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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Prevalence of low and abnormal Ankle-Brachial index and their association with traditional risk factors in a multi-ethnic adult general practice population.

Ingoe, J.C., Scally, Andy J., Kain, K. January 2011 (has links)
N/A
2

The Prevalence and Clinical Correlative Factors of Peripheral Arterial Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Yang, Ching-ping 17 June 2009 (has links)
Research Objective Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk for atherosclerosis and peripheral artery disease (PAD). PAD has received far less attention than coronary artery disease (CAD) in CKD patients. Few studies have examined risk factors for PAD in CKD. We studied the possible related risk factors and benefit of hypertension treatment in CKD patients with PAD. Data Sources We included 129 patients of both sexes with stages 3 to 5 of CKD, as described by the Kidney Outcome Quality Initiatives (K/DOQI ) classification, without receiving dialysis therapy, not previously diagnosed with PAD. Study Design The following information were collected within six month period, including demographic characteristics, history of hypertension, anti-hypertension drug, diabetes, smoking, and pre-existing cardiovascular disease, body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride(TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL), calcium (Ca), phosphate(P), Albumin, uric acid, urine protein. Ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a noninvasive diagnostic test that is efficient in detecting asymptomatic PAD with ABI <0.9. Findings There were 22 (17.7 %) participants with PAD. Higher systolic blood pressure (SBP), higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP), higher pulse pressure showed strong association with PAD in CKD patients. On further analysis, significant fewer patients treated with calcium channel blocker (CCB) in hypertensive CKD patients with PAD (£q2 =7.055, p =0.008). The multivariate logistic regression analysis in hypertensive patients demonstrated the risk factors for PAD was pulse pressure, and Calcium channel blocker treatment may correlate with decreasing PAD formation (odds ratio= 0.232, 95% CI=0.07-0.73, p =0.013) in CKD patients. Conclusion There is a high prevalence rate of PAD in population of CKD, especially those with hypertension. ABI should be routinely examined in these patients who can benefit earlier from therapeutic measures.
3

Att mäta ankeltryck i primärvården : Distriktssköterskors och distriktsläkares uppfattningar om en undersökningsmetod och dess användning

Bahri, Kristin January 2012 (has links)
Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD), as a consequence of atherosclerosis in the arteria of the limbs, affects one of ten Swedes older than 65. PAD can develop slowly and silently, and involves an increased risk for cardiac infarction and stroke. Measurement of the patient´s ankle blood pressure and calculation of the ankle-brachial index is an evidence-based method to discover PAD. Objective: To investigate how district nurses and general practitioners perceive this method of examination and experience possible obstacles to why it is not more commonly applied at primary health care centres. Method: Data collected by semi-structured interviews have been processed by qualitative content analysis with a manifest onset. Results: The participants described a lack of routine for the measurement of ankle blood pressure at their health care centres. In their experience the cooperation of district nurses and general practitioners was characterized by insufficient information and unclear roles. Conclusion: As a consequence of lacking routines and indistinct roles at the health care centres, measurement of ankle blood pressure was not always performed as indicated in the guidelines. More knowledge and established routines could have led to better care for patients with PAD. / Bakgrund: Perifer artärsjukdom till följd av ateroskleros (åderförfettning eller åderförkalkning) i benens pulsådror drabbar en av tio svenskar över 65 år. Sjukdomen, som länge kan vara symtomfri, medför en ökad risk för hjärtinfarkt och stroke. Ankeltrycksmätning och beräkning av ankelbrakialindex är en evidensbaserad metod för att upptäcka perifer artärsjukdom. Syfte: Att beskriva hur distriktssköterskor och distriktsläkare uppfattade mätning av ankeltryck, beräkning av ankelbrakialindex och eventuella hinder för att använda metoden inom primärvården. Metod: Data samlades in med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer och analyserades med hjälp av kvalitativ innehållsanalys med manifest ansats. Resultat: Informanterna upplevde att rutiner för att mäta ankeltryck saknades på deras vårdcentraler. I stället var det upp till informanterna själva att avgöra om och när de skulle mäta. Samarbetet kring patienterna mellan distriktsläkare och distriktssköterskor präglades av bristfällig information och oklara roller. Slutsats: Avsaknaden av rutiner och en otydlig rollfördelning ledde till att ankeltryck inte alltid mättes på de patienter som borde ha undersökts med hjälp av metoden. Bättre kunskaper och rutiner för ankeltrycksmätning i primärvården skulle kunna leda till säkrare vård för patienter med perifer artärsjukdom.
4

