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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
41

Sur la répartition de programmes synchrones

Girault, Alain 28 January 1994 (has links) (PDF)
La programmation synchrone a ete proposee pour faciliter la conception et la programmation des systemes reactifs (systemes dont le role est de reagir continument a leur environnement physique, celui-ci etant incapable de se synchroniser avec le systeme). Ces systemes sont tres souvent repartis, que ce soit pour des raisons d'implantation physique, d'amelioration des performances ou de tolerance aux pannes. En outre, les travaux sur la compilation des langages synchrones ont conduit a utiliser une representation interne des programmes sous forme d'un automate d'etats fini : c'est le format OC. Ce travail porte donc sur la repartition automatique des programmes OC. La principale difficulte est d'assurer l'equivalence fonctionnelle et temporelle entre le programme centralise initial et le programme reparti, et de prouver cette equivalence, ce qui est indispensable dans le domaine du temps reel critique. Nous nous attachons egalement a minimiser localement la structure de controle de chaque programme reparti. Pour cela nous developpons un algorithme original de reduction des tests ``a la volee'' utilisant des techniques de bisimulation. D'autre part nous definissons completement l'environnement d'execution des programmes repartis. Ici notre principal souci est de fournir une solution la plus proche possible de l'execution centralisee. Enfin dans le but d'expliquer les desynchronisations introduites par la repartition, nous proposons une semantique originale du langage synchrone Lustre, semantique definie par des ordres partiels.
42

Contributions to the theory and applications of tree languages

Högberg, Johanna January 2007 (has links)
This thesis is concerned with theoretical as well as practical aspects of tree languages. It consists of an introduction and eight papers, organised into three parts. The first part is devoted to algorithmic learning of regular tree languages, the second part to bisimulation minimisation of tree automata, and the third part to tree-based generation of music. We now summarise the contributions made in each part. In Part I, an inference algorithm for regular tree languages is presented. The algorithm is a generalisation of a previous algorithm by Angluin, and the learning task is to derive, with the aid of a so-called MAT-oracle, the minimal (partial and deterministic) finite tree automaton M that recognises the target language U over some ranked alphabet Σ. The algorithm executes in time O(|Q| |δ| (m + |Q|)), where Q and δ are the set of states and the transition table of M , respectively, r is the maximal rank of any symbol in Σ, and m is the maximum size of any answer given by the oracle. This improves on a similar algorithm by Sakakibara as dead states are avoided both in the learning phase and in the resulting automaton. Part I also describes a concrete implementation which includes two extensions of the basic algorithm. In Part II, bisimulation minimisation of nondeterministic weighted tree automata (henceforth, wta) is introduced in general, and for finite tree automata (which can be seen as wta over the Boolean semiring) in particular. The concepts of backward and forward bisimulation are extended to wta, and efficient minimisation algorithms are developed for both types of bisimulation. In the special case where the underlying semiring of the input automaton is either cancellative or Boolean, these minimisation algorithms can be further optimised by adapting existing partition refinement algorithms by Hopcroft, Paige, and Tarjan. The implemented minimisation algorithms are demonstrated on a typical task in natural language processing. In Part III, we consider how tree-based generation can be applied to algorithmic composition. An algebra is presented whose operations act on musical pieces, and a system capable of generating simple musical pieces is implemented in the software Treebag: starting from input which is either generated by a regular tree grammar or provided by the user via a digital keyboard, a number of top-down tree transducers are applied to generate a tree over the operations provided by the music algebra. The evaluation of this tree yields the musical piece generated.
43

Model-checking based data retrieval an application to semistructured and temporal data /

Quintarelli, Elisa. January 1900 (has links)
Texte remanié de : PhD : Politecnico di Milano : 2002. / Bibliogr. p. [129]-134.
44

A formal approach to the modeling, simulation and analysis of nano-devices.

