Effects of recreation and environment upon the erosion of mountain footpaths in the Lake District National ParkColeman, Rosalind Anne January 1979 (has links)
Increasing numbers of walkers in mountain areas have led to concern about the deterioration of footpaths through the erosion of vegetation and soil. Sites were established to monitor path erosion by repeated measurements of cross sections. Results demonstrated that although many sites were stable over a two year period, some deteriorated rapidly. Erosion by human agency and surface water run off proved equally effective under favourable conditions. Comparisons of air photographs (1947-72) suggested that footpath erosion was not a new phenomenon, but also reinforced the trends measured over the two years. A survey was made to examine relationships between footpath morphology and environmental/recreation site conditions. Results suggested that in the variation of path width, of the extent of bare soil and the depth of gullying, much could be accounted for by corresponding variation in the path gradient and the degree of recreation pressure. The altitude, and certain vegetation and soil types proved relevant, but of less importance. Among the paths surveyed, the extremes of erosion measured were localised, but occurred on most paths. Signs of active processes were observed on about one third of the sites, and appeared on most paths with a slope of more than 17 degrees. Experimental work on a purposely created path demonstrated the efficacy of trampling as an erosive agent, especially in combination with wet weather and waterlogged soil.
Perceptions, patterns and policies of tourism : the development of the Devon seaside resorts during the twentieth century with special reference to Torquay and IlfracombeMorgan, Nigel John January 1991 (has links)
No description available.
Scientific understanding of sports performance have a multitude of advantages; such as improving technical or motor performance, devising efficient training protocols, optimising decision making skills and reducing injuries. The thesis reports a series of studies which utilizes state of the art motion capture and emerging virtual reality technology to (i) investigate technical aspects of goal kicking in rugby union and (ii) to examine decision making behaviour across cricket batters. The biomechanics of goal kicking in rugby union has received little attention in scientific literature owing to its importance, more so in a goal directed naturalistic setting. Within this aspect, the aim was to identify any common lower limb performance criterion's that existed across a sample of elite goal kickers which led to a successful performance. An increased ball speed, a higher hip angular velocity at ball impact, existence of hip and knee strategy to achieve similar levels of performance were identified. The conclusions have implications for adapting technology to goal kicking practise and future research. The second phase of the thesis described the development and application of a novel virtual reality cricket batting simulator. The simulator was applied to study decision making behaviour across cricket batters by feeding in realistic information. The kinematics of a fast bowling action was also evaluated independently as its understanding is central to how and when batter chose to perform. Elite batters were identified of perceptual and temporal components in context of advance information pick up and batswing behaviour that differed from their less capable peers. Comparable results from analogous studies indicated the strength of behavioral realism of the virtual reality batting simulator. Challenges of the simulator were also outlined in context to cricket batting. The conclusions have broader implications for virtual reality technology in movement coordination, perception action research and from an applied perspective
Central to this thesis is the Irish diasporic community in London and the ways in which Irish identities manifest and are (re)negotiated in this context. Using sport and more specifically Gaelic games as a study, this thesis examines the complexity of diasporic identities and provides an original dimension to our understanding of the experience of the Irish diaspora in London. This research considers the significance of the Gaelic Athletic Association and Gaelic games for London's Irish community and the extent to which the diaspora context complicates this. The significance of the GAA in London is influenced by the dynamics of the London Irish community and the context in which it is situated. The overarching Irish community in London is a l11ultigenerational and heterogeneous collective encompassing varying interpretations of 'Irishness', contrasting experiences of living in London and different levels of engagement with the cultural forms, individuals and institutions associated with it. This study considers Irish identity as a process; a social construct continually being (re)negotiated and informed by the circumstances and diaspora context in which it is situated, and is thus is in a state of flux. There is no one uniform interpretation of 'Irishness' in London and diasporic identities are essentially reflective of the roots of individuals, their life trajectories and different modalities of self. This thesis adds new insights into the role the GAA plays in facilitating the construction of different modes of 'Irishness' in London. The thesis also explores the changing profile of the GAA as it expands to encompass a wider constituency of members and supporters from migrant Irish, the second-generation Irish population and wider society. In doing so, it provides new insights into the role that the GAA plays in the lives of members of London's Irish community and its significance as a marker of identity.
Children’s participation in youth sport is ubiquitous in UK society, yet high levels of attrition are evident in adolescence (Department for Culture, Media and Sport, 2012a). This attrition has been credited, in part, to questionable coaching behaviours that derogate children’s experiences in youth sport. Using self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000; Ryan & Deci, 2000, 2002) as a guiding framework, the purpose of this thesis was to better understand the coach-related antecedents of children’s adherence and attrition in youth sport by examining the motivational processes that contribute to their engagement versus disaffection. In study one, children’s perceptions of autonomy, competence and relatedness, or psychological need satisfaction, were examined alongside in their tendency to exhibit high levels of cognitive and affective engagement. In study two, a mediation model was tested whereby coach autonomy support and control were hypothesised to exhibit positive indirect effects on children’s engagement and disaffection in youth sport respectively via both psychological need satisfaction and psychological need thwarting. In study three, the previous study was replicated and extended with three waves of data. The final study of this thesis examined the interaction of coach autonomy support and structure to extend the findings of the previous studies. Overall, the findings suggest that structure and autonomy support from coaches will help to safeguard children’s adherence to youth sport because they jointly facilitate psychological need satisfaction and engagement. In contrast, control from coaches is likely to lead to children’s attrition in youth sport since such provisions undermine the psychological needs and produce disaffection.