Artériopathie oblitérante des membres inférieurs en Afrique Centrale : Epidémiologie, facteurs de risque, marqueur pronostique / Peripheral arterial disease in Central Africa : Epidemiology, risk factors, marker prognostic

Sepeteanu Desormais, Ileana 10 December 2014 (has links)
Le vieillissement de la population mondiale s’accompagne de l’augmentation de la prévalence des maladies non transmissibles, dont certaines liées à l’athérosclérose. Les études épidémiologiques sur l’artériopathie oblitérante des membres inférieurs (AOMI) ont été majoritairement menées dans les pays occidentaux. Peu d’entre elles sont conduites dans les pays à faible et moyen revenu, comme les pays africains alors que la rapide transition socio-économique de ces pays entraîne une modification épidémiologique importante. Le programme EPIDEMCA (Épidémiologie des Démences en Afrique Centrale), enquête épidémiologique transversale multicentrique en population générale âgée de 65 ans et plus, a été mené en zones rurales et urbaines de deux pays d’Afrique Centrale: la République Centrafricaine (RCA) et la République du Congo (RDC), entre 2011 et 2012. Durant la première phase, l’enquête épidémiologique a permis de déterminer la prévalence de l’AOMI et d’analyser les facteurs de risque associés. L’AOMI a été définie par un Index de Pression Systolique (IPS) ≤ 0,9. Parmi les 1871 participants évalués sur le plan vasculaire, la prévalence de l’AOMI a été de 14,8% et atteignant 22,2% pour les sujets âgés de 80 ans et plus. Une prévalence plus importante de l’AOMI a été retrouvée dans les zones urbaines en RDC (20,7% versus 14,4% dans la zone rurale, p=0,0114). Cette différence n’a pas été retrouvée en RCA (11,5% urbain versus 12,9%, rural p=NS). Après ajustement à tous les possible facteurs confondants, des facteurs de risque associés avec l’AOMI ont été décrits : l’âge (OR: 1,03 ; p=0,0039), l’hypercholestérolémie (OR: 1,88 ; p=0,0034), le tabac (OR: 1,78 ; p=0,0026). Plus particulièrement, cette première étude en population générale ayant analysé spécifiquement le rôle de la dénutrition (Index de Masse Corporelle <18) dans l’AOMI met en évidence une association significative (OR: 2,09; p=0,0009) et ceci autant chez les hommes que chez les femmes (OR: 2,82; p= 0,0038 et respectivement OR: 1,75; p= 0,0492). Lors de la deuxième phase de l’étude, ayant permis la confirmation de l’atteinte cognitive, nous avons analysé l’association entre l’IPS et la présence des troubles cognitifs. La prévalence des troubles cognitifs s’est avérée être de 13,6%, plus importante chez les sujets avec IPS≤0,9 et IPS≥1,4 que chez les sujets avec 0,9<IPS<1,4 (20,1% et 17% versus 12%, p=0,0024). La présence des troubles cognitifs a été significativement associée avec l’âge (OR: 1,09; p<0,0001), le sexe féminin (OR: 2,36; p<0,0001), la consommation de tabac (OR: 1,78; p=0,0026) et l’IPS <0,90 (OR: 1,52; p=0,0359). Ce travail, s’inscrivant dans le cadre du programme EPIDEMCA, contribue à une meilleure connaissance de l’épidémiologie de l’AOMI sur le continent Africain. Il souligne la haute prévalence de cette pathologie, comparable aux