Shepherd of Hermas : a socio-rhetorical and statistical-linguistic study of authorship and community concernsBaker, David Ian 2006 (has links)
The Shepherd of Hermas, hereafter simply referred to as The Shepherd, is a long document that was highly prized in the early church. It gives an account of the visions and dreams that were experienced by the main character, Hermas. This gives the impression to the general reader that the text is of the genre of an apocalypse1. While Hermas 'sees' angelic figures and the visions are explained by a spiritual guide, it lacks the visions of heaven that is central to other apocalypse literature, and also, end-of-the-world catastrophic occurrences. Consequently, The Shepherd cannot be considered as apocalyptic, or even pseudo-apocalyptic. The genre of The Shepherd will be considered in a later chapter of this thesis. A description of the narrative structure is given later in this introduction.
‘The Resurrection of Jesus in the Gospel of Peter : a tradition-historical study of the Akhmîm Gospel Fragment’Johnston, Jeremiah J. 2012 (has links)
The resurrection of Jesus lies at the very heart of the Christian faith. Apart from its proclamation the movement would have never continued after Jesus’ crucifixion. Belief in the resurrection of Jesus initiated an interesting and developing history of interpretation that entailed clarification, elaboration, and apologetic, usually in response to scepticism and sometimes severe criticism. The present thesis focuses on the history of the understanding of Jesus’ resurrection, particularly as it came to expression in the second century, especially in reference to a work known as the Gospel of Peter. Such critical study is necessary, for the resurrection account in this gospel text has been neglected. Even in Paul Foster’s recently published major study, the resurrection is not discussed to any significant degree. This investigation, however, cannot simply begin with the early Church’s proclamation of the resurrection of Jesus; it must investigate the antecedents of this idea, for these antecedents shaped in important ways how the idea was understood. The thesis proper devotes two chapters (Chapters Two and Three) to the discovery and early assessment of the Akhmîm gospel fragment, a fragment scholars at once assumed was the Gospel of Peter, a writing that was condemned by Bishop Serapion at the end of the second century. An important purpose of the thesis is to test this assumption, show how tenuous it is, and to propose better criteria for determining the date and location of the text, of which the Akhmîm fragment is a part. But before directly addressing this difficult question it is necessary to review the emergence of the resurrection idea. This will allow us with greater nuance to place the Akhmîm gospel fragment in its context. Two chapters (Chapters Four and Five) are devoted to the emergence of the resurrection idea in Israel’s antiquity and in the Second Temple (or intertestamental) period. Chapter Four traces the emergence of afterlife ideas in the old Scriptures of what now constitute the Hebrew Bible. Special attention is given to texts that may hint at bodily resurrection. Chapter Five traces the emergence of resurrection ideas in texts that begin to circulate in the two centuries or so before the time of Jesus. In these texts the hope of bodily resurrection is explicit. Chapter Six examines the resurrection idea in the writings of the New Testament looking at teaching about the resurrection, stories of resuscitation, and the resurrection of Jesus himself. Special attention is given to the New Testament’s interpretation of passages from the Hebrew Bible in support of the resurrection idea. Chapters Seven and Eight return to the question of the Akhmîm gospel fragment inquiring on what basis this fifth-century text can be identified with the second-century Gospel of Peter and, apart from such identification, can be dated to the second century. It is argued that the Akhmîm fragment can be dated to the second half of the second century not by appeals to the Oxyrhynchus texts 2949 and 4009 but by a comparative analysis of a number of texts and writers from the second century. This analysis demonstrates that the Akhmîm fragment exemplifies an apologetic that addresses second-century Jewish and pagan criticisms of the resurrection narratives of the older New Testament gospels. Comparative analysis also demonstrates that the apologetic of the Akhmîm gospel fragment was also intended to assure second-century Christians that the proclamation of the resurrection of Jesus rested upon actual eyewitness testimony of the resurrection event itself, not merely the discovery of the empty tomb and later reports of resurrection appearances. The Akhmîm fragment does this by asserting that hostile witnesses—Roman guards and Jewish elders—observed the risen Jesus emerge from the tomb. The resurrection narrative of the Akhmîm fragment is thus unique, for the New Testament gospels say nothing about humans—believers or sceptics— observing the resurrection of Jesus. The apologetic of the Akhmîm gospel narrative is designed to counter the scepticism and polemic that emerged in the second century. It also reflects Roman anti- Semitism that intensified in the aftermath of the great Jewish revolt that ended in 135 CE. The thesis also shows that both the polemic and the apologetic originated for the most part in the eastern Empire, most likely Syria itself, where the Gospel of Peter probably originated (and where Serapion lived). All pertinent elements point to a date of composition in the second century and probably in the east. It also is shown that the Akhmîm fragment’s greatly embellished scene at Jesus’ tomb coheres with the Scheintod (“apparent death”) device that became very popular in Greek romantic novels in the second century. The thesis provides a critical foundation on which scholarship concerned with the Akhmîm gospel fragment may build, for heretofore this scholarship has for the most part merely assumed that this important fragment dated to the second century. It is concluded that the Akhmîm gospel constitutes a fragment of a second-century gospel text that probably circulated under the name of Peter. This conclusion critically supports the long-held assumption that the Akhmîm text is a fragment of the Gospel of Peter condemned by Bishop Serapion
