Experimental and analytical modeling studies of steam injection with hydrocarbon additives to enhance recovery of San Ardo heavy oilSimangunsong, Roly 30 October 2006 (has links)
Experimental and analytical studies have been carried out to better understand production mechanisms of heavy oil under steam injection with propane and petroleum distillate as steam additives. The studies have been conducted for heavy oil from San Ardo field (12oAPI, 2800 cp at 53.3oC), under current reservoir conditions. The experiments consist of injecting pure steam, steam-propane, and steampetroleum distillate into a vertical cell containing a mixture of sand, water and San Ardo oil. The injection cell (68.58 cm long with an ID of 7.376 cm) is placed inside a vacuum jacket, set at the reservoir temperature of 53.3oC. Superheated steam at 230oC is injected at 5.5 ml/min (cold-water equivalent) simultaneously with propane or a petroleum distillate slug. The cell outlet pressure is maintained at 260 psig. Six runs were performed, two runs using pure steam, two steam-propane runs using 5:100 propane:steam mass ratio, and two steam-petroleum distillate runs using 5:100 petroleum distillate:steam mass ratio. We develop a simplified analytical model that describes steam front advancement and oil production for the 1D displacement experiments. The model incorporates heat and material balance, fillup time and DarcyÃ¢ÂÂs law pertaining to the injection cell. The analytical model results are compared against the experimental data to verify the validity of the model. The main results of the study are as follows. First, experimental results indicate that compared to pure steam injection, oil production was accelerated by 30% for 5:100 propane:steam injection and 38% for 5:100 petroleum distillate:steam injection respectively. Second, steam injectivity with steam-propane and steam-petroleum distillate increases to 1.4 and 1.9 times respectively, compared with pure steam injection. Third, steam front advancement and oil production data are in good agreement with results based on the new analytical model. The analytical model indicates that the oil production acceleration observed is due to oil viscosity reduction resulting from the addition of propane and petroleum distillate to the steam. Oil viscosity at the initial temperature with pure steam injection is 2281 cp, which is reduced to 261 cp with steam-propane injection and 227 cp with steam-petroleum distillate injection.
Modélisation analytique et contrôle d'admission dans les réseaux 802.11e pour une maîtrise de la Qualité de Service / Analytical modeling and admission control in 802.11e EDCA for Quality of Service control in 802.11e wireless networksTaher, Nada 31 March 2009 (has links)
La maîtrise de la QoS dans 802.11e EDCA (Enhanced Distributed Coordination Function) ne peut être assurée que par un mécanisme de contrôle d’admission qui empêche le réseau d’atteindre un état de saturation critique et par la même garantit les besoins de QoS des applications voix/vidéo. Ce mécanisme de contrôle d’admission a besoin pour sa prise de décision de prédire les métriques de performances si un nouveau flux est admis. Dans le but de rendre les décisions efficaces, nous choisissons d’utiliser une méthode de prédiction basée sur un modèle analytique. Ce dernier doit remplir deux conditions : 1) fournir une bonne précision de prédiction et 2) avoir une complexité numérique faible et un temps de réponse limité. Vu que la majorité des modèles analytiques de la littérature ne satisfont pas à ces deux conditions, nous développons un nouveau modèle analytique pour EDCA qui est capable de prédire le débit et le délai d’accès des différentes Access Category (AC) d’EDCA. Ainsi, après la modélisation analytique du temps de transmission des ACs en prenant en compte le paramètre de différentiation TXOPLimit, nous développons un modèle analytique pour EDCA sous la forme d’une chaîne de Markov à quatre dimensions. Celui-ci est développé d’abord dans les conditions de saturation puis étendu aux conditions générales de trafic. Pour finir, nous proposons un algorithme de contrôle d’admission à implémenter au sein du point d’accès et qui utilise le modèle analytique proposé. Nous proposons un abaque de solution d’optimisation des paramètres d’accès d’EDCA. Le but étant d’améliorer les performances du mécanisme de contrôle d’admission par l’utilisation optimale des ressources du réseau. / The QoS control in 802.11e EDCA (Enhanced Distributed Coordination Function) cannot be assured without an admission control mechanism which is capable of stopping the network from reaching a high saturation state and therefore guarantee the QoS requirements for voice and video applications. This admission control mechanism needs to predict the performance metrics that can be achieved by the network before deciding to admit any new flow. In order to obtain accurate decisions, we chose to use a prediction method based on an analytical model. The later must 1) grant the best accuracy of the prediction and 2) have a low computational complexity. Knowing that the current literatures’ major analytical models do not satisfy these two conditions, we therefore develop a new analytical model for EDCA capable to predict the achievable performance metrics of different Access Categories (ACs) of EDCA such as the throughput and access delay. Hence, after the analytical modeling of the transmission time of different ACs while taking into account the TXOPLimit differentiation parameter, we develop an analytical model for EDCA based on a four dimensional Markov Chain. This model is developed first in the saturation conditions and then extended to general traffic conditions. Finally, we propose the admission control algorithm to be implemented within the QoS Access Point (QAP) that uses the analytical model proposed. As a final point, we propose an abacus solution to optimize the configuration of EDCA access parameters. The objective is to enhance the performance of the admission control algorithm by the optimal use of network resources.
