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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Prevalence, characterisation and management of anthelmintic resistance in gastro-intestinal nematodes of Scottish sheep

Bartley, David Jon January 2008 (has links)
The studies within this thesis have made a valuable contribution to our understanding of anthelmintic resistance in Scotland and in particular to the prevalence of benzimidazole (BZ) and ivermectin (IVM) resistance, the expression of multiple resistance and its management. Parasitic gastroenteritis (PGE) is a major welfare issue not only for Scottish, UK and European farmers but also for livestock producers throughout the world. Parasites such as Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus and Teladorsagia are estimated to cost the sheep industry hundreds of millions of dollars annually. To date control has largely been achieved using anthelmintics, but over reliance on anthelmintics has led to the development of multi class anthelmintic resistance (AR) and the realization that intensive chemoprophylaxis is not a sustainable approach for the control of nematodoses. The first two papers contributing to this thesis assessed the prevalence of benzimidazole (BZ) and ivermectin (IVM) resistance within ovine gastrointestinal nematode populations in Scotland. The prevalence of BZ resistance in selected Scottish lowland sheep farms was around 24% in 1991 but this had risen to over 80% by 2001. The first cases of ivermectin resistance in sheep were only detected in 2001 but a small scale survey in 2004 showed that 35% of the farms (6 from 17) surveyed had IVM resistance, with Teladorsagia and Trichostrongylus being identified as the resistant genera. The isolation of a triple class resistant T. circumcincta (MTci5) population has enabled research to focus on the important issue of the therapeutic and prophylactic management of this emerging problem. The third and fourth papers detail a series of controlled efficacy tests conducted on MTci5 that confirmed, in the short term at least, it should be possible to use a milbemycin (moxidectin; MOX) or combination treatments, with IVM and one other class of anthelmintic to control nematodoses (>90% efficacy) caused by adult and/or immature worms. However the study examining larval susceptibility highlighted the important role that immature stages can play in the selection and transmission of resistance. Currently there are no tests that can detect the presence of these resistant larval stages. The fifth paper outlines parasitological findings from the farm where MTci5 was isolated following the confirmation of multiple class resistance. Substantial efforts were made to find solutions to maintain sustainability and profitability of the enterprise though ultimately the use of MOX selected for a, predominately Teladorsagia, population against which the persistent activity of the compound was only negligible with the reappearance of eggs in faeces occurring between 21 and 28 days post treatment. Effective sustainable control of AR populations not only requires an understanding of the phenotypic and genotypic mechanisms that underpin resistance but also improved means of ensuring that our farmers are made aware of and utilize identified best practice approaches. The written and verbal responses of the farmers to questions relating to best practice advice (papers six and seven) would suggest that many of the recommendations for delaying the selection and transmission of AR (ACME, Moredun Foundation and sustainable control of parasites of sheep (SCOPS), DEFRA) are not being followed, recommendations such as the effective quarantine treatment of newly purchased animals and dosing animals at the manufacturers’ recommended dose rate were followed by only 20% and 56% of farmers respectively.
2

Pyrantel Resistance in the Canine Hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum

Kopp, Steven Unknown Date (has links)
No description available.
3

Development of genetic crossing methods to identify genes associated with macrocyclic lactone resistance in the sheep nematode parasite, Haemonchus contortus

Sargison, Neil Donald January 2009 (has links)
There is a pressing need to develop strategies to reduce the emergence of macrocyclic lactone anthelmintic resistance in sheep flocks. Management practices aimed at maintaining anthelmintic susceptible nematodes in refugia while achieving a satisfactory level of production may prove to be useful. However, sensitive molecular tests are required to monitor the subtle effects of these practices on the frequency of resistance alleles within nematode populations. To-date, conventional studies of candidate genes coding for the known methods of action of macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics have produced a complex picture, highlighting the relevance of different approaches to the identification of resistance markers. This thesis describes the development of a single nematode parent genetic crossing method and discusses its application to identify molecular markers for anthelmintic resistance. Parasitological and molecular verification of successful inbreeding of the MHco3 strain of H. contortus derived from the progeny of a genetic cross between single nematode parents is described. The single parent genetic crossing method has enabled the production of diverse inbred lines of the MHco3 H. contortus and may prove useful for genome assembly, or for the development of a genetic map. The study has afforded insights to the biology of H. contortus and effects of host immunity on nematode parasites. New information is presented concerning the period during which adult female nematodes continue to shed fertilised eggs after removal of males, the development of unfertilised H. contortus eggs, and the population genetics of mixed infections of two different strains of H. contortus. Novel backcrossing experiments initially between a macrocyclic lactone resistant (MHco4 or MHco10) and a susceptible (MHco3) strain of H. contortus and then between ivermectin treated backcross generations and the parental susceptible strain are described. The resources provided by these experiments should enable comparative genomic analysis and conventional molecular biology to identify resistance genes derived from the parental resistant strains in fourth backcross generations that are the same as a parent ivermectin susceptible population, apart from the presence of alleles linked to anthelmintic resistance, derived from parent resistant strains.
4

