Advances in mass spectrometry in the second half of this century allowed very accurate measurements of isotopic compositions of various elements. In turn it was discovered that due to the radiogenic origin of some of these isotopes their composition often reflects the geochemical history of minerals and rocks. Terrestrial lead is composed of four isotopes, of which three are radiogenic in origin as daughters of uranium and thorium. In geochronology the isotopic composition of minerals helps in dating the ore and rock formations. However, if there is enough diversity amongst the isotopic compositions of different deposits, then their lead isotope composition can be used as a simple and unique 'fingerprint', which can be scientifically measured. This feature can be used as a powerful tool in the identification of sources of ancient metals, because it passes unchanged through the smelting and refining processes. However, one of the most important requirements for such 'lead isotope provenance studies' is empirical investigation of the 'fingerprints' of ore deposits which are relevant to a given archaeological research. In this dissertation the scientific foundations of lead isotope provenance studies are described and examined in detail. All available evidence concerning the possibility of distinguishing isotopically between different European ore deposits is examined and methods of visual and numerical evaluation of the lead isotope data are suggested. Two examples of applications to specific archaeological problems are also given: the identification of sources of metals used for production of Bronze Age Cretan weapons and of non-ferrous metals in the Roman Period in Southern Poland. The interpretation of lead isotope data for archaeological objects is based on nearly 1500 isotopic analyses of ores.
Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) characterization of pre-contact basalt quarries on the American Samoan Island of TutuilaJohnson, Phillip Ray, II 25 April 2007 (has links)
This thesis presents a material-centered characterization of 120 geologic samples from four fine-grained basalt quarries on the Samoan Island of Tutuila. Previous unsuccessful attempts at definitive Tutuilan quarry differentiation have utilized x-ray fluorescence (XRF). In this study, clear differentiation of each analyzed quarry was achieved using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Biplots of canonical discriminant function scores for the INAA data illustrate clear separation based on the variation in chemical composition between each quarry. The samples analyzed not only define quarry separation, but also provide the "core group" for a preliminary baseline necessary for future artifact-centered provenance studies. Inclusion of these "core group" samples in the baseline was confirmed by stepwise discriminant analysis. These findings suggest the ability to determine quarry of origin on the island of Tutuila, which can elucidate the importance of individual Tutuilan quarries in the export and exchange of fine-grained basalts.
Dean, Jeffrey S.; Robinson, William J.
31 January 1991
Final Report on NSF grant BNS-8504241 / 1 August 1985 - 31 July 1990 / Submitted to National Science Foundation Archaeometry Program
Applications of elemental analysis for archaeometric studies analytical and statistical methods for understanding geochemical trends in ceramics, ochre and obsidian /Popelka-Filcoff, Rachel S., January 2006 (has links)
Thesis (Ph. D.) University of Missouri-Columbia, 2006. / The entire dissertation/thesis text is included in the research.pdf file; the official abstract appears in the short.pdf file (which also appears in the research.pdf); a non-technical general description, or public abstract, appears in the public.pdf file. Title from title screen of research.pdf file (viewed on August 7, 2007) Includes bibliographical references.
Elemental and Technological Analyses of Basalt Adze Manufacture on Tutuila, Amerika Samoa: Economic Intensification and Specialization During the Monument Building PeriodJohnson, Phillip R 16 December 2013 (has links)
This dissertation research presents the elemental and technological analyses of basalt adze quarries from the Samoan Island of Tutuila. Both Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) were utilized in the chemical characterization of basalt samples and artifacts. Elemental concentration data derived from both INAA and EDXRF successfully differentiated between multiple Tutuilan basalt adze quarries, and these data were utilized to determine the most efficacious elemental analysis technique for Tutuilan basalt adze provenance study. Elemental concentration data from the Lau’agae quarry were utilized with technological attribute analysis of artifacts recovered from that archaeological site to investigate the potential for economic specialization in the manufacture of basalt adzes. Analysis of both the technological attribute data and the elemental concentration data provided evidence for potential specialization at the Lau’agae quarry. When these data were compared to similar data from other Polynesian archaeological sites it further supported the potential for specialized production at Lau’agae. Ultimately, it was determined that multiple skilled producers created various types of basalt adzes at Lau’agae with the intent to export and exchange their products.
Διερεύνηση προέλευσης και αυθεντικότητας αρχαίων μαρμάρινων μνημείων με φασματοσκοπία ηλεκτρονικού παραμαγνητικού συντονισμού και θερμοφωταύγειαΠολυκρέτη, Κυριακή 26 October 2009 (has links)
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10 June 2016
No description available.
No / The human condition is composed of culturally mediated biology, and this inherently dual nature is key to our understanding of human/environment interaction. Human Ecology provides a fresh view on the interrelationship between cultural strategies and their biological outcomes. It combines for the first time an ecosystems approach with cultural anthropological, archaeological and evolutionary behavioural concepts. Taking resource use and food procurement behaviour as the starting point, the volume examines major subsistence modes, the circumstances and dynamics of large-scale subsistence change, the effect of social differentiation on resource use and the effects of subsistence behaviour on population development and regulation. It is complemented by a brief history on human ecological thought and a discussion of pertinent theoretical issues. Numerous examples from all time periods illustrate the topics and emphasise the universal nature of the interpretive framework.