pays occidentaux décrit les facteurs de risque spécifiques associés et met en évidence l’importance des outils de diagnostic de l’athérosclérose (IPS), fiables, peu coûteux et d’utilisation facile dans le dépistage des sujets à risque polyvasculaire. / With the aging of the global population, the prevalence of non-communicable, including cardiovascular, diseases is increasing. While epidemiological studies on peripheral artery disease (PAD) have been mainly conducted in high-income countries, a few have been carried out in low-and middle-income countries, including in Africa. EPIDEMCA (Epidemiology of Dementia in Central Africa) is a cross-sectional population-based study in rural and urban areas of two countries of Central Africa: Central African Republic (CAR) and the Republic of Congo (ROC). Overall, its aim was to investigate the health status in aging population in Central Africa, with a special focus on cognitive disorders, PAD (Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) ≤0.90). and cardiovascular risk factors as well as their inter-relationship. The EPIDEMCA program was carried out, among people aged 65 years and over, between 2011 and 2012. Among 2002 subjects who agreed to participate, reliable demographic and vascular data were available in 1871 subjects.Overall, the prevalence of PAD was 14.8% reachting 22.2% after the age of 80. The prevalence was higher in ROC than in CAR (17.4% vs. 12.2%, p=0.0071) and in females than males (16.6% vs. 11.9%, p=0.0122). Higher rates of PAD were found in urban area in ROC (20.7% vs. 14.4% in rural area, p=0.0114), not in CAR (11.5% vs. 12.9%, p=ns). In the multivariate analysis, PAD significantly associated factors were described: age (OR: 1.03; p=0.0039), dyslipidemia (OR: 1.88; p=0.0034), smoking (OR: 1.78; p=0.0026), and more specifically undernutrition (OR: 2.09, p=0.0009). Undernutrition was still significantly associated with PAD after adjustment to all potential confounding factors in males as well as in females (OR: 2.82, p= 0.0038 respectively OR: 1.75, p= 0.0492). As epidemiological research on the implication of atherosclerosis in the development of cognitive impairment in general population is lacking in Africa, we focused on the role of ABI as an available marker of atherosclerosis, providing independent and incremental information on subjects’ susceptibility to present cognitive disorders.The prevalence of cognitive impairment among the study participants was 13.6%, higher in subjects with ABI≤0.9 and ABI≥1.4 than those with 0.9<ABI<1.4 (20.1% and 17% vs. 12%, p=0.0024). Cognitive impairment was significantly associated with age (OR: 1.09; p<0.0001), female gender (OR: 2.36; p<0.0001), smoking (OR: 1.78; p=0.0026) and low (≤0.90) ABI (OR: 1.52; p=0.0359). The EPIDEMCA program contributes to a better understanding of PAD in general African population. It highlights the the high prevalence of PAD on the African continent, describes specifically associated risk factors and underlines the importance of an available, inexpensive marker of atherosclerosis in order to detect risk populations in these countries.
5

