Exploring associated factors and dynamic relationships between lecturers and their engagement with Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL)Jepson, Jennifer January 2016 (has links)
Background: Much has been written about the way in which technology enhanced learning enables an improved student learning experience by facilitating engagement with greater flexibility and accessibility. For today’s health care graduates, technology enhanced learning can also foster a skill-set to meet the changing face of healthcare delivery. Implementing changes in delivery requires lecturers to be cognisant of constructive pedagogy. However, the dynamics of lecturers’ engagement with technology enhanced learning, in the United Kingdom, remain largely unexplored. Aim: The purpose of this research was to conduct a survey to explore relationships and associated factors which impact on lecturers’ engagement with technology enhanced learning in the delivery of health related education. Methodology: An online questionnaire was developed and extensively piloted. Questions were framed within five dimensions: demography and background information; preferred face to face teaching method; perceptions of the online environment; organisational culture; motivation and learning style. Following the pilot study, an amended version was sent out to 74 universities, of which 49 responded, giving a response rate of 66%. Results: Data were collected over an eight-month timeframe to include 227 lecturers in the final analysis. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The analysis revealed that whilst lecturers have varying levels of engagement, there has been an overall increase of ‘early adopters’ utilisation of web 2.0 technologies (Rogers, 2003). The survey instrument also revealed significant barriers in transferring between enquiry based learning as the preferred face to face teaching style, use of web 2.0 technologies including wikis, blogs and podcasts, as well as the difficulty experienced and technical ability required, over and above general computer skills already in place. Conclusions: In summary, questions within the survey instrument, including those which measure computer skills, use, and teaching style preference, reveal predictors which impact on engagement with technology enhanced learning. Given the predictive value of the survey instrument, health service education providers, universities, and professional bodies might consider it useful as a means of determining engagement, benchmarking professional development activities, and evidence of progression towards teaching excellence.
This thesis proposes to add value to the traditional e-learning systems by personalising the content being presented. The personalisation process was brought together through the amalgamation of crowdsourcing techniques, explicit with learners’ interests, and learner profiling technologies. A prototype called iPLE, intelligent personal learning environment, was developed and tested within an empirical study where participants experienced and compared the proposed iPLE with a static e-learning environment and a standard face-to-face delivery. A number of data collection instruments have been integrated within the empirical study to accumulate participants’ feedback. The results were fully documented and analysed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative data analysis tools that generated essential assessment information. An indicative improvement was reported following the data analysis and evaluation of results that led to the conclusion that even though there is plenty of room for further development and research, the combination of the proposed techniques does help and assist in rendering e-learning more effective.
An investigation into digital technology and a consideration of whether it can enhance learning : one school's application of digital teachingColeman, Trudy January 2017 (has links)
The use of digital technology in education is a global concern (Convery, 2009 and Fluck & Dowden, 2011) which touches on many debates: raising attainment (OECD, 2015; and Somekh, et al., 2007); benefits to learning (Andrews & Haythornthwaite, 2007; and Harasim, 2012); effects on children (Beltran, et al., 2008; and Radesky, et al, 2015); mobile technology (Wilshaw, 2012; Bennett, 2015; and Beland & Murphy, 2015); digital native (Prensky, 2001a; 2001b; 2008; 2009; and 2010; and Selwyn, 2009; 2012); digital technology text-books (Mac Mahon, et al., 2016) and student engagement (Wolper-Gawron, 2012; and Gallup, 2013). This study is significant because it considers student and teacher perceptions of digital technology-related practices specifically in relation to a given subject area (Tamim, et al, 2011; and Howard, et al, 2015). This study was conducted within the realist paradigm; a 'deep’ case study approach was used to investigate teachers' and students' perceptions of digital technology influence on teaching and learning, including subject-specific similarities and differences. These perceptions were linked to current and recent debates about new technology. In this study 30 diaries were used to record student and teacher digital technology use during two weeks and 24 interviews were conducted in a Norfolk secondary school. The outcome from this study is that although there is no strong evidence that the availability of digital technology has led to utopian change, it has caused small yet significant grassroots changes. The ‘big claim' digital technologies: interactive whiteboards, visualisers and iPads have not transformed education as claimed or expected. There has however been an on-going steady incremental improvement in technology use. The ‘game changer’ digital technologies have not been the hi-tech technologies but rather the everyday: YouTube, Internet, data projectors, presentation software and word processors. This study contributes to the understanding of the digital technology debate which continues today.
