This thesis aims to provide an examination of the police experience of mental illness. The thesis highlights several of the dilemmas of the police, the perception of their roles and the methods used by the officers to deal with the mentally ill in the community. The police have consistently faced social problems in the community, including mental illness. There have been many changes and reforms of mental health policy over the past twenty years. This includes the introduction of community care policy. It has been acknowledged that these changes have impacted on the police and numbers of mentally ill being dealt with by the police. This thesis involves an examination of previous research into the police and the mentally ill, the policy and social context of this involvement, including an examination ofpeliinent mental health policy, and the practice of the police when facing a complex social problem. Operational officers from two police stations were interviewed to gain insight into their perceptions of the mentally ill. Senior, managerial officers also participated to provide an overview of the policies of several forces. Various issues were raised concerning the involvement of the police with the mentally ill. These included the dilemma of dealing with a vulnerable group in a climate where risk is at the forefront. The police adopt various methods for managing the mentally ill. The overwhelming approach, however, continued to involve the use of police discretion. The pragmatic use of discretion appeared to be the most useful mechanism, regardless of the policy and procedure of their specific forces.
The aim of this thesis is to consider how advertisers and their clients in the 1990s conceptualised social and technological change. In particular, I address how advertisers deduced and represented new characteristics in their customers. By reflecting on changes in the content of adverts, I take a symptomatic approach in considering how new conceptualisations were incorporated into new and broader ad styles. To do this, in Chapter 1, the Literature Review, I identify my central approach and key issues against existing literature in the field. Given that this study is essentially an industry-oriented analysis of advertising, which not been attempted this way before, I consider the relevance of existing industrial and academic-centred critical models for this study. Chapter 2 then maps out the key changes in advertising in the 1990s from previous decades. It considers what prompted the ad industries to change their perspectives and how advertisers restructured their operations in an attempt to re-imagine their consumers. In Chapter 3 benchmarks of the key changes are examined in more detail. Three campaigns are examined to explore how promotional strategies negotiated (perceived) changes in consumers. The campaigns for Britvic Tango (1992), Daewoo cars (1995) and Tesco Clubcard (1997) were chosen because they are symptomatic of key moments during the 1990s in which the way advertising targeted consumers was re-addressed. In the final part of this chapter I consider how shifting methods of advertising during the 1990s registers in the 'bigger picture' of twentieth century communication. Following the case studies, the next two chapters review two key issues for advertising during the 1990s. Chapter 4 considers how advertisers changed their tone of address. Here issues such as national/personal representation and 'boutiques of history' are considered. Most notably, changes in youth mood is considered against advertising's own strategies for coping with change. Chapter 5 then considers changes in modes of address, and in particular the impact of digital technology on advertising's means of communication. Unlike the previous chapter, which demonstrates how advertising negotiated change, this section shows how the existing agency system was forced to change. Before 1990 an attitude perSisted in the ad industry that changes to the way agencies communicated and did business was (to a large extent) determined by advertisers themselves. This was not the case in 1990s. This study maps out how change was negotiated in a climate of cultural fragmentation and digitised communication.
