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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Deliberate experience in sport : an ethnographic case study of expertise environments in Scotland

Buchanan, Neil January 2014 (has links)
Expertise has become a rich topic of investigation with a multitude of pop-science literature now tackling the issues of how we develop and enhance performance (Colvin, 2008; Coyle, 2010; Gladwell, 2009). The area of studies and literature include music, sport, art, maths, military, education and business to name a few. Within such studies, the drive is to find the 'answer' and find a simple and common denominator of expertise. The dominant theory of expertise within the performance focused literature is the theory of deliberate practice. A uni-dimensional model, the theory claims that expertise can only be enhanced by practice alone. The figure offered being 10,000 hours over 10 years (Ericsson, Krampe and Tesch-Roemer, 1993, p. 380). However, there is claim that the development of expertise and talent is a more complex and multidimensional myriad. This study investigates the development of talent and expertise in sport as a dynamic and complex phenomenon. Within this philosophical assumption, the focus of the research is therefore to identify, confirm and understand an alternative correlate of excellence: deliberate experience. The study adopts an ethnographic case study methodology to ensure that the research embraces the real world messiness and complexity of talent development. The study focused on a one year in depth analysis of a Scottish football club - Cowdenbeath F.C. To ensure the transfer of findings on the notion of deliberate experience, further microethnographic case studies were attained with a high-level football club and two alternative sports, squash and skiing.
2

Statistical methods for resolving issues relevant to test and measurement reliability and validity in variables related to sport performance and physical fitness

Cooper, Stephen-Mark January 2006 (has links)
Sport performance is the result of a complex and challenging blend of many factors. Sport coaches and National Goveming Bodies (NGBs) of sport have begun to recognise that the most efficacious way of preparing athletes for competition is one based upon proven scientific methods and not upon trial and error judgements. Such a response flies in the face of much of the coaching folklore that has been passed down through the generations. Indeed, it is not so long ago that most sport coaches would treat the idea of support from a sport scientist with abject cynicism. Today, however, it is far more commonplace for individual athletes and teams of athletes, who aspire towards achieving superior optimal performances, their coaches and NGB advisors, to seek an input from sport scientists so that these athletes can achieve their full potential. The complex blend of component factors necessary for successful sport performance are activity specific, and this has led to the demand for the provision of assessment batteries that have proven specificity within the context of a particular sport. In addition, sport scientists require testing protocols to be duplicated, and for comparable data to be obtained when athletes are tested in different laboratories by different scientists and at different times throughout a preparatory and competitive season (MacDougall and Wenger, l99l). Even when scientists revert to data collection in the field, mainly because of convenience, information gathered about athletes might be less consistent, but it might well be more specific and upon which some key decisions can often be made. Clearly, athletes, their coaches, their NGB advisers and the sport scientists that support them each have concerns over performance enhancement and optimisation. Additionally, sport scientists themselves might well have a personal research agenda. It has to be acknowledged, therefore, that all of these stakeholders have an interest in the quality of the data collected and that these data should be relevant, consistent and accurate.
3

How can technology help us understand performance in sport

Dhawan, Aishwar January 2016 (has links)
Scientific understanding of sports performance have a multitude of advantages; such as improving technical or motor performance, devising efficient training protocols, optimising decision making skills and reducing injuries. The thesis reports a series of studies which utilizes state of the art motion capture and emerging virtual reality technology to (i) investigate technical aspects of goal kicking in rugby union and (ii) to examine decision making behaviour across cricket batters. The biomechanics of goal kicking in rugby union has received little attention in scientific literature owing to its importance, more so in a goal directed naturalistic setting. Within this aspect, the aim was to identify any common lower limb performance criterion's that existed across a sample of elite goal kickers which led to a successful performance. An increased ball speed, a higher hip angular velocity at ball impact, existence of hip and knee strategy to achieve similar levels of performance were identified. The conclusions have implications for adapting technology to goal kicking practise and future research. The second phase of the thesis described the development and application of a novel virtual reality cricket batting simulator. The simulator was applied to study decision making behaviour across cricket batters by feeding in realistic information. The kinematics of a fast bowling action was also evaluated independently as its understanding is central to how and when batter chose to perform. Elite batters were identified of perceptual and temporal components in context of advance information pick up and batswing behaviour that differed from their less capable peers. Comparable results from analogous studies indicated the strength of behavioral realism of the virtual reality batting simulator. Challenges of the simulator were also outlined in context to cricket batting. The conclusions have broader implications for virtual reality technology in movement coordination, perception action research and from an applied perspective
4

