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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

An examination of the means of establishing the efficacy of asset recovery and anti-money laundering policies

Fleming, Matthew Hitchcock 2008 (has links)
Asset recovery (AR) refers to the process through which criminals are deprived of the proceeds of crime. Despite strong support for AR in the policy arena, virtually no work to date has confirmed that it reduces (or should theoretically reduce) crime. This thesis seeks to fill this gap in understanding. The thesis begins with an examination of the theoretical support for AR, drawing on the economics of criminal behaviour. This chapter probes the claims made throughout the literature, illustrating how different approaches to AR should have different impacts on crime. AR powers are likely ineffective in reducing crime if offenders' spending/saving behaviour renders them with little to recover. This next chapter examines offenders' spending/saving using data from the UK's Joint Assets Recovery Database. Offenders can and will take steps to hide the fruits of their labours, and AR will be toothless if offenders can do so. Most AR regimes include anti-money laundering (AML) components to prevent offenders from hiding their proceeds. The crime-reduction efficacy of AML policies is a function of the ability of offenders to reduce their exposure to AR of banks/etc. to alert law enforcement when they know/suspect that an offender is laundering and of law enforcement to make use of the information provided. The latter two issues are considered in turn. Banks/etc. must alert law enforcement (by filing suspicious activity reports, or SARs) if they know/suspect that an offender is laundering proceeds. While this requirement likely deters some criminality, reporting does not deter all offenders. This chapter explores whether banks/etc. targeting of laundering represents more signal than noise. Finally, as the criminality of the undeterred who have been identified by banks/etc. will only be reduced if law enforcement uses the SARs sent to them, the final chapter explores the law enforcement's actual use and management of SARs.
2

Juvenile sex offending : an investigative perspective

Woodhams, Jessica Ann 2009 (has links)
The first chapter of the thesis critically reviews the research on juvenile violent and sexual offending and highlights the heterogeneity of such offenders in terms of those that persist and those that assault different types of victim. Research on juvenile stranger sex offenders and their offence characteristics is explored. Chapter 2 presents empirical research on the behavioural consistency and distinctiveness of juvenile stranger sex offending and whether case linkage can accurately identify the crimes of serial offenders. Calls from personality psychologists to consider the context of behaviour when investigating behavioural consistency are responded to with preliminary research into incorporating context in case linkage. Evidence for behavioural consistency and distinctiveness is reported for serial juvenile stranger sex offenders, however evidence for consistency in ‘if(victim behaviour)-then(offender behaviour)’ contingencies is less convincing. Chapter 3 investigates ways of prioritising sex offences for crime analysis. Whether juvenile serial stranger sex offenders escalate in their use of physical aggression is investigated with few “increasers” being identified. Preliminary findings suggest some characteristics on which increasers vs. non-increasers differ that might inform investigative risk assessment. However, escalation appears largely related to learning behaviour and progression to more elaborate sexual assaults. Preliminary findings suggest some offence behaviours that appear more characteristic of offences occurring later in a series. Chapter 4 investigates and contrasts group rape by juvenile and adult perpetrators. How applicable social psychological theories of group violence are to group rape is tested with findings suggesting that theories of group dynamics as well as social convergence are relevant. Further, aggression in group rapes appears both expressive and instrumental in purpose. Roles adopted by group members are investigated. Evidence of distinct leaders and followers in group rapes is identified using both Porter and Alison’s (2001) Scale of Influence and through the use of pragmatics theory. Additional roles are discussed.
3

The gap between international law and enforcement vis a vis child trafficking in India and Thailand

Pink, Ross Michael 2010 (has links)
This PhD thesis examines the issue of child trafficking in India and Thailand and the enforcement gap that exists in each state with respect to articles 34 and 35 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, CRC 1989, to which both states are signatories. The thesis specifically examines the crime of child trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation in the commercial sex industry, CSI, a problem that has been well documented in both states. It should be noted at the onset that the enforcement regime in both states is weak, according to authoritative sources such as the United States Government Department of State Annual Trafficking in Persons Report. The research examines factors that propel child trafficking, data on prosecutions and convictions as well as domestic laws designed to inhibit and prosecute child trafficking offences. Critical issues that influence child trafficking in both states are examined. These include: gender discrimination; caste discrimination in India and features of caste discrimination in Thailand; poverty; inadequate law enforcement regimes; the incidence of police and judicial corruption and evidence of inadequate training on child trafficking issues and law. The thesis is focused solely on internal child trafficking within each state. Based upon the research, field work, and interviews, the argument is presented that the enforcement gap vis a vis child trafficking inherent in each state must be understood as not only a law enforcement problem but also as a problem rooted in a multitude of complex, interrelated factors. By examining these factors and their impact upon the enforcement gap and child trafficking to the CSI, new avenues of understanding may emerge that can inform policy on prevention, law enforcement and deterrence.
4

Women and crime in Iran : the effect of the circumstances of women's occupation on crime

Fassaei, S. S. 1996 (has links)
No description available.
5

Political discourses of idealised masculinity : the risk management of male prisoners through work, education and family transitions