The integration of mobile learning app-based quiz-games in higher education teaching of anatomical sciencesWilkinson, Kate January 2017 (has links)
Background: Mobile learning (mLearning) and gamification are two potential pedagogical tools that are continuously evolving in Higher Education. Their efficiency as learning tools is not fully understood and their use by staff is sporadic and sometimes viewed poorly compared to traditional methods. Aim: To determine a framework of best practice for the integration of mLearning app based quiz-games into the Higher Education (HE) teaching of anatomical sciences. This thesis presents three studies, which aim to 1) evaluate mLearning quiz-games as a revision tool for an anatomy online examination 2) and 3) investigate the effect of pre-seminar mLearning quiz gameplay on knowledge acquisition, retention and engagement in anatomy. Method: The data collection was performed over a two year period in a level 4 anatomy module for Sport and Exercise Science students. All three studies employed an experimental mixed methods approach within an action research framework to allow the development of the project in a naturalistic way. Study One was completed over two cohorts, 2014-15 (n=125) and 2015-16 (n=121). The module has four assessment points, A1, A2, A3, A4 where A1-3 are online assessments with a mixture of Multiple Choice Questions, labelling and matching questions and A4 is a viva voce. Students did A1, A2 and A4 as normal but at A3 they were offered a choice to revise as normal, the control group (n= 164) or to play mLearning games (n=87) for 15 minutes prior to the assessment on a tablet or smartphone device. All students completed a modified Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ) post-assessment and then for triangulation of data online focus groups were completed (n=84) as well as extended semi-structured interviews (n=9). Study Two was completed in 2015-16 using the same module as Study One. Over two consecutive weeks students were videoed in a two hour seminar session where in week one they did 15 minutes of no formal class preparation (n=87) and in week two they did 15 minutes of mLearning games (n=87). Students did a plenary and recap class Socrative quiz every week where the plenary scores indicate knowledge acquisition and the difference between the plenary and recap scores of subsequent weeks indicates knowledge retention. Observational behavioural engagement analysis was completed using an adapted coding system and students completed the National Survey of Student Engagement following each seminar. Study Three was completed on the same cohort in semester two using a randomised repeated measures design for the knowledge acquisition and knowledge retention scores over three weeks with three 15 minute interventions; Games, Control and Games plus question generation before class. Results: Study One found that the Games group performed better at A3 with no difference at A2 or A1 (p < 0.0.01) but no differences were found in the SPQ surface and deep learning motives and strategies. Students revealed reasons for using mLearning quiz-games were primarily the fun, visual stimulation, instant feedback and accessibility. Study Two found that playing quiz-games prior to class increased on-task behaviours and peer interaction and improved knowledge acquisition and retention scores (p < 0.01). Study Three agreed but found no difference in the Games-plus questions group compared to the control or games groups. Conclusions: The studies reveal the positive effect that mLearning quiz-games can have on achievement and engagement both in class and as a revision tool prior to assessment. The results of all three studies have been used to inform the proposed Mobigames framework for the integration of mLearning quiz-games in HE teaching. The framework has four key aspects: Information, Facilitation, Learning and Timing.