Associação entre diferentes parâmetros de variabilidade da pressão sistólica fornecidos pela monitorização ambulatorial de pressão arterial (mapa) e o índice tornozelo-braquial

Wittke, Estefania Inez January 2009 (has links)
Introdução: Tem sido demonstrada uma associação entre a variabilidade da pressão arterial avaliada por diferentes índices e lesão em órgão-alvo, independentemente dos valores de pressão arterial. O índice tornozelo-braquial (ITB) é útil no diagnóstico de doença arterial oclusiva periférica, sendo reconhecido como marcador de aterosclerose sistêmica. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre três diferentes métodos de estimar a variabilidade da pressão arterial sistólica (taxa de variação da pressão no tempo - índice "time-rate", coeficiente de variabilidade, desvio padrão das médias da pressão arterial sistólica de 24 horas) e o índice tornozelo-braquial (ITB). Métodos: Em um estudo transversal, pacientes atendidos no ambulatório de hipertensão realizaram medida de ITB e Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial de 24 horas (MAPA). Três parâmetros de variabilidade foram avaliados: o índice "time-rate" definido como a primeira derivada da pressão arterial sistólica em relação ao tempo; desvio padrão (DP) das médias da pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) de 24 horas e coeficiente de variabilidade (CV=DP/média pressóricaX100%). O ITB aferido por doppler foi obtido pela razão entre a maior pressão arterial sistólica do tornozelo ou pediosa e a maior pressão sistólica dos braços. O ponto de corte para o diagnóstico de doença arterial periférica foi ITB <= 0,90 ou>= 1,40. Resultados: A análise incluiu 425 pacientes: 69,2% eram do sexo feminino, com idade média de 57±12 anos, 26,1% eram tabagistas e 22,1% tinham diabetes mellitus. ITB alterado foi detectado em 58 pacientes (13,6%). Para os grupos ITB normal e anormal o índice "time-rate", DP das médias e CV foram: 0,469±0,119 mmHg/min e 0,516± 0,146 mmHg/min (p=0,007); 12,6±3,7 mmHg e 13,2±4,7 mmHg (p=0,26); 9,3±2,9% e 9,3±2,6 % (p=0,91), respectivamente. No modelo de regressão logística, o "time-rate" foi associado com ITB, independentemente da idade (RR=6,9; 95% IC= 1,1-42,1; P=0,04). Em modelo de regressão linear múltipla demonstrou-se uma associação independente da idade, PAS de 24 horas e presença de diabetes mellitus. Conclusão: O índice "time-rate" foi o único parâmetro de variabilidade da pressão arterial sistólica associado com índice tornozelo-braquial e pode ser utilizado na estratificação de risco em hipertensos. Este parâmetro de variabilidade obtido por método não invasivo deve ser melhor investigado em estudos prospectivos. / Introduction: An association between the Blood Pressure Variability, estimated by different indexes, and target-organ damage has been established independently of blood pressure levels. The Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) is useful in the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease and it is recognized as a cardiovascular risk marker. Purpose: To evaluate the association between three different methods in estimating the variability of systolic blood pressure (rate of change of pressure over time - time rate index, coefficient of variability, standard deviation of the average 24-hour systolic blood pressure) and the ankle-brachial index (ABI). Methods: In a cross-sectional study, patients of a hypertension clinic underwent ABI measurement and 24-hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM). Variability was estimated according to three parameters: the time rate index, defined as the first derivative of systolic blood pressure at the time; standard deviation (SD) of 24-hour systolic blood pressure (SBP); and coefficient of variability of 24-hour SBP (CV = SD / mean value X 100%). The ABI was measured by Doppler and obtained by dividing the systolic blood pressure on the ankle or foot (whichever was higher) by the higher of the two systolic blood pressures on the arms. The cutoff point for diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease was ABI<= 0.90 or>= 1.40. Results: The analysis included 425 patients: 69.2% were female, mean age was 57±12 years, 26.1% were current smokers and 22.1% diabetics. Abnormal ABI was detected in 58 patients (13.6%). For the normal and abnormal ABI groups the time rate index, the average SD and CV were 0.469 ± 0.119 mmHg/min and 0.516 ± 0.146 mmHg/min (p = 0.007), 12.6±3.7 mmHg and 13.2±4.7 mmHg (p = 0.26), 9.3±2.9% and 9.3±2.6% (p = 0.91), respectively. In the logistic regression model, time rate was associated with ABI, regardless of age (RR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.1- 42.1; P = 0.04). The multiple linear regression model showed an association that was independent of age, 24-hour SBP and presence of diabetes. Conclusion: The time rate index was the only measurement of variability of systolic blood pressure associated with ankle-brachial index, and might be used for risk stratification in hypertensive patients. This measurement of variability was obtained by a non-invasive method and should be better investigated in prospective studies.
6