Role of P-glycoprotein in Haemonchus contortus anthelmintic resistance.

Garretson, Pamela Donn 15 May 2009 (has links)
The gastrointestinal parasite, Haemonchus contortus, is of major concern in the sheep and goat industry as well as in zoological settings. Over the years this parasite has developed resistance to the three classes of anthelmintics, benzimidazoles, imidazothiazoles and macrocyclic lactones, that are currently used for treatment. One of the mechanisms proposed to be involved in this resistance is the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp). In this study, the resistance status of several strains of H. contortus was evaluated using the larval development assay DrenchRite®. After documenting the resistance status of these strains, transcription of Pgp in L3 larvae after exposure to anthelmintics was quantitated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of the strains analyzed, only one was determined to be susceptible to all of the anthelmintics tested, while the others showed variable levels of resistance to one or more. A Haemonchus strain acquired from a giraffe at a zoo in Florida was the most resistant, showing extremely high levels of resistance to benzimidazoles and levamisole. Molecular characterization of the 18S rRNA gene and the internal transcriber spacer region (ITS) were performed on the giraffe strain to identify the species. Although there were variations in the isolate sequences, the most likely species for the giraffe strain was H. contortus. No transcription of Pgp was identified in H. contortus L3 larvae under the conditions of this study. Thus, increased Pgp does not appear to be a primary mechanism of drug resistance in this stage of the worm.
5

Modelling nematode infections in sheep and parasite control strategies

Laurenson, Yan Christian Stephen Mountfort January 2012 (has links)
Gastrointestinal parasitism in grazing lambs adversely affects animal performance and welfare, causing significant production losses for the sheep industry. Control of gastrointestinal parasitism using chemotherapeutic treatment is under threat due to the emergence of anthelmintic resistance, thus stimulating research into alternative control strategies. Whilst investigating control strategies experimentally can be costly and time consuming, using a mathematical modelling approach can reduce such constraints. A previously developed model which describes the impact of host nutrition, genotype and gastrointestinal parasitism in a growing lamb, provided an appropriate starting point to explore control strategies and their impact on host-parasite interactions. Two contrasting mechanisms have previously been proposed to account for the occurrence of anorexia during parasitism. These were reductions in either intrinsic growth rate or relative food intake. Thus, the existing individual lamb model was modified to evaluate these mechanisms by exploring the relationship between anorexia and food composition (Chapter 2). For foods that did not constrain food intake, published data was found to be consistent with the predictions that arose from anorexia being modelled as a reduction in relative food intake. Reported genetic parameter estimates for resistance and performance traits appear to vary under differing production environments. In order to explore the impact of epidemiological effects and anthelmintic input on genetic parameter estimates the model was extended to simulate a population of lambs in a grazing scenario (Chapter 3). Whilst estimates of heritabilities and genetic correlations for drenched lambs remained constant, for lambs given no anthelmintic treatment, the heritability of empty body weight (EBW) reduced and the genetic correlation between faecal egg count (FEC) and EBW became increasingly negative with increasing exposure to infective larvae. Thus differences in anthelmintic input and pasture larval contamination (PC) may provide plausible causes for the variation in genetic parameter estimates previously reported. To investigate the interactions between host resistance and epidemiology (Chapter 4) a population of 10,000 lambs were simulated and FEC predictions used to assign the 1,000 lambs with the highest and lowest predicted FEC to ‘susceptible’ (S) and ‘resistant’ (R) groups, respectively. R and S groups were then simulated to graze separate pastures over 3 grazing seasons. The average FEC and PC predictions of these groups diverged during the first 2 grazing seasons and stabilised during the third, such that the difference in FEC predictions between R and S groups were double those predicted when grazed with the population. This was found to be consistent with experimental data. Further, anthelmintic treatment and grazing strategies were predicted to have no impact on the EBW of resistant lambs, suggesting that control strategies should be targeted towards susceptible animals. Targeted selective anthelmintic treatment (TST) has been proposed to reduce risks of anthelmintic resistance with minimal impacts on performance. To describe the short- and long-term impacts of TST and drenching frequency on sheep production and the emergence of anthelmintic resistance, the model was extended to include a description of anthelmintic resistance genotypes within the nematode population (Chapter 5). Reducing the proportion of treated animals was predicted to increase the duration of anthelmintic efficacy, whilst reducing the drenching frequency increased the long-term benefits of anthelmintic on sheep production. Various determinant criteria for use in TST regimes were compared (Chapter 5) including performance traits such as live weight and growth rate, and parasitological traits such as FEC. Using FEC as the TST criterion was predicted to allow the greatest reduction in the number of anthelmintic treatments administered whilst maintaining the highest average EBW, whilst live weight and growth rate were predicted to give little to no improvement in comparison to selecting animals at random for TST. Using estimated breeding values (EBVs) for FEC as the determinant criterion for TST regimes was compared to using measured FEC (Chapter 6). The EBV for true FEC across the entire growth period, akin to perfect genomic selection, was predicted to be a better criterion than measured time-specific FEC (including a sampling error) for a TST regime. EBVs calculated using measured time-specific FEC showed little benefit compared to measured FEC. The information gained from these simulation studies increases our understanding of control strategies and their impact on host-parasite interactions under various scenarios that may not have been possible using experimental methods. It is important to remember that the aim of alternative or complimentary control strategies is to maintain the sustainability of sheep production systems, and as such the production gain of any control strategy needs to be weighed against the financial, labour and time costs involved in implementation.
6