Digital anthropology and educational eGames : learning through behavioural patterns in digital, game-based contextsBurgos, D. January 2015 (has links)
The selected publications are focused on the relations between users, eGames and the educational context, and how they interact together, so that both learning and user performance are improved through feedback provision. A key part of this analysis is the identification of behavioural, anthropological patterns, so that users can be clustered based on their actions, and the steps taken in the system (e.g. social network, online community, or virtual campus). In doing so, we can analyse large data sets of information made by a broad user sample,which will provide more accurate statistical reports and readings. Furthermore, this research is focused on how users can be clustered based on individual and group behaviour, so that a personalized support through feedback is provided, and the personal learning process is improved as well as the group interaction. We take inputs from every person and from the group they belong to, cluster the contributions, find behavioural patterns and provide personalized feedback to the individual and the group, based on personal and group findings. And we do all this in the context of educational games integrated in learning communities and learning management systems. To carry out this research we design a set of research questions along the 10-year published work presented in this thesis. We ask if the users can be clustered together based on the inputs provided by them and their groups; if and how these data are useful to improve the learner performance and the group interaction; if and how feedback becomes a useful tool for such pedagogical goal; if and how eGames become a powerful context to deploy the pedagogical methodology and the various research methods and activities that make use of that feedback to encourage learning and interaction; if and how a game design and a learning design must be defined and implemented to achieve these objectives, and to facilitate the productive authoring and integration of eGames in pedagogical contexts and frameworks. We conclude that educational games are a resourceful tool to provide a user experience towards a better personalized learning performance and an enhance group interaction along the way. To do so, eGames, while integrated in an educational context, must follow a specific set of user and technical requirements, so that the playful context supports the pedagogical model underneath. We also conclude that, while playing, users can be clustered based on their personal behaviour and interaction with others, thanks to the pattern identification. Based on this information, a set of recommendations are provided Digital Anthropology and educational eGames 6 /216 to the user and the group in the form of personalized feedback, timely managed for an optimum impact on learning performance and group interaction level. In this research, Digital Anthropology is introduced as a concept at a late stage to provide a backbone across various academic fields including: Social Science, Cognitive Science, Behavioural Science, Educational games and, of course, Technology-enhance learning. Although just recently described as an evolution of traditional anthropology, this approach to digital behaviour and social structure facilitates the understanding amongst fields and a comprehensive view towards a combined approach. This research takes forward the already existing work and published research onusers and eGames for learning, and turns the focus onto the next step — the clustering of users based on their behaviour and offering proper, personalized feedback to the user based on that clustering, rather than just on isolated inputs from every user. Indeed, this pattern recognition in the described context of eGames in educational contexts, and towards the presented aim of personalized counselling to the user and the group through feedback, is something that has not been accomplished before.
Factors influencing female undergraduate students' acceptance of, and motivation to use, tablet computers for learningAlomary, Azza Mohammad January 2017 (has links)
M-learning can play an important role in the development of teaching and learning methods for higher education. Nevertheless, the successful implementation of m-learning in higher education will be dependent on users' acceptance of this technology. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to give a better understanding of female undergraduate students' attitudes towards using tablet computers in learning through exploring factors that influence students' motivation to use and their acceptance of tablet use in learning. This study explores female students' preferred ways of learning when using tablets, as well as the barriers to tablet use, in the context of higher education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The research develops a new model which integrates the original technology acceptance model (TAM) with self-determination theory (SDT), and names it Motivation and Acceptance of Learning with Tablet (MALT). The new model is developed initially from the literature and then verified through students' perspectives gained from twenty semi-structured interviews in the first phase. The complete model is validated further based on students' perspectives gathered via 303 online questionnaires in the second phase, and then finally validated by using responses of experts gathered via three semi-structured interviews in the third phase. The study follows an exploratory sequential mixed methods design which gathers qualitative and quantitative data in an ordered sequence. Thematic analysis is used to analyse the interviews and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis as well as structural equation modelling to analyse the questionnaire. The study outcomes are a new research model (MALT) and a validated metric. The research used a systematic mixed methods triangulation approach to identifying the factors of students' motivation to use and their acceptance of tablet use for learning, which may be useful for future researchers in the area of acceptance of mobile technology enhanced learning. Also, there are statistics results and recommendations that can be brought to the attention of policy makers regarding tablet use in higher education. The research contributes to the body of knowledge in the educational technology field instrumentally, theoretically, methodologically and practically.
Over the last two decades the use of e-learning technology increased to such an extent that the role of the traditional academic has been forced to change. Focusing on academics’ views, this study examines their interactions in the e-learning environment and whether online learning applications have increased academic workload (Eynon, 2005; Olaniran, 2006). This study also identifies how their role has changed and the underlying factors which may cause negativity in their working environment. This understanding then generated the theory behind a prototype application, produced to be an addition to the current tools that academics use, with the intention to reduce academic efforts in creating content for teaching. Based on literature review, twelve interviews with academics and analysis of participant transaction logs suggests that online learning applications have increased workload. For some academics the use of e-learning technology in UK higher education can be a full time occupation. It is evident from the data that the drawbacks to current e-learning technology outweigh the number of benefits. A key concern is the high number of hours which are being spent on e-learning systems by academics. This research states unequivocally that the level of complexity for some academics is daunting, as well as frustrating. This study argues that managing expectations of academic staff is vital to the success of e-learning systems. A web-based prototype application was developed to extend the current functionality of e-learning systems, with a key objective to decrease the time spent by academics on elearning activities; functionality which has not yet been incorporated by other e-learning platforms such as Blackboard or Moodle. The prototype was tested by three academics who agreed that their overall experience was positive, effective and beneficial. Most importantly, they believed that the application would reduce the number of hours they spent on e-learning activities.