Estudo de processos de degradação de pigmentos de coloração azul e amarela / Study of degradation processes of blue and yellow pigmentsAguero, Natasha Fioretto 23 May 2017 (has links)
Em arqueometria e nas ciências aplicadas, metodologias físicas e químicas são de grande utilidade para estudar diferentes materiais e objetos do patrimônio cultural como pinturas de cavalete, murais, cerâmicas, metais, etc. No caso particular de pinturas, tais análises podem auxiliar na compreensão do processo criativo, dos materiais utilizados pelo artista e do estado de conservação desta obra. No contexto deste último item, podem ser caracterizados sinais de degradação, como a alteração de cores. Dentro do objetivo de compreender a degradação de alguns pigmentos por exposição luminosa, estudaram-se os pigmentos amarelo de cádmio (CdS), amarelo de cromo (PbCrO4), azul de cobalto (CoAl2O4) e cerúleo (Co2SnO4), sendo estes dois últimos também misturados ao branco de zinco (ZnO). Tais estudos foram realizados através de três ensaios com amostras padrões preparadas com estes pigmentos: fotodegradação induzida na linha TGM (Toroidal Grating Monochromator) do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron; exposição à luz ultravioleta no simulador solar SOL-UV; e exposição às radiações ultravioleta, visível e infravermelha em uma câmara projetada neste mestrado. Os resultados apontaram para indicativos de alteração em todas as amostras, em especial mudanças no espectro de reflectância na região do visível. Por fim, analisaram-se amostras de tintas obtidas de obras do pintor Candido Portinari que possuíam indícios de alteração cromática. A partir destes fragmentos, construíram-se modelos estratigráficos dos materiais utilizados pelo artista nestas pinturas. / In archeometry and applied sciences, physical and chemical methodologies are very useful for studying different materials and objects of cultural heritage such as easel paintings, murals, ceramics, metals, etc. In the particular case of paintings, such analyses can help in understanding the creative process, the materials used by the artist and the conservation status of this work. In the context of this latter item, signs of degradation, such as color change, can be characterized. In order to understand the degradation of some pigments by light exposure, the cadmium yellow (CdS), chrome yellow (PbCrO4), cobalt blue (CoAl2O4) and cerulean blue (Co2SnO4) pigments were studied, the latter two being also mixed with zinc white pigment (ZnO). Such studies were carried out through three experiments prepared with these pigments: photodegradation induced in the TGM (Toroidal Grating Monochromator) line of the National Laboratory of Synchrotron Light; exposure to ultraviolet light in the SOL-UV solar simulator; and exposure to ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation in a chamber designed in this master\'s degree. The results pointed out changes in all samples, especially in their reflectance spectrum in the visible region. Finally, samples obtained from works by the painter Candido Portinari that had signs of chromatic alteration were analyzed. Based on these fragments, stratigraphic models of the materials used by the artist in these paintings could be constructed.
Estudo e caracterização física de cerâmicas indígenas brasileiras / Study and physical characterization of native Brazilian potteryCurado, Jessica Fleury 20 April 2012 (has links)
O presente trabalho tem por objetivo caracterizar e identificar a natureza de recursos cerâmicos brasileiros utilizando métodos físicos não destrutivos. O estudo está inserido na área interdisciplinar da Arqueometria e envolve a participação de pesquisadores do Museu de Arqueologia e Etnografia da Universidade de São Paulo (MAE-USP). As amostras analisadas são de grande interesse arqueológico, pois foram coletadas em uma região do Pantanal sul-matogrossense que possui um complexo processo de ocupação envolvendo diversas tradições culturais, entre as quais a tradição Guarani e a tradição Pantanal. Os fragmentos cerâmicos foram caracterizados através das técnicas de Emissão de Raios X Induzido por Partícula (PIXE) e Fluorescência de Raios X (XRF) para a determinação da composição da matriz da pasta cerâmica e através da técnica de Radiografia Computadorizada para a investigação da estrutura interna das peças. A técnica PIXE permitiu uma caracterização dos elementos majoritários encontrados na matriz cerâmica (Z<26), usados na previsão do valor da densidade da matriz. A técnica XRF foi utilizada para determinar as concentrações elementares com destaque para os elementos minoritários (Z>26, wt%<5%) presentes na pasta cerâmica. Essas técnicas, quando associadas a métodos de análise estatísticos permitiram um melhor entendimento do conjunto de amostras. Os resultados encontrados apontam uma clara diferença na composição elementar das amostras encontradas nos diferentes sítios arqueológicos e pertencentes às diferentes tradições. Com a aplicação da técnica de Radiografia as amostras foram separadas de acordo com a presença de tempero em sua estrutura e através da análise das imagens radiográficas foi determinada a densidade dos fragmentos. Neste trabalho foi possível estabelecer uma relação entre os fragmentos cerâmicos estudados às suas tradições, assim como aos sítios arqueológicos nos quais foram coletados. / The present work aims to characterize and identify the nature of Brazilian ceramics using non-destructive physical methods. The study is inserted in the interdisciplinary area of the Archaeometry and involves the participation of researchers from the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography of the University of São Paulo (MAE-USP). The analyzed samples are of great archaeological interest, as they have been collected in a region of Pantanal in the state of Mato Grosso do sul with a complex settlement process that involves different cultural traditions like the Guarani tradition and the tradition Pantanal. The ceramic fragments were characterized through the techniques of X-ray Emission Particle-Induced (PIXE) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) to determine the composition of the matrix of the ceramic paste and using the technique of Computed Radiography for the investigation of internal structure of the sherds. PIXE technique allowed a characterization of majoritarian elements found in ceramic matrix (Z < 26) and was used in the prediction of the density of the paste. XRF technique was used to determine the elemental concentration with emphasis on the minority elements (Z> 26, wt% < 5%) presents in ceramic paste. These techniques, when associated with statistical methods of analysis allow a better understanding of the sample set. The results show a clear difference in the elemental composition of the samples found in different archaeological sites and from different cultural traditions. By applying the technique of X-ray samples were separated according to the presence of temper in its structure and through images was obtained the density of fragments. In this work it was possible to establish a link between the studied ceramic fragments to their traditions, as well as the archaeological sites in which they were collected.
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