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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Clinical applications of shear wave elastography to achilles tendon imaging and the monitoring of a rehabilitation protocol for achilles tendinopathy

Payne, Catherine January 2018 (has links)
No description available.

Integrating mindfulness meditation into sport therapy

Mohammed, Warhel Asim Mohammed January 2018 (has links)
Since 1979, once Kabat-Zinn developed Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), gradual changes in the domain of health have been observed. Hence, the flow of mindfulness into numerous fields of scientific research. One of fields which mindfulness meditation (MM) has been integrated into is sport. Many investigations have successfully documented how MM can enhance athletes' performance, as well as improving their negative mood state. Notably, the majority of this research has focused on sport performance. Despite the promising theory, there has been no experimental study regarding the increase in pain tolerance (PT), reduction of perception of pain (PP) and psychological distress for athletes once they have become injured. The Cold Pressor Test (CPT) had been used to discover the effectiveness of MM regarding physical pain with injured athletes (IA). Additionally, this was conducted in order to understand whether MM could benefit them with their condition. Therefore, a commonly used meditation technique, based on MBSR, had been used as an intervention during the period of recovery with IA. The first study set out to determine the role of MM training in increasing pain tolerance, reducing the perception of pain, mindful attention, reducing anxiety/stress and improving mood state. The experimental data found that PP increased in CPT for IA who received 8 weeks of formal and informal MM training. However, no reductions in CPT were observed in PP. Quantitative findings showed that mindful attention had significantly changed for IA in the intervention group. There was also an improvement in the control group, even though they had not received MM. This is might be due to the physiotherapy treatment that had increased their level of awareness. MM had also been investigated with therapists (physiotherapists and sport therapists) in the second study, through both formal and self-directed practise. Questionnaire assessments of MM were collected from 29 therapists who were involved in 4 weeks of the MM program from different countries and methods of practice. It was important to note that the process of data collection was through a website that was developed only for research purposes. There were two research questions that were investigated. The first was Does MM increase therapists' body-awareness and reduce their burnout in the workplace? Additionally, it looked at the positive effect of MM on their personal attitudes after 4 weeks of formal and self-directed practise. The second research question aimed to understand which methods (face-to-face and Skype (FFG) with an instructor or self-directed (SDG), MM program were more effective with therapists. The findings indicated that there was a positive effect of MM in increasing their body-awareness through the MAIA scale, particularly attention-regulation, self-regulation and trusting and BST personal-achievement for therapists in the FFG. As such, the findings found a significant improvement in FFMQ in acting with awareness, the PANAS positive affect and SCBC. As a result of these findings, therapists who practised MM face to face with an instructor obtained more benefits compared to their peers in the SDG. In previous studies, MM had been investigated through both experimental and quantitative methods. In order to aid further understanding about the effect of MM, a qualitative approach was implemented with both clinical and non-clinical populations through semi structured interviews. Two research questions were examined with both IA and therapists. In the third study, the qualitative study sought to understand and explain what experiences the "injured athletes" had experienced during the eight weeks' formal and self-directed MM program. In the last study of this thesis, the qualitative investigation sought to discover what the therapists' perceptions of the effectiveness of the MM program were. Taken together, both IA and therapists emphasised that the MM program had positively affected their attitudes after their participation. With regard to IA experiences', MM is a suitable mental training that can be used during the sport rehabilitation process (SRP). On the other side, the therapists stressed that MM is an effective strategy to use in the workplace and at home. The findings of this thesis provide a better understanding of practising MM in both clinical and non-clinical populations in sport. This is in addition to the variety of methods that were used to assess MM in all the studies. Consequently, this novel work in sport could contribute towards a broad theoretical and practical foundation in future research.