The regulation of nightlife and the production of social differentiation : regeneration and licensing in SouthviewTalbot, Deborah Helen 2002 (has links)
This thesis attempts to address the reasons why, in the anonymous case study of Southview, a 'night-time economy', based around the consumer demands of a young white popUlation, came to predominate in an area largely defined by its African/Caribbean population and the cultural forms arising from that population. It examines the interrelationship between culture, economy and law. Specifically, this involves examining the interface between the different cultural forms and meanings of nightlife, forms of regeneration initiatives and licensing law and practice in the locality. The research uses an anonymous case study to examine these interrelationships through a combination of ethnographic techniques, semi-structured interviews and documentary sources. Chapters One and Two deal with relevant literature, methodology and research design. Then, the research findings are presented in an approximation of a chronological order, whilst examining the key processes involved in the change and transformation of nightlife spaces. Chapter Three explores the way in which historical conflicts defmed and bound the locality. Chapter Four examines the conflicts emerging from economic development plans and the differing interpretation given by different populations. Chapter Five outlines the conflicts and dynamics involved in the development of the 'night-time economy' in Southview. Chapters Six and Seven explore the issues of subjectivity and differentiation that arise in the formal and informal processes of licensing law and practice. The conclusion attempts to examine the interrelationship between culture, economy and law in explaining both the process of change and the reproduction of social differentiation. While the research found that there were no long-term strategic plans to convert nightlife spaces in the area, a conjunction of local institutional subjectivities, practices and legal or regulatory strictures served to re-orientate or 'normalise' local nightlife, and in the process eliminate or exclude some of the key cultural forms of the Afro-Caribbean population. This involved a number of interrelated processes. First, the evolution of a racialised problematisation of the locality that impacted upon the development and marginalisation of forms of black entertainment. Second, a combination of regeneration and policing initiatives aimed at normalising and reclaiming unregulated space, although to different degrees of intent. Third, the application of licensing law and its local interpretation that reproduced and concretised this process of differentiation. Finally, the impact of the growth of a population of young professionals who were overwhelmingly represented in the new night-time economy and who exhibited specific forms of spatial consciousness. The interrelationship of such multi-causal processes, it is argued, highlights the importance of complexity in explanation, in that separate elements of the whole are largely unrelated and unconscious of the other. However, the impact of such processes served to create new social differentials based on an evolving combination of class and racial exclusion, and in doing so sideline the potential of experimentation and diversity within nightlife spaces.
Brown, Helen Cosis
The process involved in deciding to submit my publications for examination for a PhD by Published Works' has been a peculiar one. The peculiarity has been the separateness of the two endeavours, namelyihewriting of the publications and the submission for a PhD. When I wrote each of the submitted publications the idea that they would become part of a PhD submission had not occurred to me. They were publications primarily for practice, with the hoped for intention of improving practice and practice outcomes for service users. They were written during the last ten years during the time that I had entered academia and had become a hybrid academic/practitioner. The 'research' process involved in the publications was inductive; the writing was the culmination of ten years in social work practice as a social worker and as a team leader of a generic team in an -inner-L-ondon-socral-servrees -department during the'decade of the 1980s. The writing was a synthesis of my reflections on practice experience and literature reviews, the culmination of which were the submitted publications. The submitted works fall within what Fullerand Petch-refer tCfas"'practitionerrese-arch' -(Fuller and Petch, 1995) and what Buchanan refers to as 'practice experience' (Buchanan, 1999). The publications, at the time, were a record of my practice experience, reflections, contribution to and learning from practice, a way of giving back' something to my colleagues and my clients of ten years. However, even though my intentions when writing the publications did not include a PhD, here I am writing my ~ntext statement with the pursuit of a PhD as the goal in mind. This has involved considerable reflective critical analysis about the 1 processes and thinking I engaged in, in relation to each publication and the body of work as a whole. It has also involved analysis of myself as the researcher and my part in the creation of 'knowledge'. The 'reflexive journey' involved in this submission has helped me position my work but also to some extent myself and has helped me feel slightly less antagonistically ambivalent to the role of academic.
Institutional, economic and regional determinants of foreign direct investments in the Balkan, Central European and ex-Soviet transition economiesBellos, Sotirios 2010 (has links)
The study focused on the transition economies of South Eastern Europe, Central Europe and those of the ex-Soviet countries, during the period 1990-2005.
The main research aims included the identification of the distinct FDI features, the research for FDI determinants and the relation between FDI and the host countries’ institutions with a particular emphasis on corruption and poor governance phenomena. Additional to that the study shed light on the impact of transition process reforms on FDI. The research employed a variety of different data sources and empirical methods, in order to achieve its goals.
The empirical analysis indicated that foreign investments in the area of interest were not particularly affected by the presence of corruption. Actually, foreign investors were rather encouraged by both high corruption and the low governance levels. Regarding FDI features, the formulated view is of foreign investments as business entities with secured financial support, export orientation, not significant contribution to labour skills and production increase and with a rather indifferent approach towards taxation.
With regards to FDI determinants, the empirical results highlighted the host country’s market potential, the privatization opportunities both at small and large scale, the existence of strategic natural resources, the quick implementation of the transition reforms in terms of competition policies, trade and prices liberalization and banking reforms, while also the existence of an adequate and exploitation promising infrastructure.