Interactions of Teladorsagia circumcincta with the ovine immune system : mimicry and vaccine development

Ellis, Samantha Emma Elizabeth January 2014 (has links)
Teladorsagia circumcincta, an economically-important abomasal nematode of small ruminants in temperate regions worldwide, is currently controlled with a combination of anthelmintics and pasture management. Anthelmintic resistance has emerged and vaccination is a potential alternative control strategy, as protective immunity in sheep can be acquired after repeated exposure to the parasite. Abomasal mucosal IgA responses in immune sheep have been correlated with delayed worm development and reduced faecal egg counts. However, recombinant vaccine development against parasitic nematodes has had limited success, and one of the reasons may be unsuitable expression systems for antigen production leading to incomplete or inadequate post-translational modifications such as glycosylation and tertiary protein folding, resulting in incorrect epitope structures for antibody binding. In this thesis, to address this issue, “native” infective larval (L3) antigen targets of protective immune responses and synthetic peptide sequences which mimic structural epitopes on these antigens were identified. Abomasal mucosal IgA was used as a probe to identify native immunogenic antigens from T. circumcincta L3. IgA was purified from abomasal mucus of animals rendered immune by repeated experimental infection and a custom antibody-affinity column was created and used to purify antigens from an L3 somatic PBS-soluble extract. Affinity purified L3-antigen-specific IgA levels in sheep with varying levels of immunity to T. circumcincta were positively correlated (rs = 0.853, P < 0.001) with both the total IgA concentration in efferent gastric lymph after parasite challenge, and with the percentage of inhibited fourth-stage (L4) larvae present in the gastric glands of the immune hosts (rs = 0.534, P = 0.007). In contrast, a negative correlation between the levels of affinity-purified L3 antigen-specific IgA and total T. circumcincta burden was observed (rs = -0.565, P = 0.004). Proteomic analysis of the IgA-affinity purified L3 extract identified a number of proteins which represent potential vaccine candidate molecules in other helminth species, including paramyosin, superoxide dismutase, galectin, activation-associated secreted proteins and fatty-acid retinol-binding proteins. As a first step towards the development of a novel vaccine based on IgA-binding peptide mimics of native structural epitopes, phage display libraries were used to screen antibodies, from sheep rendered immune to T. circumcincta by experimental infection. These antibodies were affinity-purified before use and specifically bound T. circumcincta L3 glycans or, alternatively, surface antigens on exsheathed T. circumcincta L3. Five peptide sequences which mimic L3 antigenic epitopes were identified and positive correlations existed between peptide-specific IgA levels and both the total IgA concentration in efferent gastric lymph after parasite challenge and the percentage of inhibited L4 present (rs > 0.621, P < 0.001 to P < 0.05). In contrast, negative correlations between the levels of peptide-specific IgA and the total nematode burden were observed (rs > -0.528, P < 0.01 to P < 0.05). In conclusion, the selected phage clones may therefore represent vaccine candidates if they could be presented to the ovine immune system in an appropriate fashion.
7