Hypoxic exposure to optimise altitude training adaptations in elite endurance athletes

Turner, Gareth January 2016 (has links)
The purpose of this thesis was to examine the physiological and haematological responses to altitude training and hypoxic exposures. Furthermore to investigate if additional hypoxic exposure around a “live high-train high” altitude training camp could maximise adaptations. Study one provided a detailed insight into the current practices and perceptions of elite British endurance athletes and coaches to altitude training. A survey found that the athletes and support staff’s concerns included maintaining training load at altitude, reducing the acclimatisation period, maximising haematological adaptations and when to compete on return to sea level. These challenges were prioritised and investigated further in the thesis. Confidence in the optimised carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method (oCOR-method) is paramount when assessing haematological adaptations. Study two found that Radiometer ABL80 hemoximeter provided a more valid and reliable determination of percent carboxyhaemoglobin (%HbCO) with a minimum of three replicate blood samples to obtain an error of ≤1%. Study three found that administering different boluses of CO produced significantly different haemoglobin mass (tHbmass) results (0.6 mL·kg−1 = 791 ± 149 g; 1.0 mL·kg−1 = 788 ± 149 g; and 1.4 mL·kg−1 = 776 ± 148 g). A bolus of 0.6 to 1.0 mL·kg−1 provided sufficient precision and safety to determine %HbCO with the ABL80 hemoximeter. Additional hypoxic exposures have been identified as a strategy to maintain altitude haematological adaptations gained from altitude training camps. Study four investigated the time course of erythropoietin (EPO) and inflammatory markers after acute (2 h passive rest) hypoxic exposures (FiO2: 0.135, 0.125, 0.115, and 0.209). [EPO] increased in all hypoxic conditions 2 h post-exposure, being maintained until 4 h post-exposure, however, the largest increase came from the FiO2: 0.115 condition increasing by ~50% (P < 0.001). There were no differences found between hypoxic exposures in IL-6 or TNFα. Study five investigated the effect of acute hypoxia as a priming tool, by measuring the effect of increased circulating EPO on endurance performance. A 10 min pre-loaded treadmill running time trial (TT10) was preceded by 2 h normobaric hypoxia (HYPO; FiO2: 0.115), hyperoxia (HYPER; FiO2: 0.395) or normoxia (CON; FiO2: 0.209) 3.5 h prior to the TT10. No differences (P = 0.082) were found in distance covered during TT10 (HYPO: 2726 ± 277 vs. CON: 2724 ± 279 vs. HYPER: 2742 ± 281 m). Study six monitored physiological and haematological variables of elite endurance runners completing four weeks of live high-training high (LHTH; ~2,300 m) altitude training (ALT) compared to a control group (CON). A hypoxic sensitivity test (HST) was completed pre (PRE) and post-altitude (POST-2), alongside a treadmill test and oCOR-method. From PRE to POST-2 a difference in average lactate threshold (LT) (6.1 ± 4.6% vs. 1.8 ± 4.5%) and lactate turnpoint (LTP) (5.4 ± 3.8% vs. 1.1 ± 3.2%) was found within ALT, but not CON. Mean V̇O2max increased by 2.7 ± 3.5% in ALT, and decreased by 3.3 ± 6.3% in the CON group (P = 0.042). Total Hbmass increased by 1.9 ± 2.9% and 0.1 ± 3.3% (P > 0.05) from PRE to POST-2 in the ALT and CON group, respectively. No changes were found in mean tHbmass post-LHTH; however, EPO was lower at POST-1. The HST revealed desaturation at rest and hypoxic ventilatory response at exercise predicted individual changes in tHbmass and hypoxic cardiac response at rest predicted changes in V̇O2max. The evidence reported supports the notion that additional hypoxic exposures around an altitude training camp can maximise physiological and haematological adaptation via a prior understanding of an athlete’s response to hypoxia and therefore the optimisation the athlete’s altitude training needs.