This thesis explores how policy evolves in weak commodity dependent African states, in a context of increasing organisational diversity due to fast-growing foreign investment from emerging markets. Through a case study of the Zambian mining sector, where state-firm relations have been highly contentious following privatisation in the late 1990s, I develop an interdisciplinary and empirically grounded account of how policy evolves. My findings are based on over 100 interviews conducted with employees of Chinese, Indian and ‘western’ case-study firms, as well as government officials, NGOs and other stakeholders. My aim is to give adequate attention to both state and firm perspectives on regulatory policy making. To this end, the thesis first reviews the literature on policy making in the African state as well as theories of institutional change. It then draws on evolutionary economics and organisational theory, to develop a framework for understanding firm behaviour that emphasises the role of organisational routines and objectives. I develop and define the concept of organisational learning as the process through which organisational routines and objectives change over time. I find that policy development in Zambia, in its formal expression, appears framed around a ‘partnership approach’ to regulation. This approach is based on a view of government as enabler of private investment, emphasising state-firm consultations and consensus in policy development. This approach contrasts but co-exists with an alternative expression of state power through the Presidency, which maintains strong informal links with the foreign mining companies. I find significant yet nuanced variation in organisational routines and aims across the companies under study. This includes the tendency among western companies to seek operational stability by engaging with local stakeholders directly, whilst Chinese investors prefer to operate through close relationships with the Presidency, relying on the Zambian state to ‘broker’ its wider social relations. Over time there is some evidence of organisational learning taking place among the mining companies, including through convergence in regulatory standards and practices. Yet differences persist because routines and aims – conditioned by a firm’s institutional background – change slowly over time, even in the presence of inefficiencies. Zambia’s mining sector was during the period under study subject to various pressures for policy reform, stemming from discontent with limited tax contributions and pervasive negative environmental and safety impacts. These reform proposals, however, failed to move ahead despite support from some of the mining companies. I show how Zambia’s accommodating and pro-investor regulatory framework sits uneasily with an interventionist political culture and a diverse mining sector. The consensus among the regulated companies – on which effective partnership regulation relies – proves elusive in a ‘presidential’ state that readily accommodates different articulations of state-firm relations.
China’s entrance to WTO, the influence of intellectual property rights protection reform on technology diffusionMeng, Wei 2009 (has links)
This thesis aimed to explore the influence of intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection reform gained from WTO accession on technology diffusion in China. China’s entrance to the WTO in 2001 brought and will continue to bring significant impacts on China’s economic, political and social development. Under pressure from the developed countries, China reformed its IPRs protection in order to accede to the WTO. There was heated debate on whether stronger IPRs protection was beneficial for developing countries’ technological progress. This research investigated the impact of IPRs protection reform arising from WTO accession on technology diffusion in China. Fieldwork was the main method of this research. Semi-structured interview, self-completion questionnaire, official statistics and other sources such as television programs, interviews with government officials were used to collect data. The research found that its entrance to the WTO urged China to reform its IPRs protection. IPRs reform had both positive and negative impacts on technology diffusion. The impact of IPRs reform on technology diffusion in China varied in different industries, sizes and legal status of firms. Other relevant policies, such as the “Open Door” policy, economic development policies, research and development (R&D) policies, foreign investment policies, China’s big market and industry development policies also influenced the impact of IPRs on technology diffusion. The importance of this research was based on the fact that it was the first research on the impact of IPRs reform on technology diffusion in China which disseminated unique and original information. Currently most Chinese policy-makers intend to implement stronger IPRs policy, without a comprehensive knowledge of the disadvantages of IPRs in technology diffusion. This research will help future policy making as it provided information on the limitations of the current IPRs system, which has not been a matter of concern to the Chinese policy-makers so far.
