Architectural innovation and design evolution : strategic and organizational dynamics of industry platformsTee, Richard Liong Gie January 2012 (has links)
The importance of understanding changes in the underlying architecture of complex systems has been well established, both in the academic and practitioner literature. Though existing research has made significant advances, important issues remain. Generally, existing research on architectural change has tended to overlook the interplay between environmental and firm-level drivers. In particular, relatively few studies have looked at the challenges firms face in making architectural design choices, and contingencies arising out of architectural change. As such, empirical evidence on this relationship is under-represented, even though its importance has been well established, for instance in the literature on organization design and contingency theory. Overall, this thesis emphasizes the interplay between environmental drivers and firm-level actions. In particular, it highlights the challenges firms face in dealing with environmental changes (e.g. new entrants, regulatory changes, standards setting), how this affects architectural design choices, and the underlying motivations driving these decisions. The dissertation is built up as follows. Following an introductory chapter, Chapter 2 develops a conceptual framework to understand changes in industry modularity. It suggests that industry architectures become more modular based on dissemination of product interfaces and organizational practices, and highlights several moderating factors influencing this process. Chapter 3 analyzes changes in product and organizational architecture, highlighting the combined role of environmental and firm-level drivers in affecting this relationship. Tensions between collaboration and competition in particular complicate a firm‘s decision making process regarding product and organization architecture design choices. Chapter 4 examines the product and industry level, focusing on which factors drive value appropriation and value creation in interdependent industry ecosystems. The chapter explores this through a study comparing the contrasting deployment of the i-mode mobile internet service, highlighting the importance of industry architectures to explain these differences.
Tey, Joo Guan Martin
No description available.
Formation, déploiement et articulation des capacités dynamiques : le cas de Voyageurs du Monde / Creation, deployment and articulation of dynamic capabilities : the case of Voyageurs du MondeAltintas, Gulsun 08 December 2011 (has links)
Cette thèse consiste à étudier le déploiement des capacités dynamiques dans une approche dynamique afin d’identifier les mécanismes à l’origine de la modification récurrente des ressources. Pour ce faire, nous avons choisi une démarche globale consistant à étudier l’ensemble des capacités dynamiques d’un tour-opérateur à travers une étude qualitative longitudinale incluant la formation puis les mises en œuvre successives des capacités dynamiques. Notre recherche montre que la modification récurrente des ressources résulte de l’articulation de deux niveaux de capacités dynamiques (niveau supérieur et niveau inférieur). La capacité dynamique de niveau supérieur favorise la formation et le déploiement des capacités dynamiques de niveau inférieur qui enrichissent à leur tour la capacité dynamique de niveau supérieur. La formation et le déploiement des capacités dynamiques de niveau inférieur se caractérisent par la routinisation d’une expérimentation favorisée par trois facteurs : l’identification d’une opportunité, l’apprentissage post-expérimentation et la réussite de l’expérimentation. Le dernier facteur est favorisé par l’application de certains principes directeurs. / The aim of this thesis is to study the deplyment of dynamic capabilities in a dynamic approach to identify the mechanisms which allow the recurrent resources modification. In this context, we chose a global approach to identify all the dynamic capabilities of one tour operator through a longitudinalqialitative study including the creation and successive implementations of dynamic capabilities. Our research shows the recurrent resources modification results from the articulation of two levels of dynamic capabilities (higher and lower level). The higher level dynamic capability allows the creation and deployment of lower level dynamic capabilities that in turn enrich the higher level dynamic capability. The creation and the deployment of lower level dynamic capabilities are characterized by the routinization of an experiment driven by three factors : sensing an opportunity, experiential learning and the success of experiment. The last factor is enhanced by the application of certain guidelines principles.