Reflective practice and consultant effectiveness : an examination of sport psychology practice

Cropley, Brendan January 2010 (has links)
The emergence of professional status within the field of Applied Sport Psychology (ASP)has resulted in a greater need for ASP consultants to consider the effectiveness of their practice and thus attempt to meet the increased levels of accountability that are associated with their professional standing. As a result, this thesis provided an in-depth examination of effective practice and the potential contribution of reflective practice for the development of effective ASP service delivery. Utilising both emergent qualitative research methods and a more traditional staggered single-subject multiple-baseline intervention design, the programme of research presented in this thesis comprised three empirical studies that collectively aimed to: (a) examine the potential links between reflective practice and the development of consultant characteristics associated with effectiveness; (b) generate a more holistic understanding of effective practice in ASP and the role of reflection within the concept of effectiveness; (c) examine how reflective practice can be taught; and (d) investigate the effects of developing skills in reflective practice on the effectiveness of ASP support. In an attempt to achieve these aims it was important for the researcher to first become immersed in professional ASP practice and develop an understanding of and skills in reflective practice. In doing this, Study 1 reported the author‟s personal reflections-on-practice, which provided the basis for an exploration of the link between reflection and the development of consultant characteristics associated with effectiveness. The findings derived from the author‟s experiences provided support for the notion that reflection improves self-awareness and generates awareness and understanding of knowledge-in-action that can enhance ASP service delivery. In order to investigate effective practice and its potential relationship with reflection further, the purpose of Study 2 was to develop a more encompassing definition of effectiveness in ASP. The definition that emerged encapsulated a multi-dimensional process that focused on meeting the needs of the client and engagement in evaluative and reflective practices. Through further exploration of the concept of effective practice, reflection emerged as a vital component in the development of effectiveness, with participants also highlighting the seminal role of reflection in experiential learning. Finally, Study 3 attempted to provide support for and build on these findings through the investigation of the effects of enhancing reflective practice skills on ASP service delivery effectiveness. Specifically, the findings from a 14 week staggered single-subject multiple-baseline intervention provided support for the effects of the training programme on participants‟ (n = 3) ability to reflect on their practice, the learning outcomes gained through reflection, and the effectiveness of their service delivery. Participants‟ reports, and their client‟s perceptions, supported the notion that by developing reflective skills they were able to generate practical and professional knowledge, improve self-awareness, make sense of their approach to ASP, and begin to understand the impact of their judgements and decisions on practice. This prolonged research programme has resulted in substantial support being generated for the relationship between reflective and effective practice within ASP. Indeed, the findings of this thesis are thought to have initiated an evidence-base that: (a) confirms reflective practice as a process allowing consultants to develop a range of characteristics associated with effectiveness in ASP; (b) identifies reflective practice as a framework for experiential learning and thus an integral aspect of the process of effectiveness; (c) exemplifies the need for practitioners to engage in reflective practice training; and (d) supports the notion that enhancing reflective skills results in the improvement of service delivery effectiveness. It is thought that these findings have the potential to direct future developments in professional training and education programmes within ASP, which could help to ensure neophyte practitioners are better equipped to engage in the process of reflective practice and enhance the effectiveness of their service delivery.

An examination of hardiness throughout the sport injury process

Wadey, Ross Gordon January 2009 (has links)
This thesis examined hardiness throughout the sport injury process. Study 1 investigated the affect of hardiness on the prediction of, and response to, sport injury. The data were analysed using hierarchical logistic regression and a two-way multivariate analysis of variance. Findings revealed that negative major life events predicted sport injury and hardiness moderated this relationship. Furthermore, main effects were found for hardiness and time on injured athletes’ psychological responses and use of coping strategies. But despite these significant findings, this study was limited in that it failed to explain why these phenomena occurred. As a result, Study 2 aimed to enhance the interpretability and meaningfulness of the findings from Study 1. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and transcribed, which were then analysed and displayed using composite sequence analysis. Findings revealed that athletes high in hardiness were less susceptible to injury as a result of negative major life events and were able to facilitate their recovery from injury because they used a refined repertoire of problem- and emotion-focused coping strategies. In contrast, athletes low in hardiness exacerbated the impact of negative major life events and injury by using avoidance coping strategies. The depth of these findings offered implications for professional practice in terms of minimising rates of injury occurrence and facilitating recovery from injury. Study 3 aimed to evaluate a hardiness intervention throughout the sport injury process. Within the framework of action research proposed by Evans, Fleming, and Hardy (2000), multiple methods of data collection were used. Findings revealed that the pre-injury intervention increased non-injured athletes’ awareness of how to improve their practice when coping with negative major life events, whereas the post-injury intervention improved the practice of an injured athlete by facilitating his recovery. The thesis concludes with a discussion of its strengths and limitations, practical implications and future research directions.