Associação entre diferentes parâmetros de variabilidade da pressão sistólica fornecidos pela monitorização ambulatorial de pressão arterial (mapa) e o índice tornozelo-braquial

Wittke, Estefania Inez January 2009 (has links)
Introdução: Tem sido demonstrada uma associação entre a variabilidade da pressão arterial avaliada por diferentes índices e lesão em órgão-alvo, independentemente dos valores de pressão arterial. O índice tornozelo-braquial (ITB) é útil no diagnóstico de doença arterial oclusiva periférica, sendo reconhecido como marcador de aterosclerose sistêmica. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre três diferentes métodos de estimar a variabilidade da pressão arterial sistólica (taxa de variação da pressão no tempo - índice "time-rate", coeficiente de variabilidade, desvio padrão das médias da pressão arterial sistólica de 24 horas) e o índice tornozelo-braquial (ITB). Métodos: Em um estudo transversal, pacientes atendidos no ambulatório de hipertensão realizaram medida de ITB e Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial de 24 horas (MAPA). Três parâmetros de variabilidade foram avaliados: o índice "time-rate" definido como a primeira derivada da pressão arterial sistólica em relação ao tempo; desvio padrão (DP) das médias da pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) de 24 horas e coeficiente de variabilidade (CV=DP/média pressóricaX100%). O ITB aferido por doppler foi obtido pela razão entre a maior pressão arterial sistólica do tornozelo ou pediosa e a maior pressão sistólica dos braços. O ponto de corte para o diagnóstico de doença arterial periférica foi ITB <= 0,90 ou>= 1,40. Resultados: A análise incluiu 425 pacientes: 69,2% eram do sexo feminino, com idade média de 57±12 anos, 26,1% eram tabagistas e 22,1% tinham diabetes mellitus. ITB alterado foi detectado em 58 pacientes (13,6%). Para os grupos ITB normal e anormal o índice "time-rate", DP das médias e CV foram: 0,469±0,119 mmHg/min e 0,516± 0,146 mmHg/min (p=0,007); 12,6±3,7 mmHg e 13,2±4,7 mmHg (p=0,26); 9,3±2,9% e 9,3±2,6 % (p=0,91), respectivamente. No modelo de regressão logística, o "time-rate" foi associado com ITB, independentemente da idade (RR=6,9; 95% IC= 1,1-42,1; P=0,04). Em modelo de regressão linear múltipla demonstrou-se uma associação independente da idade, PAS de 24 horas e presença de diabetes mellitus. Conclusão: O índice "time-rate" foi o único parâmetro de variabilidade da pressão arterial sistólica associado com índice tornozelo-braquial e pode ser utilizado na estratificação de risco em hipertensos. Este parâmetro de variabilidade obtido por método não invasivo deve ser melhor investigado em estudos prospectivos. / Introduction: An association between the Blood Pressure Variability, estimated by different indexes, and target-organ damage has been established independently of blood pressure levels. The Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) is useful in the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease and it is recognized as a cardiovascular risk marker. Purpose: To evaluate the association between three different methods in estimating the variability of systolic blood pressure (rate of change of pressure over time - time rate index, coefficient of variability, standard deviation of the average 24-hour systolic blood pressure) and the ankle-brachial index (ABI). Methods: In a cross-sectional study, patients of a hypertension clinic underwent ABI measurement and 24-hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM). Variability was estimated according to three parameters: the time rate index, defined as the first derivative of systolic blood pressure at the time; standard deviation (SD) of 24-hour systolic blood pressure (SBP); and coefficient of variability of 24-hour SBP (CV = SD / mean value X 100%). The ABI was measured by Doppler and obtained by dividing the systolic blood pressure on the ankle or foot (whichever was higher) by the higher of the two systolic blood pressures on the arms. The cutoff point for diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease was ABI<= 0.90 or>= 1.40. Results: The analysis included 425 patients: 69.2% were female, mean age was 57±12 years, 26.1% were current smokers and 22.1% diabetics. Abnormal ABI was detected in 58 patients (13.6%). For the normal and abnormal ABI groups the time rate index, the average SD and CV were 0.469 ± 0.119 mmHg/min and 0.516 ± 0.146 mmHg/min (p = 0.007), 12.6±3.7 mmHg and 13.2±4.7 mmHg (p = 0.26), 9.3±2.9% and 9.3±2.6% (p = 0.91), respectively. In the logistic regression model, time rate was associated with ABI, regardless of age (RR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.1- 42.1; P = 0.04). The multiple linear regression model showed an association that was independent of age, 24-hour SBP and presence of diabetes. Conclusion: The time rate index was the only measurement of variability of systolic blood pressure associated with ankle-brachial index, and might be used for risk stratification in hypertensive patients. This measurement of variability was obtained by a non-invasive method and should be better investigated in prospective studies.
7

Risco cardiovascular, adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso anti-hipertensivo e fragilidade em idosos hipertensos / Cardiovascular risk, adherence to antihypertensive medication and frailty in hypertensive elderly