This thesis addresses the twin questions of technology and the human, ultimately questioning the validity of either category and pointing toward their dissolution in transhumanism. Starting with a discussion of the question of technology in organization studies, the thesis takes issue with the way in which discussion has focused on the technology- object pole of a dualism at the neglect of the human subject that occupies the opposing pole. Following a methodological call for symmetry the thesis reconsiders the question of technology in light of its human other and visa versa. Working with the ideas of Friedrich Nietzsche and Deleuze and Guattari, the thesis suggests that there is a problem with maintaining a distinct conception of the human, separated a priori from questions of technology and language. In seeking to avoid an essentialism either of the (technological) object, or the (human) subject, the thesis reconsiders the question of the human, language and technics through an examination of the work of William S. Burroughs. Combining Burroughs' ideas with those of Deleuze and Guattari, a conception of the 'transhuman' is developed which, in opposition to a transcendental humanism, articulates the immanent implication of technology and language in the production of subjectivity, and points to the more radical potentials of new technology in figuring alternative modes of subjectivization and social organization.
An exploration of the determinants of innovation : the top management team, organisational climate and organisational learningMacCurtain, Sarah January 2005 (has links)
Some researchers argue that the top team, rather than the CEO, is a better predictor of an organisation’s fate (Finkelstein & Hambrick, 1996; Knight et al., 1999). However, others suggest that the importance of the top management team (TMT) composition literature is exaggerated (West & Schwenk, 1996). This has stimulated a need for further research on TMTs. While the importance of TMT is well documented in the innovation literature, the organisational environment also plays a key role in determining organisational outcomes. Therefore, the inclusion of both TMT characteristics and organisational variables (climate and organisational learning) in this study provides a more holistic picture of innovation. The research methodologies employed includes (i) interviews with TMT members in 35 Irish software companies (ii) a survey completed by managerial respondents and core workers in these companies (iii) in-depth interviews with TMT members from five companies. Data were gathered in two phases, time 1 (1998-2000) and time 2 (2003). The TMT played an important part in fostering innovation. However, it was a group process, rather than team demography, that was most strongly associated with innovation. Task reflexivity was an important predictor of innovation time 1, time 2). Only one measure of TMT diversity was associated with innovation - tenure diversity -in time 2 only. Organisational context played an important role in determining innovation. This was positively associated with innovation - but with one dimension of organisational learning only. The ability to share information (access to information) was not associated with innovation but the motivation to share information was (perceiving the sharing of information to be valuable). Innovative climate was also associated with innovation. This study suggests that this will lead to innovative outcomes if employees perceive the organisation to support risk, experimentation and other innovative behaviours.
Young, Karen Elizabeth
The strategy and change management fields have developed new perspectives in recent years. Studies show that a high percentage of strategic change efforts fail and it was argued that one problem was the unsuccessful communication of the vision and strategy to employees. This exploratory research studied the use of graphic facilitative methods within the context of an organisation's strategic change process. Phase one of the explorative study was carried out using the combination of interview data, workshops and literature to identify emerging themes and to develop a conceptual model. Phase two of the study was again exploratory but more focused on the themes that had emerged from the preliminary study. Data was collected through interviews, observational methods, survey and a more focused literature review. Through the combined findings of the preliminary and focused study and from the literature, the author established an understanding and theory of how the methods contribute to improved strategy communication. The research has re-enforced the view in literature that the strategy communication process will be more successful by ensuring the strategy is driven by the right people and the strategy development is realistic. The use of graphics, metaphors, stories and dialogue, in combination, can help to improve the strategy communication process by conveying a clear strategic message, by facilitating an interactive strategy communication process, by encouraging communication in an open and safe environment, and because they are new, innovative and different.
