abilities. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were carried out to examine group differences in each of the 10 EF measures. Further analyses were carried out to examine the influence of EBD and trauma symptomatology on EF. To investigate whether disruptions to inner speech during a planning task had a greater effect on the planning efficiency of TD adolescents than maltreated adolescents, participants completed a ‘tower’ task with two conditions: Articulatory Suppression (AS) to prevent the use of inner speech; and foot-tapping to act as a ‘control’ non-speech interference condition. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were carried out to explore group differences in planning efficiency under the two interference conditions. The influences of EBD and trauma symptomatology were also examined. The maltreated adolescents had significantly lower performance than the TD adolescents on most of the EF tasks, even after controlling for EBD. Furthermore, the results indicated that maltreatment type was related to EF abilities. In the AS condition of the tower task, the planning efficiency of maltreated adolescents was significantly poorer than that of TD adolescents, even after controlling for EBD, suggesting they were more vulnerable to disruptions to inner speech. Again, maltreatment type was significantly related. However, there were no group differences in planning efficiency in the foot-tapping condition. These findings support the hypothesis that impairments in EF and inner speech are the underlying reason that adolescents with histories of childhood maltreatment struggle to cope both inside and outside the classroom.
A comparison of audio recordings and therapist's process notes in child and adolescent psychoanalytic psychotherapyCreaser, Miriam January 2015 (has links)
Therapistsʼ process notes - written descriptions of a session produced shortly afterwards from memory - hold a significant role in child and adolescent psychoanalytic psychotherapy. They are central in training, in supervision, and in developing oneʼs understanding through selfsupervision and forms of psychotherapy research. This thesis examines such process notes through a comparison with audio recordings of the same sessions. In so doing, it aims to generate theory that might illuminate the causes of significantly patterned discrepancies between the notes and recordings, in order to understand more about the processes at work in psychoanalytic psychotherapy and to explore the nature of process notes, their values and limitations. The literature searches conducted revealed limited relevant studies. All identified studies that compare process notes with recordings of sessions seek to quantify the differences between the two forms of recording. Unlike these, this thesis explores the meaning of the differences between process notes and recordings through qualitative data analysis. Using psychoanalytically informed grounded theory, in total nine sets of process notes and recordings from three different psychoanalytic psychotherapists are analysed. The analysis identifies eight core categories of findings. Initial theories are developed from these categories, most significantly concerning the role and influence of a ʻcore transference dynamicʼ between therapist and patient. Further theory is developed on the nature and function of process notes as a means for the therapistʼs conscious and unconscious processing of the session, as well as on the nature of the influence of the relationships – both internal and external – within which they are written. In the light of the findings, a proposal is made for a new approach for learning about the patient and clinical work, ʻthe comparison methodʼ (supervision involving a comparison of process notes and recordings), and, in particular, for its inclusion within the training of psychoanalytic psychotherapists. Further recommendations for research are also made.
A vast amount of research has found links between anxiety and attention biases towards threatening stimuli. Theoretical models of attention in anxiety focus on two main attentional pathways; these are selective attention to threat(e.g., Mogg & Bradley, 1998), where attention is automatically capture by threatening stimuli, and hypervigilance for threat (e.g., Richards,Benson & Hadwin, 2011), where attention is spread across the visual field and threat is detected and processed by covert attention. Attentional control is argued to have a moderating role in the relationship between anxiety and attention biases to threat (i.e. attention biases to threat are most evident in anxious individual with low attentional control). In addition, research indicates that reduced attentional control and attention biases for threat stimuli are associated with poor social adjustment across development,including poor peer relationships and atypical social behaviour. The current thesis used an eye-movement paradigm to explore the relationship between anxiety, attention to threat and social adjustment in youths and adults. The remote distractor paradigm was used to measure attentional capture, as well as hypervigilance, for threat. In this paradigm, rapid eye movements to the angry face distractor provide evidence of attentional capture to threat. Slower latencies to initiate eye movements to the target in the presence of an angry distractor face provide evidence of hypervigilance for threat. Across three studies the results showed that anxious behaviour was unrelated to selective attention for threat. Instead the results showed that neuroticism (i.e. a personality trait characterised by increased levels of anxiety) was associated with hypervigilance for angry (but not happy or neutral) faces. In addition the current experiments revealed links between internalising traits (trait anxiety and neuroticism) and impaired in hibition of threat and social adjustment difficulties including poor performance during social interaction and low socio-metric status. The results from the current experiments are in line with previous research suggesting that anxiety is characterised by impaired inhibition of threat, where this is facilitated by a broad attentional beam. In addition, the current result fit theoretical models and empirical findings that highlight links between attentional mechanisms and poor social adjustment.