Master of Science / Department of Civil Engineering / Robert J. Peterman / Prestressed concrete is commonly used for bridges, pavement and railroad ties because of economic advantages in cost, sustainability service life, and environmental friendliness. In general concrete design standard, the ultimate moment strength in flexure design is computed by finding the equilibrium of the internal force in the section (the compressive force in concrete and tension force in the steel and reinforcement). To predict tension force in steel one generally applies the 7-wire low-relaxation prestressing strand equation from the PCI manual even though the design employed prestressing wires instead of strand. The other method is to use equations from the ACI Code which is over conservative. Considering both approaches are lack accuracy, this research will provide an accurate estimation of the stress in prestressing wires through an experimental program and analytical modeling. The real stress-strain curves are collected through experimental testing in 13 types of prestressing wire. Experimental results are then used for modeling existing equations. As a result a more precise estimation is achieved. Additionally, this research simplifies the procedure for utilizing the equations which offers convenience in practical application.
Analytical Modeling and Development of GaN-Based Point of Load Buck Converter with Optimized Reverse Conduction LossJanuary 2020 (has links)
abstract: This work analyzes and develops a point-of-load (PoL) synchronous buck converter using enhancement-mode Gallium Nitride (e-GaN), with emphasis on optimizing reverse conduction loss by using a well-known technique of placing an anti-parallel Schottky diode across the synchronous power device. This work develops an improved analytical switching model for the GaN-based converter with the Schottky diode using piecewise linear approximations. To avoid a shoot-through between the power switches of the buck converter, a small dead-time is inserted between gate drive switching transitions. Despite optimum dead-time management for a power converter, optimum dead-times vary for different load conditions. These variations become considerably large for PoL applications, which demand high output current with low output voltages. At high switching frequencies, these variations translate into losses that contribute significantly to the total loss of the converter. To understand and quantify power loss in a hard-switching buck converter that uses a GaN power device in parallel with a Schottky diode, piecewise transitions are used to develop an analytical switching model that quantifies the contribution of reverse conduction loss of GaN during dead-time. The effects of parasitic elements on the dynamics of the switching converter are investigated during one switching cycle of the converter. A designed prototype of a buck converter is correlated to the predicted model to determine the accuracy of the model. This comparison is presented using simulations and measurements at 400 kHz and 2 MHz converter switching speeds for load (1A) condition and fixed dead-time values. Furthermore, performance of the buck converter with and without the Schottky diode is also measured and compared to demonstrate and quantify the enhanced performance when using an anti-parallel diode. The developed power converter achieves peak efficiencies of 91.7% and 93.86% for 2 MHz and 400 KHz switching frequencies, respectively, and drives load currents up to 6A for a voltage conversion from 12V input to 3.3V output. In addition, various industry Schottky diodes have been categorized based on their packaging and electrical characteristics and the developed analytical model provides analytical expressions relating the diode characteristics to power stage performance parameters. The performance of these diodes has been characterized for different buck converter voltage step-down ratios that are typically used in industry applications and different switching frequencies ranging from 400 KHz to 2 MHz. / Dissertation/Thesis / Masters Thesis Electrical Engineering 2020
Gudavalli, Murali K.
No description available.
A comparative analysis of numerical simulation and analytical modeling of horizontal well cyclic steam injectionRavago Bastardo, Delmira Cristina 29 August 2005 (has links)
The main objective of this research is to compare the performance of cyclic steam injection using horizontal wells based on the analytical model developed by Gunadi against that based on numerical simulation. For comparison, a common reservoir model was used. The reservoir model measured 330 ft long by 330 ft wide by 120 ft thick, representing half of a 5-acre drainage area, and contained oil based on the properties of the Bachaquero-01 reservoir (Venezuela). Three steam injection cycles were assumed, consisting of a 20-day injection period at 1500 BPDCWE (half-well), followed by a 10-day soak period, and a 180-day production period. Comparisons were made for two cases of the position of the horizontal well located on one side of the reservoir model: at mid-reservoir height and at reservoir base. The analytical model of Gunadi had to be modified before a reasonable agreement with simulation results could be obtained. Main modifications were as follows. First, the cold horizontal well productivity index was modified to that based on the Economides-Joshi model instead of that for a vertical well. Second, in calculating the growth of the steam zone, the end-point relative permeability??s of steam and oil were taken into consideration, instead of assuming them to be the same (as in the original model of Gunadi). Main results of the comparative analysis for both cases of horizontal well positions are as follows. First, the water production rates are in very close agreement with results obtained from simulation. Second, the oil production rates based on the analytical model (averaging 46,000 STB), however, are lower than values obtained from simulation (64,000 STB). This discrepancy is most likely due to the fact that the analytical model assumes residual oil saturation in the steam zone, while there is moveable oil based on the simulation model. Nevertheless, the analytical model may be used to give a first-pass estimate of the performance of cyclic steam injection in horizontal wells, prior to conducting more detailed thermal reservoir simulation.
