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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Structure and Dynamics of the Inter-tropical Convergence zones

Dixit, Vijay Vishal January 2015 (has links) (PDF)
The east-west oriented cloud bands in the tropics are called the Inter-tropical Con-vergence Zones (ITCZ). Till recently, the ITCZ has been assumed to have a simple vertical structure with convergence near the surface boundary layer and divergence near the tropopause. Recent work has shown that the ITCZ can have a complex ver-tical structure with multi-level ows. This complex structure has a profound impact on the mass, momentum and energy budget in the ITCZ. This thesis addresses the factors that govern the shallow meridional circulation that occurs in the ITCZ and the mechanisms that govern the abrupt poleward transition and the gradual poleward migration . The shallow meridional circulation forms when the boundary layer ow that con-verges in the ITCZ, rises above the boundary layer and diverges in the lower tropo-sphere. The ow above the boundary layer is in the direction opposite to the direction of the ow within the boundary layer. Some authors have argued that this is caused by the reversal of pressure gradients just above the boundary layer in response to strong sea surface temperature gradients. This hypothesis neglects the eect of plan-etary rotation on the ow and was found to be insucient to explain the formation of shallow meridional circulation. In the east Pacic ocean, the shallow circulation forms only to the south of the ITCZ when the ITCZ forms away from the equator, while it is absent when the ITCZ forms close to the equator. The aqua-planet simulations of the equatorial and the o-equatorial ITCZ were conducted using Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 3.0). The model used the Eulerian dynamical core with T42 horizontal resolution and 26 levels in vertical. Each simulation was run for 3 years and analysis of last six months was presented. The simulations reproduced the contrast in the vertical structure of the equatorial and o-equatorial ITCZ. The shallow circulation was simulated with-out the reversal of pressure gradients and the SST gradients were weakest when the shallow circulation was simulated. We have proposed a new mechanism for the exis-tence of shallow meridional circulation in the ITCZ. We have argued that, in Earth's atmosphere, the mean horizontal ow generally occurs in the direction perpendicular to the direction of applied pressure gradient due to the action of Coriolis force. If the local rotational eects of the ow (relative vorticity) cancels the action of the Coriolis force, then a ow along the pressure gradient is possible. We demonstrated that this condition was satised only to the south of the ITCZ when it forms away from the equator. The ITCZ is characterized by the maximum mass convergence in the boundary layer. The mass convergence is mainly caused by the deceleration of poleward ow in the boundary layer. When the ITCZ forms close to the equator, the ow in the boundary layer is a resultant of vector addition of three forces, a pressure gradient force in the north-south direction (i.e., the ow towards low pressure), a Coriolis force which acts in the east-west direction( perpendicular to the direction of the ow), and surface friction which opposes the resultant ow. When the ITCZ forms away from the equator a three way balance does not capture the dynamics of ow. As the poleward ow is accelerated towards low pressure, it has to advect a considerable amount of zonal momentum with it which acts to retard the poleward ow. This eect of advection of zonal momentum has to be included in the force balance to obtain an accurate estimate of the ow and associated convergence. The ITCZ acts like a heat engine. The energy is gained near the surface, some energy is transported towards pole while some is utilized in driving the meridional circulation. The rest is rejected near the tropopause. The transport within the troposphere occurs through the vertical or horizontal advection of the energy due to vertical and horizontal motions respectively. Our analysis of the ITCZ suggests that; a large amount of transport occurs through horizontal motions that was neglected in the previous studies. The detailed analysis suggests that the latent energy in the form of mass of water vapor is exported out of the ITCZ at dierent levels in association with the multilevel ows. The equatorial and the o-equatorial ITCZ are dierent because, evaporation is larger in the o-equatorial ITCZ when compared to the equatorial ITCZ. The ITCZ shows a strong sub-seasonal variability in its location in the Indian Ocean and the west Pacic Ocean during boreal summer. There are two favorable locations, one near the equator and another away from the equator, for formation of the ITCZ. The equatorial ITCZ either propagates abruptly or gradually to the o-equatorial location. A detailed analysis of moisture and momentum budget of the simulated abrupt and gradual propagations enabled us to separate the role of thermo-dynamic and dynamic processes. We found that, if the equatorial ITCZ would propa-gate abruptly or gradually to the o-equatorial location is decided by the availability of the water vapor in the boundary layer between the two locations of the ITCZ, i.e., by the thermodynamic processes. But, such a transition to the o-equatorial location is allowed only when the constraints imposed by the re-adjustment in the circulation are satised. In simple terms, these constraints emerge due to two processes. 1. The Earth (lower boundary of the atmosphere) spins at maximum eective radius near the equator. As a result, the atmosphere gains maximum angular momentum near the equator (`zonal momentum' in Cartesian co-ordinates) . The ITCZ is one of the primary avenues to transport the zonal momentum from the lower troposphere to the upper troposphere. When the favorable location of ITCZ is near the equator, the location of ITCZ and the location where atmosphere gains maximum zonal momentum are coincident. The ITCZ and associated meridional circulation transports the zonal momentum upwards which is then transported polewards. As the favorable location of ITCZ moves away from the equator, the two locations are die rent. As a result, the atmospheric ow has to re-adjust so that the zonal momentum is transported from the equator to the favorable location of the ITCZ which then transports it upwards and polewards. In summary, this thesis proposes a new mechanism for the generation of shallow meridional circulation, the abrupt transition and the gradual propagations of the ITCZ.
2

Role Of Sea Surface Temperature Gradient In Intraseasonal Oscillation Of Convection In An Aquaplanet Model

Das, Surajit 09 1900 (has links) (PDF)
In this thesis we examine intra-seasonal oscillations (ISO) in the aqua-planet setup of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) version 5.1, mainly based on July and January climatological sea surface temperature (SST). We investigate mainly two questions -what should be the SST distribution for the existence of (a) northward moving ISO in summer, and (b) eastward moving MJO-like modes in winter. In the first part of the thesis we discuss the northward propagation. A series of experiments were performed with zonally symmetric and asymmetric SST distributions. The basic lower boundary condition is specified from zonally averaged observed July and January SST. The zonally symmetric July SST experiment produced an inter tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) on both sides of the equator. Poleward movement is not clear, and it is confined to the region between the double ITCZ. In July, the Bay of Bengal (BOB) and West Pacific SST is high compared to the rest of the northern tropics. When we impose a zonally asymmetric SST structure with warm SST spanning about 80 of longitude, the model shows a monsoon-like circulation, and some northward propagating convective events. Analysis of these events shows that two adjacent cells with cyclonic and anticyclonic vorticity are created over the warm SST anomaly and to the west. The propagation occurs due to the convective region drawn north in the convergence zone between these vortices. Zonally propagating Madden-Julian oscillations (MJO) are discussed in the second part of the thesis. All the experiments in this part are based on the zonally symmetric SST. The zonally symmetric January SST configuration gives an MJO-like mode, with zonal wave number 1 and a period of 40-90 days. The SST structure has a nearly meridionally symmetric structure, with local SST maxima on either side of the equator, and a small dip in the equatorial region. If we replace this dip with an SST maximum, the time-scale of MJO becomes significantly smaller (20-40 days). The implication is that an SST maximum in the equatorial region reduces the strength of MJO, and a flat SST profile in the equatorial region is required for more energetic of MJO. This result was tested and found to be valid in a series of further experiments.

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