McFarlane, Helen 2011 (has links)
This thesis focuses upon the new rehabilitation of male prisoners within the context of idealised masculinity. Through the discourse analysis of written policy documents, this work addresses two fundamental questions: How is idealised masculinity constituted within political discourse and how does idealised masculinity influence the formulation of prison rehabilitation programmes? Idealised masculinity is defined as the heterosexual breadwinning role attributed to men as workers and providers for the family. It is this that is articulated within political discourses as a technique of government by which to reduce re-offending amongst the male prisoner population. Within the Foucauldian analysis of governmentality and Neo-Marxist theorising around Post-Fordism, idealised masculinity represent a form of governance that the state employs to inform its programme of managing the risks posed by offenders. This is evident through two particular pathways to reduce re-offending. Namely Pathway Two Education, Training and Employment and Pathway Six Children and Families. The argument presented is that current forms of punishment and imprisonment are characterised and defined within gender specific practices underpinned by the constitution of masculinity. The purpose of which is to reconstruct male prisoner’s attitudes and behaviour from that of deviant to non-deviant behaviour, from anti-social to pro-social values and through their moral and responsible reconstruction towards active, self-governing subjects. Thus the importance of maintaining family ties and the re-skilling and training of male prisoners to be able to compete within the labour market and obtain legitimate employment underpins political discourses surrounding penal concerns of the new rehabilitation. However governing at a distance and the state being unable or unwilling to place the children and family of offender’s on a formal footing and to effectively intervene to stimulate job creation activities within the labour market could mean that male prisoners are merely set up to fail.
6

Crime and criminal justice in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Al Ibrahim, Fahad Ibrahim Abdulaziz 1996 (has links)
No description available.
7

Offenders' accounts of offending : using the accounts of men and women on probation to enhance theoretical understandings of offending behaviour

Byrne, Clare Fiona 2000 (has links)
No description available.
8

Policing black people : a study of ethnic relations as seen through the police complaints system

Kennison, Peter C. 2001 (has links)
This thesis examines public attitude towards police services and, more particularly, police misconduct. It contextualises and explains the current complaints system, especially whether it satisfies the complainant and endears public confidence. It shows how aberrant police behaviour exposes some of the sociological issues such as black over- representation in complaints statistics, alleged black provocation in situational street incidents, substantiation rates and the likely outcome of black and Asian complaints. Analysis of the main sociological texts on the police suggest a continuing problem with the vexed issue of constabulary independence. The autonomous nature of this principle has helped to create partiality in terms of complaints that favour the police against the citizen. In the eyes of some citizens this has tended to reduce the legitimacy of the complaints process. The main analysis suggests that certain policing practices have a greater impact on diverse sections of the public which, when coupled with under-use of the complaints process tends to put a stopper in the bottle of fermenting discontent. To restore confidence and involve those who are socially excluded, the dysfunctional effects of inaccessibility, complication and inequality should give way to easy access, simplification and informality. The thesis addresses these problems by suggesting a move to more utilitarian ideals designed to be more customer focused. The model of 'good practice' is prescriptive and ensures an independent lay element to complaints investigation and resolution. The principle of civil libertarian ideals prevails in the proposed model and this seeks to redress the balance where justice must not only be done but also be seen to be done.
9

The prevalence of psychiatric and physical morbidity in elderly sentenced prisoners in England and Wales

Fazel, S. B. 2002 (has links)
Background: The number of elderly prisoners has been increasing in Western countries over the past decade. In England and Wales the population of those aged 60 and over in prison has more than trebled in the last decade, and there are over 1000 elderly men in prison. There are no published studies of psychiatric morbidity in this population. Method: A stratified sample of 203 male sentenced prisoners aged over 59, from 15 prisons in England and Wales, representing one in five men in this age group, was interviewed using semistructured standardised instruments for psychiatric illness, personality disorder, and acute and chronic physical ill health. In addition, major illnesses and types of medication were recorded from their prison medical notes and prison reception health screen. The psychiatric characteristics of the sex offenders interviewed were compared with the non-sex offenders. Results: 53% (95% CI, 46-60%) of the elderly prisoners had a psychiatric diagnosis. The most common diagnoses were personality disorder (30% [24-36%]) and depressive illness (30% [23-36%]). No differences were found between the sex offenders (n=101) and the non-sex offenders (n=102) in the rates of psychiatric illness or personality disorder. Significant differences emerged at the level of personality traits with sex offenders having more schizoid and obsessive-compulsive traits compared with non-sex offenders. 85% of the elderly prisoners had one or more major illnesses reported in their medical records, and 83% reported at least one chronic illness on interview. The most common physical illnesses were cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and respiratory. Conclusions: The prevalence of depressive illness in this sample of elderly male prisoners was five times greater than found in other studies of younger adult male prisoners and community elderly men. The rate of physical illness in elderly prisoners was also higher than in other studies of younger prisoners and in surveys of the general population of a similar age. The growing numbers of elderly in prison pose specific challenges for prison health care services. In particular, underdetected, undertreated depressive illness in elderly prisoners is an increasing public health problem.
10

The anonymity of African American serial killers : from slavery to prisons, a continuum of negative imagery

Branson, Allan LeRoy 2011 (has links)
Some images (pp. 266, 267, 271, 272, 275) in the electronic version of this thesis differ to those used in the paper copy due to copyright restrictions.

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