Coelho, Thaís Cristina, 1983 22 August 2018 (has links)
Orientador: Luiz Cláudio Martins / Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas / Made available in DSpace on 2018-08-22T00:45:51Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Coelho_ThaisCristina_M.pdf: 3269478 bytes, checksum: 5e326edaaa0674d80421fe3a0d0f7f0e (MD5) Previous issue date: 2013 / Resumo: A presença da hipertensão arterial sistêmica, doença arterial periférica e de outras comorbidades, podem potencializar as chamadas síndromes geriátricas, como a síndrome da fragilidade. Embora seja um fator de risco modificável para doenças cardiovasculares, o percentual de controle da pressão arterial é baixo, sendo uma das causas, a baixa adesão ao tratamento. Tendo em vista que estas condições estão relacionadas ao desenvolvimento de incapacidades, piora da qualidade de vida dos idosos e aumento dos custos para os serviços de saúde, o objetivo desse trabalho foi investigar as relações entre hipertensão arterial, risco cardiovascular e adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso anti-hipertensivo na fragilidade do idoso. Participaram do estudo 111 idosos hipertensos, usuários de um ambulatório de atenção secundária. Foram realizadas medidas da pressão arterial e do índice tornozelo-braço (ITB), índice de massa corporal, avaliação da adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso anti-hipertensivo através do Teste de Morisk-Green e dos critérios de fragilidade (perda de peso não intencional, fadiga, diminuição da força de preensão manual, lentidão de marcha e inatividade física). Idosos que apresentaram 3 ou mais critérios de fragilidade foram considerados frágeis, 1 ou 2 critérios foram considerados pré-frágeis e os que não apresentaram critério, não-frágeis. A média de idade foi de 73,4 ± 7,37 anos, sendo 85,6% dos idosos do sexo feminino. As médias da pressão arterial sistólica sentado e em pé foram de 129,96 ±20,46 mmHg e 139,37± 22,58 mmHg, respectivamente. A médias da pressão arterial diastólica sentada e em pé foram 68,12 ± 11,24 e 76,78 ± 10,91 mmHg. A média da pressão de pulso foi 61,84 ± 17,19 e do ITB foi de 1,10±0,10. A adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso foi de 56,7%. Foram considerados frágeis 13,5%, pré-frágeis 64% e não-frágeis 22,5% dos indivíduos. Houve diferença significativa entre os 3 grupos de fragilidade para as variáveis idade (p<0,001) e pressão arterial sistólica (p<0,041). Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas com relação ao índice tornozelobraço, índice de massa corporal e adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso. Maior faixa etária e maiores valores de pressão arterial sistólica foram encontrados em idosos hipertensos frágeis do que em idosos hipertensos não-frágeis. É necessário aprimorar o conhecimento sobre a relação entre doenças cardiovasculares e fragilidade para elaboração de estratégias de prevenção e controle de desfechos adversos nessa população / Abstract: Hypertension, peripheral arterial disease and other comorbidities, can potentiate the geriatric syndromes such as frailty. Although it is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and even with evidence that antihypertensive treatment is effective, the percentage of blood pressure control is low due to poor adherence to treatment. Considering that these conditions are related to development of disabilities, decreased quality of life of older people and increased costs for health services, the objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between hypertension, cardiovascular risk and adherence to antihypertensive drug treatment in the frailty. The study included 111 hypertensive elderly users of an outpatient secondary care. There were performed blood pressure, ankle-brachial index and body mass index measurements, evaluation of adherence to antihypertensive drug treatment through the Morisk-Green test and frailty criteria (unintentional weight loss, fatigue, decreased grip strength, slowness of gait and physical inactivity). Elderly who presented three or more characteristics were considered frail, 1 or 2 characteristics were considered prefrail and none characteristics were not frail. The mean age was 73.4 ± 7.37 years, and 85.6% were women. As average systolic blood pressure sitting and standing were 129.96 ± 20.46 mmHg and 139.37 ± 22.58 mmHg, respectively. The average diastolic blood pressure sitting and standing were 68.12 ± 11.24 and 76.78 ± 10.91 mmHg. The average pulse pressure was 61.84 ± 17.19 and the ABI was 1.10 ± 0.10. Adherence to medication was 56.7%. 13.5% were considered frail, 64% pre-frail and 22.5% non-frail. There was significant differences among the 3 groups of frailty for age (p <0.001) and for systolic blood pressure (p <0.041). Significant differences were not found in the ankle brachial index, neither in body mass index nor in medication adherence. Higher age and higher systolic blood pressure were found in frail hypertensive elderly than in not frail hypertensive's elderly. It is necessary to improve the knowledge about the relationship between cardiovascular disease and frailty to develop strategies for prevention and control of adverse outcomes in this population / Mestrado / Gerontologia / Mestra em Gerontologia
8

Associação entre diferentes parâmetros de variabilidade da pressão sistólica fornecidos pela monitorização ambulatorial de pressão arterial (mapa) e o índice tornozelo-braquial