Anxiety and motor performance : conscious processing and the process goal paradox

Faull, Andrea Leigh January 2010 (has links)
This thesis examined the process goal paradox and the conscious processing hypothesis (CPH; Masters, 1992) as an explanation for performance decrements in conditions of high cognitive state anxiety. The aims of the thesis were to: (1) investigate the process goal paradox as a means of examining conscious processing effects, (2) examine the number of part process goals as a method of inducing conscious processing and (3) to make use of an interdisciplinary approach to uncover the mechanisms underlying conscious processing effects. The thesis comprised four empirical studies that adopted a range of methodological approaches including quantitative and qualitative research. Study 1 examined the process goal paradox using a part process goal, a holistic process goal, an external goal and a discovery learning group in a driving simulation task in acquisition and across neutral and competition conditions. Study 2 investigated the process goal paradox using a part process goal, a holistic process goal and an external goal, in novice and expert performers in a basketball free throw task in low and high anxiety conditions. Study 3 examined the impact of using a varying number of part process goals when performing under high and low anxiety conditions in expert tennis players. Overall the findings of studies 1, 2 and 3 supported the use of goals in preventing performance decrements under conditions of high anxiety. No support was found for conscious processing. Subsequently, study 4 aimed to ascertain the causes and mechanisms that contribute to performance failure under pressure. Overall, the results of study 4 suggest that performance decrements under conditions of high anxiety are more suitably explained by attentional based theories such as Processing Efficiency Theory (PET; Eysenck & Calvo, 1992) rather than self focus explanations, such as the CPH.

Lower-limb biomechanical asymmetry in maximal velocity sprint running

Exell, Timothy January 2010 (has links)
Biomechanical asymmetry analyses have provided valuable insight into submaximal running and walking gait. Knowledge of asymmetry in sprint running is limited due to traditional unilateral methods of data collection. The overall aim of this research was to develop insight into kinematic and kinetic asymmetry in sprint running, with the purpose of informing future research specifically into maximal velocity sprint running. Asymmetry was quantified for a group of trained sprint runners (mean velocity = 9.03 m∙s-1) using an existing symmetry angle (θSYM) measure. Biomechanical methods were developed to maximise the collection of kinematic data utilising both marker-based and non-intrusive techniques, and kinetic data using multiple force plates. Calculations were extended, to build on the θSYM, and used for quantifying overall kinematic and kinetic asymmetry for individual athletes. Novel asymmetry scores were developed that incorporated the previously negated consideration of intra-limb variability. The interaction of kinematic and kinetic asymmetry was compared for a range of sprint runners using the newly created asymmetry scores. θSYM values were larger for key kinematic variables than step characteristics; values of 6.7% and 1.7% were reported for touchdown distance and step frequency, respectively. The largest asymmetry values were kinetic, with some θSYM values exceeding 90%. The magnitude of asymmetry and variables that displayed significant asymmetry varied on an inter-athlete basis. Kinematic and kinetic asymmetry scores developed within this research ranged from 4.5 to 27.6 and 6.3 to 28.7, respectively; however, no consistent relationship between kinematic and kinetic asymmetry was found. Compensatory kinetic mechanisms may serve to reduce the effects of asymmetry on step characteristics and the performance outcome of step velocity. The novel bilateral analyses performed in this research identified the presence of asymmetry, indicating that unilateral analyses of sprint running may lead to important information being overlooked.