Statistical methods for resolving issues relevant to test and measurement reliability and validity in variables related to sport performance and physical fitnessCooper, Stephen-Mark January 2006 (has links)
Sport performance is the result of a complex and challenging blend of many factors. Sport coaches and National Goveming Bodies (NGBs) of sport have begun to recognise that the most efficacious way of preparing athletes for competition is one based upon proven scientific methods and not upon trial and error judgements. Such a response flies in the face of much of the coaching folklore that has been passed down through the generations. Indeed, it is not so long ago that most sport coaches would treat the idea of support from a sport scientist with abject cynicism. Today, however, it is far more commonplace for individual athletes and teams of athletes, who aspire towards achieving superior optimal performances, their coaches and NGB advisors, to seek an input from sport scientists so that these athletes can achieve their full potential. The complex blend of component factors necessary for successful sport performance are activity specific, and this has led to the demand for the provision of assessment batteries that have proven specificity within the context of a particular sport. In addition, sport scientists require testing protocols to be duplicated, and for comparable data to be obtained when athletes are tested in different laboratories by different scientists and at different times throughout a preparatory and competitive season (MacDougall and Wenger, l99l). Even when scientists revert to data collection in the field, mainly because of convenience, information gathered about athletes might be less consistent, but it might well be more specific and upon which some key decisions can often be made. Clearly, athletes, their coaches, their NGB advisers and the sport scientists that support them each have concerns over performance enhancement and optimisation. Additionally, sport scientists themselves might well have a personal research agenda. It has to be acknowledged, therefore, that all of these stakeholders have an interest in the quality of the data collected and that these data should be relevant, consistent and accurate.
Evidence based practice in sport development : a realistic evaluation of a sport and physical activity strategyDaniels, John January 2015 (has links)
Local sport and physical activity strategy offer a plan for governing and exploiting resources with the objective of stimulating interest and increasing participation in sport. The impact of ‘strategy’ can be inconsistent and little is known of the personal and contextual factors that influence strategy effectiveness. Multiple programmes within a local sport and physical activity strategy were evaluated using a mixed method design through interviews and questionnaires with both programme leaders and participants. The data were generated between 2007 and 2012 and analysed using the Realistic Evaluation framework of Pawson and Tilley (1997). The findings show that the Strategy activities offer a foundation for instigating social connectedness and a mechanism for personal and professional development. These mechanisms were triggered when individual, and cultural needs were accommodated. Other outcomes explored within the thesis include the transfer of skills, the creation of safer and stronger communities and the improvement of health and wellbeing. Collectively, the data helped generate explanations or theory for these outcomes and formed useful information upon which strategic decisions were made. Further, there is critical commentary about the research position and its application in a sport development context.
This thesis addresses two areas of research relating to limited overs cricket using statistical analysis. First, we investigate the issue of resetting targets in interrupted matches and propose an alternative, new method to this end. Second, we address the problem of in-play forecasting match outcome
Expertise has become a rich topic of investigation with a multitude of pop-science literature now tackling the issues of how we develop and enhance performance (Colvin, 2008; Coyle, 2010; Gladwell, 2009). The area of studies and literature include music, sport, art, maths, military, education and business to name a few. Within such studies, the drive is to find the 'answer' and find a simple and common denominator of expertise. The dominant theory of expertise within the performance focused literature is the theory of deliberate practice. A uni-dimensional model, the theory claims that expertise can only be enhanced by practice alone. The figure offered being 10,000 hours over 10 years (Ericsson, Krampe and Tesch-Roemer, 1993, p. 380). However, there is claim that the development of expertise and talent is a more complex and multidimensional myriad. This study investigates the development of talent and expertise in sport as a dynamic and complex phenomenon. Within this philosophical assumption, the focus of the research is therefore to identify, confirm and understand an alternative correlate of excellence: deliberate experience. The study adopts an ethnographic case study methodology to ensure that the research embraces the real world messiness and complexity of talent development. The study focused on a one year in depth analysis of a Scottish football club - Cowdenbeath F.C. To ensure the transfer of findings on the notion of deliberate experience, further microethnographic case studies were attained with a high-level football club and two alternative sports, squash and skiing.
One leading researcher into the training of dancers and safe dance practice accurately characterised traditional, authoritarian, dance teaching methods as `teaching by terror’. This project considered evidence for the widely-voiced claim that dance teaching, and particularly the private dance teaching sector, has rejected these methods and moved towards more ethical teaching practices.
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