Wittke, Estefania Inez January 2009 (has links)
Introdução: Tem sido demonstrada uma associação entre a variabilidade da pressão arterial avaliada por diferentes índices e lesão em órgão-alvo, independentemente dos valores de pressão arterial. O índice tornozelo-braquial (ITB) é útil no diagnóstico de doença arterial oclusiva periférica, sendo reconhecido como marcador de aterosclerose sistêmica. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre três diferentes métodos de estimar a variabilidade da pressão arterial sistólica (taxa de variação da pressão no tempo - índice "time-rate", coeficiente de variabilidade, desvio padrão das médias da pressão arterial sistólica de 24 horas) e o índice tornozelo-braquial (ITB). Métodos: Em um estudo transversal, pacientes atendidos no ambulatório de hipertensão realizaram medida de ITB e Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial de 24 horas (MAPA). Três parâmetros de variabilidade foram avaliados: o índice "time-rate" definido como a primeira derivada da pressão arterial sistólica em relação ao tempo; desvio padrão (DP) das médias da pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) de 24 horas e coeficiente de variabilidade (CV=DP/média pressóricaX100%). O ITB aferido por doppler foi obtido pela razão entre a maior pressão arterial sistólica do tornozelo ou pediosa e a maior pressão sistólica dos braços. O ponto de corte para o diagnóstico de doença arterial periférica foi ITB <= 0,90 ou>= 1,40. Resultados: A análise incluiu 425 pacientes: 69,2% eram do sexo feminino, com idade média de 57±12 anos, 26,1% eram tabagistas e 22,1% tinham diabetes mellitus. ITB alterado foi detectado em 58 pacientes (13,6%). Para os grupos ITB normal e anormal o índice "time-rate", DP das médias e CV foram: 0,469±0,119 mmHg/min e 0,516± 0,146 mmHg/min (p=0,007); 12,6±3,7 mmHg e 13,2±4,7 mmHg (p=0,26); 9,3±2,9% e 9,3±2,6 % (p=0,91), respectivamente. No modelo de regressão logística, o "time-rate" foi associado com ITB, independentemente da idade (RR=6,9; 95% IC= 1,1-42,1; P=0,04). Em modelo de regressão linear múltipla demonstrou-se uma associação independente da idade, PAS de 24 horas e presença de diabetes mellitus. Conclusão: O índice "time-rate" foi o único parâmetro de variabilidade da pressão arterial sistólica associado com índice tornozelo-braquial e pode ser utilizado na estratificação de risco em hipertensos. Este parâmetro de variabilidade obtido por método não invasivo deve ser melhor investigado em estudos prospectivos. / Introduction: An association between the Blood Pressure Variability, estimated by different indexes, and target-organ damage has been established independently of blood pressure levels. The Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) is useful in the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease and it is recognized as a cardiovascular risk marker. Purpose: To evaluate the association between three different methods in estimating the variability of systolic blood pressure (rate of change of pressure over time - time rate index, coefficient of variability, standard deviation of the average 24-hour systolic blood pressure) and the ankle-brachial index (ABI). Methods: In a cross-sectional study, patients of a hypertension clinic underwent ABI measurement and 24-hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM). Variability was estimated according to three parameters: the time rate index, defined as the first derivative of systolic blood pressure at the time; standard deviation (SD) of 24-hour systolic blood pressure (SBP); and coefficient of variability of 24-hour SBP (CV = SD / mean value X 100%). The ABI was measured by Doppler and obtained by dividing the systolic blood pressure on the ankle or foot (whichever was higher) by the higher of the two systolic blood pressures on the arms. The cutoff point for diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease was ABI<= 0.90 or>= 1.40. Results: The analysis included 425 patients: 69.2% were female, mean age was 57±12 years, 26.1% were current smokers and 22.1% diabetics. Abnormal ABI was detected in 58 patients (13.6%). For the normal and abnormal ABI groups the time rate index, the average SD and CV were 0.469 ± 0.119 mmHg/min and 0.516 ± 0.146 mmHg/min (p = 0.007), 12.6±3.7 mmHg and 13.2±4.7 mmHg (p = 0.26), 9.3±2.9% and 9.3±2.6% (p = 0.91), respectively. In the logistic regression model, time rate was associated with ABI, regardless of age (RR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.1- 42.1; P = 0.04). The multiple linear regression model showed an association that was independent of age, 24-hour SBP and presence of diabetes. Conclusion: The time rate index was the only measurement of variability of systolic blood pressure associated with ankle-brachial index, and might be used for risk stratification in hypertensive patients. This measurement of variability was obtained by a non-invasive method and should be better investigated in prospective studies.
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Periferinių arterijų ligos nustatymo metodų palyginimas sergantiems širdies ir kraujagyslių ligomis / Comparison of diagnostic methods for peripheral arterial disease in patients with cardiovascular diseases