A sporting diaspora : Gaelic games and London's Irish community

Harkin, Frances January 2015 (has links)
Central to this thesis is the Irish diasporic community in London and the ways in which Irish identities manifest and are (re)negotiated in this context. Using sport and more specifically Gaelic games as a study, this thesis examines the complexity of diasporic identities and provides an original dimension to our understanding of the experience of the Irish diaspora in London. This research considers the significance of the Gaelic Athletic Association and Gaelic games for London's Irish community and the extent to which the diaspora context complicates this. The significance of the GAA in London is influenced by the dynamics of the London Irish community and the context in which it is situated. The overarching Irish community in London is a l11ultigenerational and heterogeneous collective encompassing varying interpretations of 'Irishness', contrasting experiences of living in London and different levels of engagement with the cultural forms, individuals and institutions associated with it. This study considers Irish identity as a process; a social construct continually being (re)negotiated and informed by the circumstances and diaspora context in which it is situated, and is thus is in a state of flux. There is no one uniform interpretation of 'Irishness' in London and diasporic identities are essentially reflective of the roots of individuals, their life trajectories and different modalities of self. This thesis adds new insights into the role the GAA plays in facilitating the construction of different modes of 'Irishness' in London. The thesis also explores the changing profile of the GAA as it expands to encompass a wider constituency of members and supporters from migrant Irish, the second-generation Irish population and wider society. In doing so, it provides new insights into the role that the GAA plays in the lives of members of London's Irish community and its significance as a marker of identity.
5

The role of perception of effort in endurance performance testing and training

Salam, Hawbeer January 2017 (has links)
The role of endurance performance measurements have been an important theme, cycling time trials are main elements of Grand Tour cycling events, such as the Tour de France. Normally time trials within road cycling championships cover distances between 10 and 44 km over periods of 10 min to 60 min. afterward, success in these individual tests of human endurance is widely determined by the cyclist's level of aerobic fitness. Furthermore, focussing on all endurance performance methods to assess athlete's level, there is not only physiological assessment for endurance performance. Perceived exertion, defined as "the conscious sensation of hard, heavy and strenuous exercise", is identified to regulate human behaviour and endurance exercise performance, moreover, rating perceived exertion has been valid tool to demonstrated endurance performance as well as physiological parameters (heart rate and blood lactate concentration, and exercise economy) during submaximal exercise performance. As there are a numerous studies suggested that perception of effort can determine endurance exercise performance independently of alterations in cardiorespiratory, metabolic and neuromuscular parameters. Therefore, it is possible that perception of effort plays a major role in determining endurance performance. Therefore, from these perceptive the idea for first study has been developed However, to date, not only to clarify RPE's correlation to endurance performance but also how manipulations of perceived exertion might influence endurance performance remain not well understood. The secondary aim of this thesis was to examine how manipulations of perception of effort might affect endurance performance. This manipulation is divided in two parts: The effect of mental fatigue on critical power and the anaerobic work capacity and Does chronic use of caffeine reduce its acute ergogenic effects during high intensity interval training? We firstly investigated the effect of impairing perception of effort via mental fatigue involving the response inhibition process on critical power endurance performance. These studies have demonstrated higher perceptions of effort and reduced exercise performance independently of alterations in cardiorespiratory or metabolic responses to exercise. Therefore, higher PE may limit TTE and subsequently alter the CP and W' independently of changes within the underlying muscle physiology. We found that contrary to endurance exercise performance, so the outcomes of this study were, mental fatigue induced by a response inhibition stroop task reduced time to exhaustion at fixed power outputs, the reduced time to exhaustion does not alter the resultant critical power. However, the development of mental fatigue did significantly reduce the supposed anaerobic work capacity, mental fatigue induced by a response inhibition stroop task significantly increased RPE during the TTE trials. Therefore, these findings provides strong evidence that the proposed physiological critical power model can be affected by purely psychological factors i.e. mental fatigue. On the other hand, in second part the thesis investigated on the effect of caffeine on endurance performance based on extensive research showing positive effects on performance many athletes use caffeine before and during competitions, however, the use of caffeine during training is not well understood. As the study outcomes shows, no significant changes in VO2max were observed in either groups after 4 weeks of training. As hypothesised, caffeine acutely increased power output, HR and blood lactate during HIIT at both the baseline and follow-up assessments. There were no significant interactions and main effects of time suggesting the development of tolerance to these acute ergogenic effects of caffeine during HIIT after 4 weeks of chronic supplementation. Caffeine ingestion one hour prior to HIIT acutely increases power output, HR and blood lactate for the same RPE. Frequent use of caffeine before training (3 times a week for 4 weeks) does not reduce these acute ergogenic effects of caffeine during HIIT. This observation argues against the development of tolerance and suggests that pre-training caffeine ingestion is a useful strategy to increase training intensity, whether this increase in training intensity leads to greater gains in performance needs to be investigated in future studies with more controlled training programs and longer follow up periods. Overall, when merging all experimental parts, provides new vision on how perception of effort a valid and effective regulates of endurance performance. Specially, it proves how muscle fatigue is one of the contributor of the constant increase in perception of effort during endurance exercise, however, there are other contributors play a role in this increase and decrease in perceived exertion. In contrast, we demonstrated for the first time that i) perception of effort can be endurance performance regulator, ii) alterations in the attendance of mental fatigue does decrease endurance performance and increase perception of effort, iii) endurance performance can be improved by caffeine ingestion one hour prior to HIIT acutely increases power output, HR and blood lactate for the same intensity. Frequent use of caffeine before training does not reduce these acute ergogenic effects of caffeine during HIIT.
6