Aerosol Characterization and Analytical Modeling of Concentric Pneumatic and Flow Focusing Nebulizers for Sample IntroductionKashani, Arash 17 February 2011 (has links)
A concentric pneumatic nebulizer (CPN) and a custom designed flow focusing nebulizer (FFN) are characterized. As will be shown, the classical Nukiyama-Tanasawa and Rizk-Lefebvre models lead to erroneous size prediction for the concentric nebulizer under typical operating conditions due to its specific design, geometry, dimension and different flow regimes. The models are then modified to improve the agreement with the experimental results. The size prediction of the modified models together with the spray velocity characterization are used to determine the overall nebulizer efficiency and also employed as input to a new Maximum Entropy Principle (MEP) based model to predict joint size-velocity distribution analytically. The new MEP model is exploited to study the local variation of size-velocity distribution in contrast to the classical models where MEP is applied globally to the entire spray cross section. As will be demonstrated, the velocity distribution of the classical MEP models shows poor agreement with experiments for the cases under study. Modifications to the original MEP modeling are proposed to overcome this deficiency. In addition, the new joint size-velocity distribution agrees better with our general understanding of the drag law and yields realistic results. / PhD
The rapid development in wireless technologies and multimedia services has radically shifted the major function of the current Internet from host-centric communication to service-oriented content dissemination, resulting a mismatch between the protocol design and the current usage patterns. Motivated by this significant change, Information-Centric Networking (ICN), which has been attracting ever-increasing attention from the communication networks research community, has emerged as a new clean-slate networking paradigm for future Internet. Through identifying and routing data by unified names, ICN aims at providing natural support for efficient information retrieval over the Internet. As a crucial characteristic of ICN, in-network caching enables users to efficiently access popular contents from on-path routers equipped with ubiquitous caches, leading to the enhancement of the service quality and reduction of network loads. Performance analysis and optimisation has been and continues to be key research interests of ICN. This thesis focuses on the development of efficient and accurate analytical models for the performance evaluation of ICN caching and the design of optimal caching management schemes under practical network configurations. This research starts with the proposition of a new analytical model for caching performance under the bursty multimedia traffic. The bursty characteristic is captured and the closed formulas for cache hit ratio are derived. To investigate the impact of topology and heterogeneous caching parameters on the performance, a comprehensive analytical model is developed to gain valuable insight into the caching performance with heterogeneous cache sizes, service intensity and content distribution under arbitrary topology. The accuracy of the proposed models is validated by comparing the analytical results with those obtained from extensive simulation experiments. The analytical models are then used as cost-efficient tools to investigate the key network and content parameters on the performance of caching in ICN. Bursty traffic and heterogeneous caching features have significant influence on the performance of ICN. Therefore, in order to obtain optimal performance results, a caching resource allocation scheme, which leverages the proposed model and targets at minimising the total traffic within the network and improving hit probability at the nodes, is proposed. The performance results reveal that the caching allocation scheme can achieve better caching performance and network resource utilisation than the default homogeneous and random caching allocation strategy. To attain a thorough understanding of the trade-off between the economic aspect and service quality, a cost-aware Quality-of-Service (QoS) optimisation caching mechanism is further designed aiming for cost-efficiency and QoS guarantee in ICN. A cost model is proposed to take into account installation and operation cost of ICN under a realistic ISP network scenario, and a QoS model is presented to formulate the service delay and delay jitter in the presence of heterogeneous service requirements and general probabilistic caching strategy. Numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism in achieving better service quality and lower network cost. In this thesis, the proposed analytical models are used to efficiently and accurately evaluate the performance of ICN and investigate the key performance metrics. Leveraging the insights discovered by the analytical models, the proposed caching management schemes are able to optimise and enhance the performance of ICN. To widen the outcomes achieved in the thesis, several interesting yet challenging research directions are pointed out.
Gangi, Michael Joseph
19 August 2015
Highway bridges in the United States are frequently damaged by overheight vehicle collisions. The increasing number of prestressed concrete bridges indicates that the probability of such bridges being impacted by overheight vehicles has increased. This thesis, sponsored by the Virginia Center for Transportation Innovation and Research (VCTIR), investigated three repair techniques for impact damaged prestressed bridge girders: strand splices, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) overlays, and fabric reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM) overlays. The flexural strength of four AASHTO Type III girders, three of which were intentionally damaged and repaired, was evaluated. Six experimental tests were performed on these girders: one undamaged girder test and five repair method tests. Nonlinear beam models and three-dimensional finite element (FE) models were created to predict the behavior of the beams under flexural testing, and subsequently validated and calibrated to experimental test data. The very good accuracy of the beam models indicated that they can be used alone for the performance assessment of damaged and repaired girders. Of course, the analyst must always be aware of the fact that a beam model cannot explicitly account for potentially crucial effects such as diagonal cracking. A direct comparison between repair methods was made by creating analytical models of a prototype girder setup. FRP overlays were seen to restore the most strength, while strand splices were seen to restore the most ductility. From observation, combining repair methods resulted in an additive effect on strength, but the deformation at onset of failure will be governed by the less ductile method. / Master of Science
Kumar ML, Vinod Kumar
No description available.
Page generated in 0.1128 seconds