Improved use of abattoir information to aid the management of liver fluke in cattle

Mazeri, Stella January 2017 (has links)
Fasciolosis, caused by the trematode parasite Fasciola hepatica, is a multi-host parasitic disease affecting many countries worldwide. It is a well-recognized clinically and economically important disease of food producing animals such as cattle and sheep. In the UK, the incidence and distribution of fasciolosis has been increasing in the last decade while the timing of acute disease is becoming more variable and the season suitable for parasite development outside the mammalian host has been extended. Meanwhile control is proving increasingly difficult due to changing weather conditions, increased animal movements and developing anthelmintic resistance. Forecasting models have been around for a long time to aid health planning related to fasciolosis control, but studies identifying management related risk factors are limited. Moreover, the lack of information on the accuracy of meat inspection and available liver fluke diagnostic tests hinders effective monitoring of disease prevalence and treatment. So far, the evaluation of tests available for the diagnosis of the infection in cattle has mainly been carried out using gold standard approaches or under experimental settings, the limitations of which are well known. In cattle, the infection mainly manifests as a sub-clinical disease, resulting in indirect production losses, which are difficult to estimate. The lack of obvious clinical signs results in these losses commonly being attributed to other causes such as poor weather conditions or bad quality forage. This further undermines establishment of appropriate control strategies, as it is difficult to convince farmers to treat without demonstrating clear economic losses of sub-clinical disease. This project explores the value of slaughterhouse data in understanding the changing epidemiology of fasciolosis, identifying sustainable control measures and estimating the effect of infection on production parameters using data collected at one of the largest cattle and sheep abattoirs in Scotland. Data used in this study include; a) abattoir data routinely collected during 2013 and 2014, b) data collected during 3 periods of abattoir based sampling, c) data collected through administration of a management questionnaire and d) climatic and environmental data from various online sources. A Bayesian extension of the Hui Walter no gold standard model was used to estimate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of five diagnostic tests for fasciolosis in cattle, which were applied on 619 samples collected from the abattoir during three sampling periods; summer 2013, winter 2014 and autumn 2014. The results provided novel information on the performance of these tests in a naturally infected cattle population at different times of the year. Meat inspection was estimated to have a sensitivity of 0.68 (95% BCI 0.61-0.75) and a specificity of 0.88 (95% BCI 0.85-0.91). Accurate estimates of sensitivity and specificity will allow for routine abattoir liver inspection to be used as a tool for monitoring the epidemiology of F. hepatica as well as evaluating herd health planning. Linear regression modelling was used to estimate the delay in reaching slaughter weight in beef cattle infected with F. hepatica, accounting for other important factors such as weight, age, sex, breed and farm as a random effect. The model estimated that cattle classified as having fluke based on routine liver inspection had on average 10 (95% CI 9-12) days greater slaughter age, assuming an average carcass weight of 345 kg. Furthermore, estimates from a second model indicated that the increase in age at slaughter was more severe for higher fibrosis scores. More precisely, the increase in slaughter age was 34 (95% CI 11-57) days for fibrosis score of 1, 93 (95% CI 57-128) days for fibrosis score 2 and 78 (95% CI 30-125) days for fibrosis score 3. Similarly, in a third model comparing different burden categories with animals with no fluke burden, there was a 31 (95% CI 7-56) days increase in slaughter age for animals with 1 to 10 parasites and 77 (95% CI 32-124) days increase in animals with more than 10 parasites found in their livers. Lastly, a multi-variable mixed effects logistic regression model was built to estimate the association between climate, environmental, management and animal specific factors and the risk of an animal being infected by F. hepatica. Multiple imputation methodology was employed to deal with missing data arising from skipped questions in the questionnaire. Results of the regression model confirmed the importance of temperature, rainfall and cattle movements in increasing the risk for fasciolosis, while it indicated that the presence of deer can increase the risk of infection and that male cattle have a reduced risk of infection. Overall, this project has used slaughterhouse data to fill important knowledge gaps regarding F. hepatica infection in cattle. It has provided valuable information on the accuracy of routine abattoir meat inspection, as well as other diagnostic tests. It has also provided estimates of the effect of infection on the time cattle take to reach slaughter weight at different levels of infection and identified relevant risk factors related to the infection. In conclusion, knowledge of the effect of infection on slaughter age, as well as regional risk factors for F. hepatica infection, along with an improved use of abattoir inspection results in the evaluation of treatment strategies, can provide farmers and veterinarians with better incentives and tools to improve their herd health strategies and in the longer term help reduce the incidence of liver fluke in cattle.
8