Lim, Yee Mei
A modern Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) should be sentient of a learner's cognitive and affective states, as a learner’s performance could be affected by motivational and emotional factors. It is important to design a method that supports low-cost, task-independent and unobtrusive sensing of a learner’s cognitive and affective states, to improve a learner's experience in e-learning, as well as to enable personalized learning. Although tremendous related affective computing research were done in this area, there is a lack of empirical research that can automatically measure a learner's stress using objective methods. This research is set to examine how an objective stress measurement model can be developed, to compute a learner’s cognitive and emotional stress automatically using mouse and keystroke dynamics. To ensure the measurement is not affected even if the user switches between tasks, three preliminary research experiments were carried out based on three common tasks during e-learning − search, assessment and typing. A stress measurement model was then built using the datasets collected from the experiments. Three stress classifiers were tested, namely certainty factors, feedforward back-propagation neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system. The best classifier was then integrated into the ITS stress inference engine, which is designed to decide necessary adaptation, and to provide analytical information of learners' performances, which include stress levels and learners’ behaviours when answering questions.
Designing an information infrastructure to support research degree programmes : identifying information and technology needsAbd Wahab, Alawiyah January 2016 (has links)
Extensive previous research has shown that web-based technologies have the potential to improve and enhance the quality of learning both on campus and at a distance. However, most of these studies have focused on the application of web-based technologies to support either undergraduates or taught postgraduate programmes, particularly, the use of Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) system to complement module-based courses. Evidence from previous research on the use of VLE to support research students in the context of specific modules showed mixed results. Analysis of the VLE literature suggests that the system arranges courses based on academic calendar. Thus, students will not be able to access the system after the semester end. With postgraduate research, the processes of research are often incomplete even when students have graduated and they often seek to further the work through publication in journals. Therefore, using VLE alone would not possibly support the need of research student, particularly the support that they need throughout the stages of the research life cycle. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to investigate how a web portal could be designed to support the research students throughout the research life cycle. A conceptualised web portal design has been constructed through an extensive review of the web-based technologies, learning theories and research degrees literature. The conceptualised web portal design illustrates that the design is underpinned by adult learning theories and the theory of stages in socialisation development, which in turn inform the framework of this research study. This model was then validated and updated through four action research cycles. A web portal system was developed, using the prototyping method to demonstrate the application of the web portal design informed by the adult learning theories and theory of stages in socialisation development. The research findings suggest that action research and prototyping methodology is capable of designing a web portal that is able to support the needs of research students in the context of a life cycle approach. Furthermore, the study reveals that personalisation and customisation features have proved to be useful in providing relevant information to research students at each stage of the research students’ study. It was found that research students value dynamic content such as Really Simple Syndication (RSS) features for providing condensed, updated content relevant to their interests.
Teaching practical science with information technology : the potential of data-logging examined through case studyNewton, Leonard Richard January 2001 (has links)
Laboratory based practical work typically involves pupils in observation, measurement, recording, display and analysis of experimental data. In recent years, computer tools have been applied to these processes through 'data-logging' methods. The benefits of these methods and their potential to serve the purposes of investigative practical science have been identified in the literature. This study presents an examination of the use of data-logging methods in order to identify factors that influence their use and to explore the extent to which the benefits claimed are achievable in everyday classroom settings. The study is organised around four major research issues concerning the features of data-logging activates designed by teachers; the ways in which activities are presented, organised and managed; the roles adopted by teachers and pupils in data-logging lessons; and evidence of productive interaction between the participants in data-logging lessons. The findings indicate that influences shaping the use of data-logging methods are wide-ranging. In addition to technically well-serviced ICT facilities and teachers experienced in the use of data-logging methods, the role of teachers emerges as highly influential in relation to: designing data-logging activities with sufficient scope and clarity of objectives, matched to pupils' needs; recognising the complexity of managing data-logging activities in classrooms and balancing this with the potential benefits of the technique; fostering an exploratory classroom ethos, encouraging pupils' talk about data-logging activity and exploiting intervention opportunities. Finally, in the light of these findings, suggestions for further empirical research are made.
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