The grief of nations : an analysis of how nations behave in the wake of loss : does it constitute grief?Malamah-Thomas, Ann 2011 (has links)
This dissertation is concerned with the question of whether nations grieve, whether the behaviour they exhibit in the wake of loss can be said to constitute grief. Initially exploring the concepts of both grief and nation in order to establish the feasibility of national grief as a notion, it goes on to examine the applicability of grief theory, traditionally developed in the context of the individual suffering bereavement, to large-scale national collectives which have undergone significant shared loss. The investigation is conducted with reference to two case studies: the Palestinian people in the aftermath of the loss of their land to the creation of Israel in the nakba of 1948; and Israel itself, as a manifestation of the European Jewish response to the holocaust and the centuries of loss and suffering which led up to it. In both cases, the relevant periods of history are scanned to see to what extent, if any, historical accounts reflect the contours and parameters of the grieving experience as the latter is described and defined in the grief theory literature. In addition, and serving to triangulate the evidence thus gleaned from national history, the contemporary visual arts of both nations, with their observation of and comment on the dominant features and issues of current national identity, are employed as data sources and explored with a view to ascertaining whether they reflect any themes expressive of or pertinent to collective historical loss and grief. The findings from this research into national history and identity within a grief experience framework may serve to open up a new direction for the further development of grief theory. They may also, in revealing the insights afforded by a grief theory perspective on long-term interactions within the global community, offer some contribution to the study of international relations.
Ashhima, Abdala Mohamed Abdala
This PhD study explores the processes, policies and practices of Government investment in education and health and examines the relative successes whilst highlighting continuing problems in these social policy fields. Consequently, with government investment in education and health sectors during the period 1970-2009, there was growth and distribution of health and educational institutions across Libya, but especially in Tripoli (the focus of this research). Much of the literature and analysts have suggested that the increase in the number of institutions in these sectors from the 1970s to the beginning of the 1980s did not lead to a matched increase in quality of provision and services. Despite the progress made by the Government in this regard, most of the social policies have faced financial and administrative problems in their implementation. Further, the Government did not achieve many of the goals that were established at the outset of the 1970s in order to achieve sustained economic and social development. For example, in relation to health, this research shows that although there are a number of highly skilled doctors and specialists, who graduated in the 1970s and in the early 1980s, most of them are working abroad. This is due to the lack of facilities and low salaries and the ever-changing laws and regulations and health administrative changes which have not led to any improvement in the health status within establishments. Also, there are various factors such as non-application of laws and lack of medicines and medical equipment which have had negative effects on health care for individuals. However, the Government has made progress in other aspects such as the eradication of many communicable diseases and providing various vaccinations for citizens. Similarly, over about four decades now, educational establishments in Tripoli have covered most districts of the city and according to reports and official statistics this situation has led to all citi zens being able to access their right to education. However, despite efforts being made in trying to achieve the development goals of the Government's educational policies, the level of ambition did not match actual outcomes. In recent decades, as is the case in health, weak qualifications have had negative effects not only on the educational process but also on all aspects of social and economic developments. This thesis presents evidence from the education and health sectors in Tripoli, Libya that suggests the financing and implementing of key social policy goals is fraught with difficulties and sustainable improvement in quality services is difficult to maintain in the face of economic and political challenges.
The concept of equality has been established as an underpinning value base in youth work literature. Yet, equality is also recognised as a complex concept that includes perspectives on rights, social justice and egalitarianism which are variously applied in youth work. Young people's experience of equality in generic youth work is under-researched. This ethnographic case study aimed to examine how young people involved in generic youth work perceived and experienced equality there, in order to consider whether youth work helped them to learn about equality. This research involved studying the experiences of 17 young people over two years. I chose a single case setting, in a new town within a Scottish local authority that was known for innovation in youth work development. In addition to interviews, I observed young people in a range of locations: café, computing room, disability sports, games hall and rehearsal studio. Mertens' (2005) transformative paradigm was the underpinning theoretical framework for analysis that provided empirical evidence of the reasons young people gave for attending youth work and their perspectives and experiences of equality in this case setting. The study not only confirmed that youth work contributed to young people's learning about equality in this setting, it also identified the negotiated nature of youth work. Conclusions were drawn about how young people negotiated their relationships with youth workers and 'other' young people. Analysis also concluded that being treated equally, and working across social and cultural boundaries, facilitated their learning about equality and helped young people to make micro-level changes in their lives. The study calls for further investment in generic youth work as a starting point for equality work and asserts an optimistic future for practice that has a democratic and emancipatory purpose at its heart.
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