Physiological and cognitive performance of Futsal and Football referees

Ahmed, Hawkar Salar Ahmed January 2017 (has links)
Reduction of referees' physical performance in the second half of the game has been observed in previous research on football referees. There is very little research addressing Futsal referees. The aim of the present thesis was to investigate physiological, physical and cognitive performance of Futsal and football referees in field and laboratory studies. The 1st experimental study (Chapter 4) analysed the activity profile and physiological demands of 18 Futsal referees and referee decision-making performance at different stages of the match (e.g. 1st vs 2nd half). In addition, it explored relationships between physical fitness/performance on the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) fitness tests, activity profile and decision-making performance. The main findings were that total distance and average heart rate were higher in the first compared to second half but lactate and session RPE were similar. The proportion of correct decisions decreased in the second half (1st half, 91.1 ± 14.9% correct vs 2nd half, 73.3 ± 17.4%, p = 0.002). No correlations were evident between FIFA fitness tests and activity profile but the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test - Level 2 (Yo-Yo IET-2) performance and total distance (clock time) were correlated (r = 0.720, p = 0.019). Further motion analysis studies are needed to collect data for referees and players during the same matches. The present study also suggests that the traditional FIFA fitness test (and 1000 m run) were poor for assessing Futsal referee-specific fitness, and tests that involve intermittent and/or direction changes, such as the Yo-Yo test or Assistant Referee Intermittent Endurance Test (ARIET), may be more appropriate, although further research is needed on the ARIET in this context. The 2nd experimental study (Chapter 5) examined whether undertaking a 10-min Psychomotor Vigilance test (PVT) before a match would influence referees' cognitive performance, especially decision-making (DM) to determine the suitability of using it in field-based studies involving real matches. The results showed that the PVT did not affect referees' decision-making or cognitive performance. Hence, the 10- min PVT can be safely used with referees before real competition/in the field. The 3rd experimental study (Chapter 6) assessed referees' performance on the PVT before and after competitive Futsal matches. The findings showed that, despite changes in BRUMS parameters indicative of a fatigue profile, psychomotor performance was improved after a single match (PVT mean reaction time 248.3 ± 26.2 ms pre- vs 239.7 ± 22.4 ms post-match, p = 0.023). It is possible that a more strenuous overall demand would cause different effects, however, the post-match improvement observed here could be used to inform warm-up practices (e.g. optimal duration and intensity) geared towards optimising cognitive performance of referees during matches. The 4th experimental study (Chapter 7) examined the effect of mental fatigue on referees' physiological responses and cognitive performance during a lab-based intermittent protocol. The main findings were that mental fatigue had a significant negative effect on referees' cognitive performance as assessed by a referee-specific decision-making task (correct decisions, 76.7 ± 7.2% at the beginning of exercise vs 64.6 ± 7.8% at the end, p < 0.001), which did not occur in the control trial. PVT performance was also significantly reduced to a greater extend in the mental fatigue, compared to control, condition. This may have implications for optimising referees' preparation and cognitive performance in real matches, which should be explored further. Overall this thesis has demonstrated that referee performance decreases in the second half in both Futsal and football referees. Further, it provides evidence that this is influenced by mental fatigue. Further investigations on referees' performance and related factors are warranted, along with interventions directed towards improving performance (cognitive and physical) via reducing mental fatigue.
7