Effectiveness of leader-member exchange (LMX) in the Saudi workplace context during times of organisational change : an investigation of LMX roles and their potential to enhance employee outcomesAlshamasi, Areej Abdulrahman January 2012 (has links)
Successful adaptation to organisational changes may start with individuals’ successful adaptation to change at the task level. This study suggests that the success of employees’ adaptation to task change may depend on the quality of the relationships between them and their managers. Within the broad area of organisational leadership, leader-member exchange (LMX) theory has evolved into one of the more interesting and useful approaches for studying hypothesised linkages between the exchange relationships between employees and their managers, and employee outcomes. The current research adopts an integrative model which is based on a review of the body of literature relevant to LMX, leadership behaviour, and employees’ work-related behaviour and attitudes. The literature review revealed a dearth of rigorous academic research using the leader-member exchange (LMX) approach in the Saudi organisational context, and the need to validate a model of the exchange relationships based on this approach in this context, specifically during times of organisational change. The research contributes to the current body of knowledge by bridging this gap in the previous literature, conducting the research in King Abdul Aziz University (KAU) using the LMX approach. The research design was largely derived from the Methodological Fit Concept for Mature Theory (Edmondson & McManus, 2007). For the purpose of testing the mediation hypotheses, the employees’ data was analysed at descriptive and explanatory levels using the macro introduced by Preacher and Hayes (2008a) for Multiple Mediation Analysis. The most exciting results of the current research are regarding the employees’ evaluation of LMX overall, and that the values for LMX dimensions were high. Interestingly this has been supported by the employees’ views about the significant effect of multidimensional LMX, firstly as mediator and then regarding the independent influence of its dimensions in predicting task change-supportive behaviours and attitudes in the Saudi organisational change context. Based on these results, the research suggests areas and tools for development related to the criteria and mediator variables that need more attention from KAU management.
Reissner, Stefanie Constanze
The main themes of this thesis focus on organisational change and learning in different geo-political contexts, bound together in a common moment of globalisation. These topics are explored through three case-studies from the manufacturing sector, one each from the United Kingdom, the Republic of South Africa and the Russian Federation. The project, on which this thesis is based. had a qualitative and interpretive design and took a comparative, narrative approach. It argues on the basis of this comparison, that organisational learning has to be related to the wider environment in which companies operate; individualistic models of learning are inadequate to explain the complex processes involved in learning in organisations. The thesis demonstrates that learning is most productively viewed as a form of sensemaking, which is particularly important in periods of change. This way of thinking about work-based learning subsumes all previous analytical descriptions of learning at work and all methods of promoting it, as sub-sets of a more generic process: making sense of experience. This approach of conceiving learning draws attention to the fact that learning involves the whole person, their sense of self, their understanding of the past and their grasp of the skills and relationships involved in their jobs. The concept of sense-making is explored at three levels - the macro-level with a focus on globalisation, the meso- or organisational level with an emphasis on strategic change and the micro- or personal level highlighting individual experiences of change and learning at the workplace. Narrative analysis is a powerful tool in organisational research to recover accounts of learning because it is through stories that people construct and make sense of the world. The comparative frame to this study highlights the cultural, historical and situated nature of narratives. This thesis shows that globalisation and strategic change are not impersonal phenomena, but become real and meaningful to everybody in an organisation through stories. Comparisons help to make otherwise tacit issues explicit.
Compétitions inter-standards : modélisation des dynamiques de réseaux complexes interorganisationnels / Standard competition : modeling the dynamics of complex interorganization network of sponsorsAkale, Yao 16 May 2012 (has links)