Inhibition of infective larvae exsheathment and egg hatching of the nematode Haemonchus contortus with extracts of tannin-rich plants / Inibições do desembainhamento de larvas infectantes e da eclodibilidade do nematoide Haemonchus contortus com extratos de plantas taniníferas

Edgard Franco Gomes 23 September 2013 (has links)
The aim of this work was to assess the bioactivity of extracts of the tannin-rich plants Acacia mearnsii, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Caesalpinea bracteosa and Leucaena leucocephala against egg and infective larvae stages of Haemonchus contortus. Two in vitro assays were held: an Egg Hatch Assay (EHA) and a Larval Exsheathment Inhibition Assay (LEIA). The EHA consists of the incubation of previously recovered eggs from infected animal\'s faeces in a solution of plant extract for 24 hours and later differentiation between larvae and nonhatched eggs. The concentrations used were 50.00, 25.00, 12.50, 6.25, 3.12, 1.56, 0.78 and 0.39 mg/mL for A. mearnsii; 1.56, 0.78, 0.39, 0.19, 0.09 and 0.04 mg/mL for M. urundeuva; 6.25, 3.12, 1.56, 0.78, 0.39 and 019 mg/mL for C. bracteosa; and 6.25, 3.12 and 1.56 mg/mL for L. leucocephala. The LEIA consists in the artificial exsheathment of infective larvae, obtained by previous coproculture, after a three hour incubation period with plant extract solution in the concentrations 1,200, 600, 300 and 150 \'mü\'g/mL. The 50 and 99 lethal doses (LD) were calculated for both tests. A dose-dependent effect was found in the two tests, except for L. leucocephala in EHA, where it was not possible to calculate DL50 and DL99 with the chosen doses. The DL50 results for EHA were 0.18, 0.32, and 7.20 mg/mL and for DL99 were 4.31, 5.41, and 187.26 mg/mL, respectively for M. urundeuva, C. bracteosa, and A. mearnsii. For LEIA, the DL50 were 0.40, 0.52, 1.24, and 2.24 mg/mL and for DL99 these were 2.37, 2.28, 19.99 and 2.53 x 103 mg/mL respectively for M. urundeuva, A. mearnsii, L. leucocephala and C. bracteosa. The two highest concentrations of A. mearnsii and the three highest for C. bracteosa were effective (more than 90% of bioactivity); the three highest concentrations of M. urundeuva and the 0.78 mg/mL level of C. bracteosa were moderately effective (between 80 and 90% of bioactivity); the concentrations with low effectiveness (between 60 and 80% of bioactivity) were the 12.50 mg/mL (A. mearnsii), 0.19 mg/mL (M. urundeuva), and 0.39 mg/mL (C. bracteosa); all other concentrations were ineffective (less than 60% of bioactivity). For the LEIA, only the highest dose from A. mearnsii and M. urundeuva were effective; the 600 \'mü\'g/mL were moderately effective and all other doses were ineffective. It should be observed that even if the dose is ineffective against exsheathment, some concentrations were able to significantly delay the process. It was observed that the extracts had bioactivity in vitro within the chosen doses against the hatchability of eggs and exsheathment of larvae of H. contortus, except for L. leucocephala, which was not able to block the hatching of eggs / Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho verificar a bioatividade dos extratos das plantas taniníferas Acacia mearnsii, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Caesalpinea bracteosa e Leucaena leucocephala contra os estágios de ovo e de larva L3 infectante de Haemonchus contortus. Para isso, dois ensaios in vitro foram realizados: o Teste da inibição da eclodibilidade dos ovos (TIEO) e o teste da Inibição do desembainhamento larvar (TIDL). O TIEO consiste na incubação de ovos recém recuperados das fezes de animais infectados em solução liquida de extrato de planta por 24 horas e posterior diferenciação entre larvas e ovos não eclodidos. As concentrações utilizadas para A. mearnsii foram de 50,00, 25,00, 12,50, 6,25, 3,12, 1,56, 0,78 e 0,39 mg/mL; 1,56, 0,78, 0,39, 0,19, 0,09 e 0,04 mg/mL para M. urundeuva; 6,25, 3,12, 1,56, 0,78, 0,39 e 0,19 mg/mL para C. bracteosa; e 6,25, 3,12 e 1,56 mg/mL para L. leucocephala. O TIDL consiste no desembainhamento artificial de larvas infectantes, obtidas através de coprocultura, que passaram por período de incubação de três horas em solução liquida de extratos de plantas nas concentrações 1.200, 600, 300 e 150 \'mü\'g/mL. As doses letais (DL) 50 e 99 foram calculadas para ambos testes. Um efeito dose-dependente foi encontrado para os dois testes, exceto para a L. leucocephala no TIEO, onde não foi possível calcular o valor da DL50 e DL99 para o respectivo teste nas doses escolhidas. Os resultados da DL50 para TIEO foram de 0,18, 0,32 e 7,20 mg/mL e da DL99 foram de 4,31, 5,41 e 187,26 mg/mL respectivamente para M. urundeuva, C. bracteosa e A. mearnsii. Para o TIDL, a DL50 foi de 0,40, 0,52, 1,24 e 2,24 mg/mL e da DL99 foi de 2,37, 2,28, 19,99 e 2,53 x 103 mg/mL respectivamente para M. urundeuva, A. mearnsii, L. leucocephala e C. bracteosa. Para o TIEO, as duas maiores concentrações de A. mearnsii e as três maiores de C. bracteosa foram efetivas (mais de 90% de bioatividade); as três maiores concentrações de M. urundeuva e a 0,78 mg/mL de C. bracteosa foram moderadamente efetivas (entre 80 e 90% de bioatividade); as concentrações de pouca efetividade (entre 60 e 80% de bioatividade) foram a 12,50 mg/mL (A. mearnsii), 0,19 mg/mL (M. urundeuva), e 0,39 mg/mL (C. bracteosa); as demais concentrações foram consideradas ineficientes (menos de 60% de bioatividade). Para o TIDL, apenas a maior concentração de A. mearnsii e M. urundeuva foram efetivas; a concentração de 600 \'mü\'g/mL de M. urundeuva foi moderadamente efetiva; todas as outras concentrações foram ineficientes. Entretanto, deve-se observar que apesar de ineficientes em bloquear o desembainhamento, algumas concentrações atrasaram significativamente o desembainhamento das larvas, sendo esse um resultado de interesse. Assim, foi observado que os extratos, excetuando o extrato de L. leucocephala quanto a eclodibilidade, possuem bioatividade in vitro nas doses utilizadas contra a eclosão dos ovos e contra o desembainhamento das larvas de H. contortus
9