The use of the self-paced exercise test in assessing cardiorespiratory fitness in runners

Hogg, James January 2018 (has links)
The aim of this thesis was to investigate the utility of the self-paced exercise test (SPXT) in assessing the cardiorespiratory fitness of runners. Traditionally, cardiorespiratory fitness is assessed via an open-ended graded exercise test (GXT) which utilises fixed increments of work-rate and involves the participant continuing until volitional exhaustion. The SPXT is a closed-looped 10 minute (min) test which is made up of 5 x 2 min stages in which intensity is clamped by ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). The test starts at RPE 11, and this increases in an incremental fashion to encompass RPE 13, 15, 17, and finally 20. The test is more time-efficient than traditional protocols due to not requiring a known starting speed. Additionally, the SPXT may be more valid for runners compared to the GXT in which test duration is unknown. In study one, gradient and speed-based SPXT protocols were compared to a laboratory based GXT to investigate the validity of the SPXT in producing maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max). The gradient-based SPXT [which has not previously been investigated] produced higher V̇O2max than the GXT (71 ± 4.3 vs. 68.6 ± 6.0 mL·kg-1·min-1, P = .03, ES = .39) but the speed-based SPXT produced similar V̇O2max to the GXT (67.6 ± 3.6 vs. 68.6 ± 6.0 mL·kg-1·min-1, P = .32, ES = .21). Results also demonstrated that the oxygen (O2) cost of ventilation may differ between the SPXT and GXT (26.4 ± 2.8 vs. 28.2 ± 2.8 mL.min-1, respectively) (P = .02). In study two, the oxygen cost of breathing during the SPXT was investigated. When assessed via separate ventilation trials, there were no differences in the oxygen cost of breathing between the SPXT and GXT (26.1 ± 5.3 vs. 26.9 ± 4.2 mL.min-1, respectively) (t7 = -1.00, P = .34,), and V̇O2max was again similar between the SPXT and GXT (Z = -.43, P = .67,). The mean velocity at RPE20 (vRPE20) measured via the SPXT was also similar to the maximal velocity (Vmax) derived from the GXT (t8 = .74, P = .48). In study three, the ability of the SPXT to provide novel parameters that could be used to prescribe six-weeks of running training for recreationally active runners was investigated. Results demonstrated that vRPE20 was effective in improving V̇O2max (6 ± 6 %), critical speed (3 ± 3 %) and lactate threshold (7 ± 8%) and these improvements were similar to a separate group who trained using GXT-derived parameters including Vmax (4 ± 8, 7 ± 7, 5 ± 4 %, for V̇O2max, critical speed, and lactate threshold, respectively). Prescribing training via the SPXT may be beneficial as it does not require additional testing that is usually associated with the GXT. In study four, the ability of the SPXT to accurately determine ventilatory thresholds (VT) was investigated. The first and second VT (VT1 and VT2, respectively) were not significantly different when measured as V̇O2 between the SPXT (4.03 ± 0.5 and 4.37 ± 0.6 L.min-1, for VT1 and VT2, respectively) and GXT (4.18 ± 0.5 and 4.54 ± 0.7 L.min-1, respectively) in highly trained runners. In recreationally trained runners VT1 was significantly different when measured via the SPXT and GXT (2.78 ± 0.5 vs. 2.99 ± 0.5 L.min-1, respectively) (t23 = -4.51, P < .01, ES = .42) whilst VT2 was also significantly different (3.10 ± 0.6 vs. 3.22 ± 0.6 L.min-1) (t21 = -2.35, P = .03, ES = .20). However, when calculated using different variables such as velocity, RPE, and HR, VT1 and VT2 were similar between protocols. This demonstrated that the SPXT can provide valid VT for runners. The conclusion from this thesis is that the SPXT is a valid protocol for measuring V̇O2max and can also be used to prescribe a programme of endurance training, and provide an accurate marker of VT.
8