Dans cette thèse, nous avons tenté d’expliquer les compétitions inter-standards au travers des réseaux interorganisationnelsconstruits par les protagonistes. Sur la base de synthèses de théories émanant de trois principauxchamps académiques (économie des standards et des industries de réseau, analyse de réseaux et managementstratégique) la thèse formule des propositions qui permettent de bâtir un modèle réseau de compréhension de cescompétitions. Elle emploie une étude de cas unique, adopte un positionnement épistémologique réaliste critiqueet s'appuie sur la situation empirique de compétition entre les technologies Blu-ray et HD-DVD pourl’émergence du standard DVD de 2ème génération. Toute l’approche de la thèse se justifie par le postulat d'uneproximité méthodologique et théorique entre réseau inter-organisationnel des sponsors d’un standard et baseinstallée de ce standard. Ce postulat a également permis de poser que le réseau inter-organisationnel permettaitde générer non seulement la base installée idéale pour gagner la compétition, mais aussi d’influencer tous lesautres leviers (la crédibilité et la supériorité technique, le verrouillage des consommateurs par les coûts dechangement, la disponibilité de produits complémentaires, le timing d’entrée sur le marché etc.). En mobilisantdes concepts de « croissance » et « résilience » des approches réseaux complexes (Albert & Barabasi, 2002 ;Newman, 2003a ; etc.) et ceux de « pouvoir potentiel » et « d’usage du pouvoir » des auteurs en management(Brass & Burkhardt, 1993 ; Mintzberg, 1983 ; etc.) nous avons établi que la réussite dans une compétition entrestandards est subordonnée à la construction d’un réseau inter-organisationnel croissant et résilient dont lepotentiel est effectivement employé sur le terrain industriel et commercial. / Throughout this thesis we’ve attempted to explain standard competitions through the interorganizationalnetworks built by the protagonists. Based on the synthesis of theories derived from three main academic fields(economy of the standards and network industries, networks analysis and strategic management), the thesiselaborates proposals which make it possible to build a model network of comprehension of these competitions. Ituses a single case study, chooses a critical realistic epistemological positioning and bases itself on the empiricalsituation of competition between Blu-Ray and HD DVD technologies for the emergence of the secondgeneration standard DVD. The entire trend of the thesis is justified by a postulate of a methodological andtheoretical proximity of the interorganizational network of sponsors of a given standard and the installed base ofthat standard. This postulate made it possible to state that the interorganizational network made it possible notonly to generate the ideal installed base to win the competition, but also to impact all the others components(reliability and technical superiority, availability of complements, lock-in the consumers by the switching costs,timing of entry to the market, etc.). By mobilizing some concepts of “growth” and “resilience” of complexnetworks approaches, (Albert & Barabasi 2002, Newman, 2003a) and those of “potential power ” and “use ofpower” of authors in management (Brass & Burkhardt, 1993, Mintzberg 1983 etc.), we concluded that thesuccess in a competition between standards lies in building up a growing and resilient interorganizationalnetwork, the potential of which must actually be used on the industrial and commercial ground.
The role of psychological contract breach in determining Chinese civil servants' behavioural responses to organizational changeShan, Bin January 2012 (has links)
In order to cope with the challenges brought about by increasing global competition and rapid technological development, organizational change has become the norm. Organizational change has a profound effect on employment relationships, with a particular area of concern being any breaches of the psychological contracts (PCB) and the negative behaviours that result from these. In extant literature concerns the impact of organizational change on employment relationship, however, the perceived obligations that exist in the employment relationship have received less attention. In addition, little research has been undertaken in a Chinese government context, thus, the current study investigated the role such breaches play in determining the behavioural responses of Chinese civil servants to organizational change. The conceptual framework is formed by strategic, structural, process-oriented and people-oriented change, in relation to the psychological contracted breaches associated with the transactional, relational and balanced elements. Finally, with respect to the employees' behavioural responses, the concepts Exit, Voice, Loyalty and Neglect (EVLN) behaviours were used. A positivist approach of "testing-out" was adopted, whereby a specifically-designed questionnaire was used to collect data from 486 civil servants working for the Chinese government. Mutual expectations of both parties in the employment relationship were explored. Analysis involved traditional statistical techniques and included an assessment of biographical data. In certain areas, the outcomes supported Western findings on how, following change, a breach of the psychological contract can impact on employee behaviour. However, variations with previous studies were also found, which were related to the traditional Chinese cultural dimension, Confucius thought and the social phenomena surrounding the post 1980's generation. The discussion resulted in a new conceptual model of PCB being presented, which applies specifically to the cultural context of Chinese civil servants. The study advanced knowledge in a number of ways. Theoretical contributions were made to the psychological contract and particularly the breaches brought about by the change process. Contributions were also made in extending knowledge in the area of employee behaviours, particularly those of Exit, Voice, Loyalty and Neglect. Finally, in investigating the various concepts in the culturally specific environment of China, a contribution was made to public management, international HRM and the general area of culture. Practical contributions were made through recommendations for improvement, with further areas for research also being added.
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