Inhibition of infective larvae exsheathment and egg hatching of the nematode Haemonchus contortus with extracts of tannin-rich plants / Inibições do desembainhamento de larvas infectantes e da eclodibilidade do nematoide Haemonchus contortus com extratos de plantas taniníferas

Gomes, Edgard Franco 23 September 2013 (has links)
The aim of this work was to assess the bioactivity of extracts of the tannin-rich plants Acacia mearnsii, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Caesalpinea bracteosa and Leucaena leucocephala against egg and infective larvae stages of Haemonchus contortus. Two in vitro assays were held: an Egg Hatch Assay (EHA) and a Larval Exsheathment Inhibition Assay (LEIA). The EHA consists of the incubation of previously recovered eggs from infected animal\'s faeces in a solution of plant extract for 24 hours and later differentiation between larvae and nonhatched eggs. The concentrations used were 50.00, 25.00, 12.50, 6.25, 3.12, 1.56, 0.78 and 0.39 mg/mL for A. mearnsii; 1.56, 0.78, 0.39, 0.19, 0.09 and 0.04 mg/mL for M. urundeuva; 6.25, 3.12, 1.56, 0.78, 0.39 and 019 mg/mL for C. bracteosa; and 6.25, 3.12 and 1.56 mg/mL for L. leucocephala. The LEIA consists in the artificial exsheathment of infective larvae, obtained by previous coproculture, after a three hour incubation period with plant extract solution in the concentrations 1,200, 600, 300 and 150 \'mü\'g/mL. The 50 and 99 lethal doses (LD) were calculated for both tests. A dose-dependent effect was found in the two tests, except for L. leucocephala in EHA, where it was not possible to calculate DL50 and DL99 with the chosen doses. The DL50 results for EHA were 0.18, 0.32, and 7.20 mg/mL and for DL99 were 4.31, 5.41, and 187.26 mg/mL, respectively for M. urundeuva, C. bracteosa, and A. mearnsii. For LEIA, the DL50 were 0.40, 0.52, 1.24, and 2.24 mg/mL and for DL99 these were 2.37, 2.28, 19.99 and 2.53 x 103 mg/mL respectively for M. urundeuva, A. mearnsii, L. leucocephala and C. bracteosa. The two highest concentrations of A. mearnsii and the three highest for C. bracteosa were effective (more than 90% of bioactivity); the three highest concentrations of M. urundeuva and the 0.78 mg/mL level of C. bracteosa were moderately effective (between 80 and 90% of bioactivity); the concentrations with low effectiveness (between 60 and 80% of bioactivity) were the 12.50 mg/mL (A. mearnsii), 0.19 mg/mL (M. urundeuva), and 0.39 mg/mL (C. bracteosa); all other concentrations were ineffective (less than 60% of bioactivity). For the LEIA, only the highest dose from A. mearnsii and M. urundeuva were effective; the 600 \'mü\'g/mL were moderately effective and all other doses were ineffective. It should be observed that even if the dose is ineffective against exsheathment, some concentrations were able to significantly delay the process. It was observed that the extracts had bioactivity in vitro within the chosen doses against the hatchability of eggs and exsheathment of larvae of H. contortus, except for L. leucocephala, which was not