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Waddell, Robert Christopher
In this thesis the role of the Spirit in the Apocalypse of John is explored. The role of the Spirit in the Apocalypse is best defined as the Spirit of Prophecy. Closely related to both God and Christ, the Spirit serves as the primary agent of revelation for John and the church. John is in the Spirit when he receives his visionary experience and the churches must hear what the Spirit is saying in order to conquer and receive their reward. Furthermore, the church is anointed by the Spirit to bear a prophetic faithful witness of Jesus to the world. The Apocalypse serves the church as a prophetic call to respond to the revelation of Jesus Christ which John has received. Chapter one offers a survey of literature which has been devoted to the pneumatology of the Apocalypse. No monographs have been devoted entirely to the role of the Spirit in the Apocalypse; therefore, the survey focuses on periodicals, book chapters, theological dictionaries and excerpts from commentaries. On the basis of the observation that the Apocalypse is replete with allusions to the Old Testament, chapter two investigates intertextuality both in theory and in practice as it relates to previous Revelation studies. As a method intertextuality has several benefits which commend it as a helpful tool for interpreting the Apocalypse. Unlike other New Testament books which use clear references to the Old Testament, John avoids the use of introductory formulae and direct citations. Thus, the use of the Old Testament in Revelation is more subtle. This chapter engages in an interdisciplinary dialogue with literary critics followed by a critical assessment of the previous intertextual work in Revelation studies. Given that intertextuality places an emphasis on the role of the reader's context, chapter three focuses on my religious context, i. e., Pentecostalism. With an awareness that not all Pentecostals read alike, I seek to describe a possible Pentecostal hermeneutic which is faithful to the ethos of the movement. This chapter also contains an assessment of the previous work by Pentecostals concerning the role of the Spirit in the Apocalypse. Chapter three ends with a turn toward the Apocalypse to see what additional insights the book might contain toward further development of the hermeneutic. In chapter four the thesis comes to a climax by integrating biblical studies and literary studies within the context of a Pentecostal community by focusing on the prophecy concerning the temple and the two witnesses in Rev. 11: 1-13. The chapter includes a discussion on the literary contextualization of this key passage which sits at the centre of the book literarily, and I believe theologically as well, forming the intertextual centre of the role of the Spirit in the Apocalypse. Given the multiple allusions to the Old Testament which can be found in this passage, coupled with the cross references to other sections of the Apocalypse, this passage provides avenues of investigation into every aspect of the Spirit in Revelation. The thesis concludes with a delineation of its contributions and their implications.
Snyder, Jason L.
A coherent reading of the Solomon Narratives in First Kings is obstructed by a variety of textual contradictions and uncertainties. Such difficulties can be approached through a variety of interpretive and critical schemes. Using a literary/stylistic approach, the difficulties are perceived as components of a larger narrative format, of which an ambiguous tone towards Solomon is integral. This ambiguity is maintained by the presence of two literary forces in the text. The first is an overt presence of Deuteronomic values supplied through various agencies. Larger Deuteronomic themes of blessing are situated in the text which herald Solomon as one who achieved Deuteronomic privileges for his kingdom. Other Deuteronomic principles are dispersed through a seven-fold selection of Deuteronomic terms, placed in a context of contingency and exhortation. The chiastic arrangement of these Deuteronomic word-clusters highlights national solidarity and contingence. The cumulative force of these Deuteronomic elements contributes a pro-Solomonic tone to the text. The second literary force is a sustained ambiguity which is provided through a variety of stylistic devices designed to subvert a purely one-dimensional favourable vision of Solomon. The consequent ambiguity is not an autonomous feature within 1-2 Kings, however. Instead, the ambiguous tone towards Solomon and his accomplishments provides the thematic and narrative framework by which Josiah, Solomon’s narrative foil, will be later presented. The accounts of these two monarchs are connected through a complex of literary and thematic elements common to both accounts, one of which is the reissuing of the Deuteronomic word-clusters found in the Solomon Narratives.