The pursuit of an ideal self and related goals is a constant throughout the lifespan, and a great deal of motivation and self-regulation is required in order to move closer to this ideal. For adolescents in particular, the ability to harness enough motivation to pursue important goals can be a struggle. The current thesis examined the ways in which having close affirming relationships may enhance young people’s ability to pursue their goals, and move closer to their ideal selves. An established inter-personal model of motivation, the Michelangelo Phenomenon, was used as a backdrop for a series of four empirical studies, each building on the previous to further clarify the contributions self-esteem and relationship affirmation make to goal pursuit. The first study extended the concept of relationship affirmation for use in relationships other than romantic couples, to determine whether all forms of affirming relationships could be beneficial to goal pursuit and movement towards the ideal self. This being the case, along with relationship affirmation mediating the positive relation between self-esteem and goal pursuit motivation, the next study extended this further by applying the theory to adolescents undertaking their last years of school. A three time-point school-based study was carried out, testing the mediation hypothesis in adolescents from four Greater London schools. Three empirical chapters describe findings from this study, with Chapters 3 and 4 examining the first time points cross-sectionally, and Chapter 5 analysing the first and last time points longitudinally. The findings revealed relationship affirmation to be a strong predictor of motivation to pursue ideal-relevant goals, and of life satisfaction. The mediation model was supported for the most part, although the pattern was not found longitudinally. The findings reveal the central importance of social support, and particularly the presence of affirming relationships, to enable adolescents to pursue important goals.
Adolescent identity attracts much interest in the research community, however the majority of existing studies conceptualise it as a global construct with minor examination of its content. The present research focuses on a snapshot of domainspecific identities: political, religious and occupational, viewed as complex constructs, and examines them in various dimensions. First, the developmental stages of global identity as theorised by Erikson and Marcia are critically contrasted with domainspecific identities. Second, the analysis of the content of adolescents' identities reveals different values, attitudes and beliefs, which were used in a cluster analysis to identify distinct identity types. Thirdly, gender and context differences of developmental stages, content and types of adolescents' identities are considered. The context of Greek Cypriot society, specifically, the ecological systems of the politics of partition, the strong Greek Orthodox faith and the contradictions of tradition and modernisation/Europeanization are used to understand the role of the environment in adolescents' identities. In a cross-sectional survey, 1,038 Greek Cypriot adolescents (449 males and 589 females, mean age 16.8) completed part of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego- Identity Status, which assesses identity developmental stages in both global and domain-specific identities. They were also asked to write three answers to three questions of the type "Who Are You?" in each of the referred identity domains. This valuable textual data was analysed by using both variable and person-centered approaches. The results suggest that the identity of adolescents does not always develop synchronously across its domains, thus, the presentation of only global identity conceals the complexity of identity as a multi-faceted concept. This was especially evident in the analysis of the content of political, religious and occupational identities that revealed interesting and varying elements, as well as meaningful and heterogeneous identity types. The significance of identity content and its use in the understanding of adolescent identity is highlighted. Gender and context are integral parts of the developmental stages and the content of adolescents' identities.
Problem solving : information processing strategies and associated forms of logic utilised by 8 to 16 year oldsTaylor-Byrne, John Vincent January 1987 (has links)
No description available.
Page generated in 0.0502 seconds