able to block the hatching of eggs / Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho verificar a bioatividade dos extratos das plantas taniníferas Acacia mearnsii, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Caesalpinea bracteosa e Leucaena leucocephala contra os estágios de ovo e de larva L3 infectante de Haemonchus contortus. Para isso, dois ensaios in vitro foram realizados: o Teste da inibição da eclodibilidade dos ovos (TIEO) e o teste da Inibição do desembainhamento larvar (TIDL). O TIEO consiste na incubação de ovos recém recuperados das fezes de animais infectados em solução liquida de extrato de planta por 24 horas e posterior diferenciação entre larvas e ovos não eclodidos. As concentrações utilizadas para A. mearnsii foram de 50,00, 25,00, 12,50, 6,25, 3,12, 1,56, 0,78 e 0,39 mg/mL; 1,56, 0,78, 0,39, 0,19, 0,09 e 0,04 mg/mL para M. urundeuva; 6,25, 3,12, 1,56, 0,78, 0,39 e 0,19 mg/mL para C. bracteosa; e 6,25, 3,12 e 1,56 mg/mL para L. leucocephala. O TIDL consiste no desembainhamento artificial de larvas infectantes, obtidas através de coprocultura, que passaram por período de incubação de três horas em solução liquida de extratos de plantas nas concentrações 1.200, 600, 300 e 150 \'mü\'g/mL. As doses letais (DL) 50 e 99 foram calculadas para ambos testes. Um efeito dose-dependente foi encontrado para os dois testes, exceto para a L. leucocephala no TIEO, onde não foi possível calcular o valor da DL50 e DL99 para o respectivo teste nas doses escolhidas. Os resultados da DL50 para TIEO foram de 0,18, 0,32 e 7,20 mg/mL e da DL99 foram de 4,31, 5,41 e 187,26 mg/mL respectivamente para M. urundeuva, C. bracteosa e A. mearnsii. Para o TIDL, a DL50 foi de 0,40, 0,52, 1,24 e 2,24 mg/mL e da DL99 foi de 2,37, 2,28, 19,99 e 2,53 x 103 mg/mL respectivamente para M. urundeuva, A. mearnsii, L. leucocephala e C. bracteosa. Para o TIEO, as duas maiores concentrações de A. mearnsii e as três maiores de C. bracteosa foram efetivas (mais de 90% de bioatividade); as três maiores concentrações de M. urundeuva e a 0,78 mg/mL de C. bracteosa foram moderadamente efetivas (entre 80 e 90% de bioatividade); as concentrações de pouca efetividade (entre 60 e 80% de bioatividade) foram a 12,50 mg/mL (A. mearnsii), 0,19 mg/mL (M. urundeuva), e 0,39 mg/mL (C. bracteosa); as demais concentrações foram consideradas ineficientes (menos de 60% de bioatividade). Para o TIDL, apenas a maior concentração de A. mearnsii e M. urundeuva foram efetivas; a concentração de 600 \'mü\'g/mL de M. urundeuva foi moderadamente efetiva; todas as outras concentrações foram ineficientes. Entretanto, deve-se observar que apesar de ineficientes em bloquear o desembainhamento, algumas concentrações atrasaram significativamente o desembainhamento das larvas, sendo esse um resultado de interesse. Assim, foi observado que os extratos, excetuando o extrato de L. leucocephala quanto a eclodibilidade, possuem bioatividade in vitro nas doses utilizadas contra a eclosão dos ovos e contra o desembainhamento das larvas de H. contortus
10