Mašanauskienė, Edita 19 September 2013 (has links)
Aptikus minimalius PAL simptomus, yra labai svarbūs diagnostiniai, greitai atliekami neinvaziniai tyrimo metodai (kulkšnies-žasto indeksas, nykščio indeksas, ėjimo testas, segmentinių slėgio gradientų matavimas ir kt.). Ambulatorinėje grandyje retai matuojamas kulkšnies-žasto indeksas riboja galimybę nustatyti PAL kiek galima anksčiau, numatyti galimas gyvybiškai svarbių organų kraujagyslines komplikacijas, laiku siųsti pacientą konsultuoti angiochirurgui. Mažai tyrinėtu alternatyvaus neinvazinio impedanso pletizmografijos tyrimu galima nustatyti ne tik periferinių arterijų ligos simptomus, bet vienu metu įvertinti eilę kitų parametrų. Darbo tikslas buvo nustatyti neinvazinio impedanso pletizmografijos metodo efektyvumą kojų arterinei kraujotakai įvertinti ir šį metodą palyginti su kitais neinvaziniais bei invaziniais diagnostikos metodais. Tyrimo metu nustatyta statistiškai reikšminga kulkšnies-žasto indekso bei impedanso pletizmografijos parametrų sąsaja pacientams, sergantiems lėtiniu prieširdžių virpėjimu, lyginant su pacientais neturinčiais šio ritmo sutrikimo, nustatyta impedanso pletizmografijos - bangos viršūnės laiko parametro sąsaja su angiografiškai aptikta kraujagyslės okliuzijos vieta. Pagrindinio impedanso pletizmografijos parametro (bangos viršūnės laiko) specifiškumas yra 96 proc., jautrumas – 73 proc. atsižvelgiant į KŽI pokyčius, o lyginant su angiografija – jautrumas 100 proc., specifiškumas – 50 proc. Taigi, neinvazinis impedanso pletizmografijos... [toliau žr. visą tekstą] / In cases of observing even the slightest PAD symptoms, rapid non-invasive diagnostic test methods become extremely important (the ankle-brachial index, thumb index, walking test, measurement of segmental pressure gradients, etc.). in an outpatient setting , the ankle-brachial index (ABI) is rarely measured, thus limiting the opportu¬nities for the earliest possible detection of PAD, prediction of vascular com¬plications of vital organs, and timely referral of the patient for a con¬sultation with an angiosurgeon. An alternative non-invasive test method of impedance plethysmo¬graphy, which has been little investigated so far, allows both detection of symptoms of peripheral arterial disease and concurrent assessment of a number of other parameters. The aim of the study is to assess the efficiency of a non-invasive method of impedance plethysmography in diagnosing arterial circulation disorders in the legs, and to compare this method with other non-invasive and invasive diagnostic methods of peripheral arterial disease. A significant correlation between the Ankle-Brachial Index and the im¬pedance plethysmography parameters was established in subjects with permanent atrial fibrillation, but not in subjects without this rhythm disorder. During the study, an obvious correlation between the Crest Time in¬ter¬val measured by the impedance plethysmography method and the vas¬¬cular occlusion site shown on angiography was established. Specificity of the impedance plethysmography... [to full text]
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Peripheral Arterial Disease as an Independent Predictor for Excess Stroke Morbidity and Mortality in Primary-Care Patients: 5-Year Results of the getABI Study

Meves, Saskia H., Diehm, Curt, Berger, Klaus, Pittrow, David, Trampisch, Hans-Joachim, Burghaus, Ina, Tepohl, Gerhart, Allenberg, Jens-Rainer, Endres, Heinz G., Schwertfeger, Markus, Darius, Harald, Haberl, Roman L. 26 February 2014 (has links) (PDF)
Background:There is controversial evidence with regard to the significance of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) as an indicator for future stroke risk. We aimed to quantify the risk increase for mortality and morbidity associated with PAD. Methods:In an open, prospective, noninterventional cohort study in the primary care setting, a total of 6,880 unselected patients ≧65 years were categorized according to the presence or absence of PAD and followed up for vascular events or deaths over 5 years. PAD was defined as ankle-brachial index (ABI) <0.9 or history of previous peripheral revascularization and/or limb amputation and/or intermittent claudication. Associations between known cardiovascular risk factors including PAD and cerebrovascular mortality/events were analyzed in a multivariate Cox regression model. Results:During the 5-year follow-up [29,915 patient-years (PY)], 183 patients had a stroke (incidence per 1,000 PY: 6.1 cases). In patients with PAD (n = 1,429) compared to those without PAD (n = 5,392), the incidence of all stroke types standardized per 1,000 PY, with the exception of hemorrhagic stroke, was about doubled (for fatal stroke tripled). The corresponding adjusted hazard ratios were 1.6 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.1–2.2) for total stroke, 1.7 (95% CI 1.2–2.5) for ischemic stroke, 0.7 (95% CI 0.2–2.2) for hemorrhagic stroke, 2.5 (95% CI 1.2–5.2) for fatal stroke and 1.4 (95% CI 0.9–2.1) for nonfatal stroke. Lower ABI categories were associated with higher stroke rates. Besides high age, previous stroke and diabetes mellitus, PAD was a significant independent predictor for ischemic stroke. Conclusions:The risk of stroke is substantially increased in PAD patients, and PAD is a strong independent predictor for stroke. / Dieser Beitrag ist mit Zustimmung des Rechteinhabers aufgrund einer (DFG-geförderten) Allianz- bzw. Nationallizenz frei zugänglich.

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