Training, nutrition and exercise immunology : the use of salivary Epstein Barr virus DNA as a marker of in vivo immunity

Chidley, Corinna January 2018 (has links)
Aim: The aim of this thesis was to investigate the use of salivary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA as a marker of in vivo immunity in response to training and nutritional intervention. Methods: Initially, an assay for the detection of EBV DNA in saliva was developed which was subsequently used to detect the concentration of EBV DNA in samples collected in subsequent studies. The potential role of EBV as a predictor of URTI in response to endurance exercise are presented, along with the outcome of nutritional interventions, with chapters investigating the effects of supplementation with carbohydrate, and Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Finally, data from all four of these chapters were consolidated, and the role of salivary EBV DNA as a marker of in vivo immunity investigated. Outcome: The main finding from this thesis is that salivary EBV DNA does not appear to be a useful marker of in vivo immunity based on the present data. EBV concentration was not a predictor of URTI, nor was there a relationship between EBV concentration and SIgA concentration or secretion rate, or the absolute change or percentage change in EBV from pre-post exercise and the absolute and percentage change in SIgA concentration or secretion rate.
9

Creating pressurised training environments in elite sport

Stoker, Mike January 2017 (has links)
Pressure training (PT) is indicated to be an intervention for preventing self-focus and distraction methods of choking that could be more effective (Oudejans & Pijpers, 2010), ecological (cf. Lawrence et al., 2014), and popular (Bell, Hardy, & Beattie, 2013; Sarkar, Fletcher, & Brown, 2014) than more widely recognised approaches (Hill, Hanton, Matthews, & Fleming, 2010a) such as implicit (Mullen, Hardy, & Oldhan, 2007) and analogy learning (Masters, 2000). However, whilst research has exemplified stressors being used to create pressure (e.g., Lawrence et al., 2014) and provided extensive detail on methods that could be useful for conducting the preexposure stages of PT (e.g., Johnston & Cannon-Bowers, 1996), there was an absence of research investigating how to systematically create pressurised training environments in sport. This notion suggested that PT was being practiced in elite sport in the absence of comprehensive theoretical underpinnings. To address this, study one explored how 11 elite coaches systematically created and exposed athletes to PT environments. The emergent framework suggested that coaches manipulated two key areas: demands of training, which considered the nature of physical and cognitive demands directly related to a training exercise, and consequences of training, which concerned performance-contingent outcomes. Demands were organised via manipulating task, performer, and environmental stressors, and consequences were shaped using forfeit, reward, and judgment stressors. To test the efficacy of this framework, study two examined the effects of manipulating demands and consequences on experiences of pressure in elite Netball. To further extend knowledge, study three examined the impact of each individual demand (i.e., task, performer and environmental) and consequence (i.e., reward, forfeit and judgment) stressor on pressure in elite Disability Shooting. Study three’s results were synonymous with those of study two in indicating that perceived pressure only increased in conditions where consequences were introduced. This result suggested that these stressors were essential for increasing pressure. Moreover, study three indicated that the judgment stressor had the greatest influence of all stressors and, thus, presented coaches with the most effective means for maximising pressure. Across both studies, manipulating demands in isolation did not influence pressure in any condition. Yet, these stressors always negatively impacted performance. Hence, collectively the findings support and build on the framework by indicating that demands and consequences have distinct roles when PT; demand stressors could be critical for shaping performance whereas consequences appear essential for producing pressure. These findings have important applied implications. Firstly, previous research suggested that coaches may rely on demands, in place of consequences, to produce pressure (cf. Weinberg, Butt, & Culp, 2011). Secondly, literature has predominantly indicated consequences are important, but not essential, when creating pressure (e.g., Oudejans & Pijpers, 2009). Therefore, there may be a need to expand knowledge in applied and scientific arenas regarding the distinct roles of demands and consequences when PT. In light of these points, the present thesis contributes findings to underpin methods for systematically creating and exposing athletes to PT environments. These findings combine with previous literature relating to the pre-exposure stages of PT (e.g., Johnston & Cannon-Bowers, 1996) to enable the documentation of a more comprehensive account of how to perform all the stages involved in PT. Accordingly, an epilogue in chapter seven outlines such an account and serves as a guide for practitioners and coaches conducting PT.
10

Strategies for alleviating the effects of heat on exercise ability

Castle, Paul January 2018 (has links)
No description available.

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