ANTHELMINTIC RESISTANCE IN EQUINE PARASITES: MECHANISMS AND TREATMENT APPROACHES

Kenealy, Jessica Scare 01 January 2019 (has links)
Anthelmintic resistance of parasites infecting livestock animals is a global problem resulting in decreased animal welfare and production losses. Horses are not exempt from this issue as wide-spread anthelmintic resistance exists among the equine cyathostomins and Parascaris spp. Of the three drug classes available for treating equine intestinal helminths anthelmintic resistance, defined as less than 90-95% drug efficacy, exist to all three. New pharmaceutical control regimens and the elucidation of parasite drug response mechanisms are needed. Two studies were carried out evaluating combination deworming regimens. A population of cyathostomins with known resistance to the benzimidazole (BZ) and pyrimidine drug classes maintained in a herd of Shetland ponies was used. Fecal egg counts were performed every two weeks and used to evaluate drug efficacy. The first study evaluated the combination of a BZ and pyrimidine drug for four consecutive treatments, and compared the individual drug efficacies before and after combination use. The first combination treatment exhibited an additive effect at 76.6%, but the subsequent three combination treatments decreased to approximately 40%. There was no significant difference between the initial and final efficacies of individual drugs (BZ, p=0.4421; pyrimidine, p=0.8361). It appears the combination treatment selected for double-drug resistant adult parasites. The timeframe of this study (1 year) and the one year lifespan of adult cyathostomins prevented observations of combination treatment on subsequent generations, however given the sustainability of resistance in this cyathostomin population, it seems unlikely efficacy would improve over time. The second study examined the combination of a BZ drug with a macrocyclic lactone (ML) drug. This parasite population was 100% naïve to the ML drug class. This study was carried out in a similar manner to the first, except only two combination treatments were given. ML exhibited 100% efficacy when it was used alone, or in combination. The initial and final BZ efficacy did not significantly differ (p=0.9890). In summary, the results described herein do not support the use of combination treatments where resistance is prevalent, but more long term studies are needed to fully understand the long-term effects on subsequent generations. The in vitro maintenance of Parascaris spp. provides opportunity for various molecular analyses. An objective motility scoring assessment allowed for continuous monitoring of worm viability. In this study, several saline solutions, nutrient supplements, environmental conditions, and Roswell-Park Memorial Institute medium 1640 (RPMI-1640) were evaluated for the longevity and viability of adult Parascaris spp. Overall, RPMI-1640 resulted in better longevity (168 hours) and significantly better viability (pParascaris spp. to in vitro drug exposure. Oxibendazole at 10 µg/mL for 24 hours and ivermectin at 1 µg/mL for three hours were employed, and worms were used for transcriptomic analyses to identify drug response mechanisms. The top four genes which were significantly different between drug treated and control groups were: cyp4504C1, sup-9, frmd4a, and klhdc10. It is hypothesized that cyp4504C1 and klhdc10 are drug detox mechanisms, while sup-9 and frmd4a may be indirect response related to the drug effects. Their expression was further evaluated using quantitative RT-PCR, however there was no significant difference in any gene expression between groups. It should be noted that there are several limitations associated with the qPCR method, and the lack of significance should not rule out the possible involvement of these genes and more research on drug response mechanisms is needed. In summary, there is very little research regarding combination deworming in horses, and their current use is largely due to some success for ruminant parasites, but the current work summarized herein does not support their use. Finally, until now the lack of in vitro methods for equine helminths has significantly delayed the elucidation of drug response mechanisms. This was the first whole-transcriptome approach for any ascarid parasite and uncovered proteins with possible involvement in drug metabolism or compensate for the toxic effects Overall, the research surrounding anthelmintic resistance in livestock helminths, particularly in horses, is lacking and the resistance crisis demands further investigation.

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