Effects of recreation and environment upon the erosion of mountain footpaths in the Lake District National Park

Coleman, Rosalind Anne January 1979 (has links)
Increasing numbers of walkers in mountain areas have led to concern about the deterioration of footpaths through the erosion of vegetation and soil. Sites were established to monitor path erosion by repeated measurements of cross sections. Results demonstrated that although many sites were stable over a two year period, some deteriorated rapidly. Erosion by human agency and surface water run off proved equally effective under favourable conditions. Comparisons of air photographs (1947-72) suggested that footpath erosion was not a new phenomenon, but also reinforced the trends measured over the two years. A survey was made to examine relationships between footpath morphology and environmental/recreation site conditions. Results suggested that in the variation of path width, of the extent of bare soil and the depth of gullying, much could be accounted for by corresponding variation in the path gradient and the degree of recreation pressure. The altitude, and certain vegetation and soil types proved relevant, but of less importance. Among the paths surveyed, the extremes of erosion measured were localised, but occurred on most paths. Signs of active processes were observed on about one third of the sites, and appeared on most paths with a slope of more than 17 degrees. Experimental work on a purposely created path demonstrated the efficacy of trampling as an erosive agent, especially in combination with wet weather and waterlogged soil.

Perceptions, patterns and policies of tourism : the development of the Devon seaside resorts during the twentieth century with special reference to Torquay and Ilfracombe

Morgan, Nigel John January 1991 (has links)
No description available.

The psychobiological model of pacing in endurance performance

Mohammad Amin, Akram January 2014 (has links)
Pacing is the mechanism that athletes use in order to attempt to control their speed in such a manner that they can cover a specific distance or perform in a set time without failing. Several theories and models have been proposed on pacing and the regulation of pacing strategies. The aim of this thesis was to present a new prominent model of endurance performance for pacing, the Psychobiological model for pacing and analyse its single factors. The Psychobiological model for pacing has based its theory on five factors to explain pacing and performance: i) the perception of effort, defined as “the conscious sensation of how hard, heavy and strenuous the exercise is”; ii) the potential motivation that represents the individual’s willingness to exert effort; iii) the distance- or time trial duration to cover; iv) the time/distance elapsed/remaining and; v) the previous experience/memory of perceived exertion during exercise of varying intensity and duration. In chapter 2 we elucidated the influence of VO2max during a 30 min running time trial. Results showed that runners of different VO2max, pace themselves using different speed in order to avoid reaching maximal RPE and, thus, exhaustion, before the end of the time trial. However, no difference has been found in pacing strategy which does not depend on VO2max. In chapter 3 we discussed the effect of knowledge of distance to cover on pacing and performance during a 5 km running time trial. Results showed that knowledge of distance to cover and learning from previous experience is an important determinant in pacing and pacing strategy. Individuals when informed of the correct knowledge of distance to cover where able to pace themselves faster and complete the performance test significantly faster than when the knowledge of distance to cover was incorrectly provided. In chapter 4 we assessed the effect of knowledge of distance/time remaining on pacing by using a 5 km time trial to account for knowledge of distance and a 30 min cycling time trial to account for knowledge of time remaining. Results demonstrated that time/distance feedback plays an important role for performance. The significant difference in distance/time to complete the performance test showed that participants who were aware of the remaining time/distance to be covered were able to choose a pace during the time trial compared to when they were blind to the distance/time feedback. Finally, in chapter 5 we analysed the efficacy of motivational verbal encouragement provided at different phases during a 30 min cycling time trial. Results showed the determinant role of verbal encouragement in relation with RPE and the importance of the timing at which to provide it. Individuals who were verbally encouraged at the end of the cycling performance showed a faster pace and overall they covered a greater distance compared to when they were encouraged at the beginning of the time trial. Overall, this thesis demonstrated that the psychobiological model of endurance performance for pacing proposed in the recent years is, indeed, a valid and effective model to explain human performance and it provides new insights in the study of pacing, compared to other existing models of pacing.

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