Stalder, William Andrew
The foundation of the modern State of Israel in 1948 is commemorated by countless Palestinians as a day of „catastrophe.‟ Many Palestinian Christians claim that it was also spiritually catastrophic as the characters, names, events, and places of the Old Testament took on new significance with the newly formed political state and thereby caused vast portions of the text to be abandoned and unusable in their eyes. The present dissertation investigates this issue and asks, “How do Palestinian Christians read the Old Testament in light of the foundation of the modern State of Israel?” “Is it markedly different from that which preceded it?” “And what is the solution to the problem?” These questions form the basis of the present dissertation, “Palestinian Christians and the Old Testament: Hermeneutics, History and Ideology.” Chapter 1 introduces the dissertation. Chapter 2 looks at the basic elements of contemporary Palestinian Christian hermeneutics of the Old Testament, outlining the opinions of Naim Ateek, Mitri Raheb, Naim Khoury, Yohanna Katanacho, Michel Sabbah, and Atallah Hanna (Hermeneutics). Chapters 3-5 examine the degree to which Palestinian Christianity has developed and PCHOT has changed over the years (History). Chapter 3 looks at the years prior to 1917 and analyzes among other things the views of Chalil Jamal, Seraphim Boutaji, and Michael Kawar. Chapter 4 then surveys the years between 1917 and 1948, and chapter 5 reviews the years since 1948. Chapters 6-7 then look at how Palestinian Christians might read the Old Testament in the future (Ideology). Chapter 6 examines proposals made by Michael Prior, Charles Miller, and Gershon Nerel. Chapter 7 then outlines this author‟s own hermeneutic and provides an in depth analysis of Deuteronomy 7. Chapter 8 concludes the dissertation and proposes a way forward for Palestinian Christians and their reading of the Old Testament.
Xue, Bing, 薛冰
published_or_final_version Architecture Master Master of Landscape Architecture
Neller, Kenneth V.
Research on the Gospel of Thomas in the last quarter of a century has made it clear that the origins of this apocryphal gospel cannot be satisfactorily explained from a single point of view. The author thus suggests that Thomas be understood as a growing collection of sayings which originated in various places and languages, with some logia being added to the collection after its inception. While this suggestion is by no means new, there have been few extensive attempts to study Thomas from such a presupposition. Due to the need for a control group, only the logia which have rather close parallels to the Synoptic gospels are investigated. Verbal and textual affinities are noted between these logia and the earliest texts of the Gospels (the Coptic versions, the Diatessaron, the Old Syriac version, and other early versions and Christian writings). Various degrees of probable contact between each logion and these texts are assigned. The results of this study give some idea as to the place of origin, the original language, and the approximate date at which certain logia were added to the collection. Those sayings which show a closer affinity to the Diatessaron, the Old Syriac version, or other Syrian writings may be considered as having been added to the sayings collection as it circulated in its earliest form, possibly in a Semitic language. Other logia which show no signs of awareness of a Syrian reading, but which are similar to variants found in the Coptic versions or other Egyptian texts, may well have originated in Egypt and been added to the collection at a later stage. These results, however, must await verification by those who might approach Thomas from related, but different, perspectives.
W.P. Allis [and] Sanborn C. Brown. "April 23, 1952." Bibliography: p. 13. Army Signal Corps Contract No. DA 36-039 sc 100. Project no. 8-102B-0. Dept. of the Army Project no. 3-99-10-022.
Emission von ternären Teilchen aus den Reaktionen 229Th(nth, f), 233U(nth, f) und 239Pu(nt-1tnh, f)Wöstheinrich, Marcus. Unknown Date (has links) (PDF)
Universiẗat, Diss., 1999--Tübingen.
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