Pradalier, Sylvain 25 September 2009 (has links) (PDF)
Nano-devices are molecular machines synthesized from molecular subcomponents whose functions are combined in order to perform the func- tion of the machine. It frequently results of relative motions of subcomponents triggered by chemical events such as excitement induced by light, acidity or tem- perature changes. Thus the function consists in the transformation of a chemical event into a mechanical event. An important and characteristic feature of these devices is their intrinsic compositional nature. Therefore process-algebra for- malisms are natural candidates for their modeling. To this aim we introduce a dialect of the -calculus, the nano calculus. It is a rule-based language, the basic agents are molecules, with explicit representa- tion of molecular complexations and internal states. Its stochastic semantics is governed by rules which correspond to chemical reactions. The stochastic rate of the rule, possibly in nite, corresponds to the kinetic rate of the reaction. We illustrated its relevance for the modeling and simulation of nano-devices with an example stemming from the collaboration with the chemistry department of bologna: the [2]RaH rotaxane. We modeled it in nano and simulated its behaviour under various conditions of concentration: rst we validate our model by checking its correspondance with the experimental data and then we investi- gate extreme conditions not observable in practice. We were able to show that some classical assumption about kinetic rates were not correct any longer in this setting. The calculus has many advantages for the modelling of biochemical sys- tems. It is in particular compact, easily reusable and modi able and maybe more importantly much biological-like and thus easier to learn for biochemists. On the other hand the -calculus, also often used to model biochemical sys- tems, has a much more developed theory and more available tools. We present an encoding from the nano calculus to the stochastic -calculus. It satis es a very strong correctness property: S ! T , [[S]] ! [[T]], where S and T are nano terms, is the rate of the reaction and [[:]] is the encoding. Thus it permits to use nano as a front-end formalism and still get the bene ts of the theory and tools of the -calculus. We carry on with a study of the chemical master equation. It probabilisti- cally describes the possible behaviours of the system over time as a di erential equation on the probability to be in a given state at a given instant. It is a key notion in chemistry. There have been many e orts to solve it, and methods such as the Gillespie's algorithm has been developed to simulate its solution. We introduce and motivate a notion of equivalence based on the chemical master equation. It equates state with similar stochastic behavior. Then we prove that this equivalence corresponds exactly to the notion backward stochastic bisimu- lation. This bisimulation di ers from the usual ones because it considers ingoing transitions instead of outgoing transitions. This results is worth in itself since it establishes a bridge between a chemical semantics and a computer semantics, but it is also the rst step towards a metrics for biochemistry. Finally we present an unexpected consequence of our study of the nano calculus. We study the relative expressiveness of the synchronous and asyn- chronous -calculus. In the classical setting the latter is known to be strictly less expressive than the former. We prove that the separation also holds in the stochastic setting. We then extend the result to the -calculi with in nite rates. We also show that under a small restriction the asynchronous -calculus with in nite rates can encode the synchronous -calculus without in nite rates. In- terestingly the separation results are proved using the encodability of the nano calculus. We also propose and motivate a stochastic -calculus with rates of di erent orders of magnitude: the multi-scale -calculus to which we generalize our results. Finally we prove that in the probabilistic settings the asynchronous -calculus can be encoded into the asynchronous one.
45

On operational properties of quantitative extensions of lambda-calculus

Alberti, Michele 05 December 2014 (has links)
Cette thèse porte sur les propriétés opérationnelles de deux extensions quantitatives du λ-calcul pur : le λ-calcul algébrique et le λ-calcul probabiliste.Dans la première partie, nous étudions la théorie de la β-réduction dans le λ-calcul algébrique. Ce calcul permet la formation de combinaisons linéaires finies de λ-termes. Bien que le système obtenu jouisse de la propriété de Church-Rosser, la relation de réduction devient triviale en présence de coefficients négatifs, ce qui la rend impropre à définir une notion de forme normale. Nous proposons une solution qui permet la définition d'une relation d'équivalence sur les termes, partielle mais cohérente. Nous introduisons une variante de la β-réduction, restreinte aux termes canoniques, dont nous montrons qu'elle caractérise en partie la notion de forme normale précédemment établie, démontrant au passage un théorème de factorisation.Dans la seconde partie, nous étudions la bisimulation et l'équivalence contextuelle dans un λ-calcul muni d'un choix probabliste. Nous donnons une technique pour établir que la bisimilarité applicative probabiliste est une congruence. Bien que notre méthode soit adaptée de celle de Howe, certains points techniques sont assez différents, et s'appuient sur des propriétés non triviales de « désintrication » sur les ensembles de nombres réels. Nous démontrons finalement que, bien que la bisimilarité soit en général strictement plus fine que l'équivalence contextuelle, elles coïncident sur les λ-termes purs. L'égalité correspondante est celle induite par les arbres de Lévy-Longo, généralement considérés comme l'équivalence extensionnelle la plus fine pour les λ-termes en évaluation paresseuse. / In this thesis we deal with the operational behaviours of two quantitative extensions of pure λ-calculus, namely the algebraic λ-calculus and the probabilistic λ-calculus.In the first part, we study the β-reduction theory of the algebraic λ-calculus, a calculus allowing formal finite linear combinations of λ-terms to be expressed. Although the system enjoys the Church-Rosser property, reduction collapses in presence of negative coefficients. We exhibit a solution to the consequent loss of the notion of (unique) normal form, allowing the definition of a partial, but consistent, term equivalence. We then introduce a variant of β-reduction defined on canonical terms only, which we show partially characterises the previously established notion of normal form. In the process, we prove a factorisation theorem.In the second part, we study bisimulation and context equivalence in a λ-calculus endowed with a probabilistic choice. We show a technique for proving congruence of probabilistic applicative bisimilarity. While the technique follows Howe's method, some of the technicalities are quite different, relying on non-trivial "disentangling" properties for sets of real numbers. Finally we show that, while bisimilarity is in general strictly finer than context equivalence, coincidence between the two relations is achieved on pure λ-terms. The resulting equality is that induced by Lévy-Longo trees, generally accepted as the finest extensional equivalence on pure λ-terms under a lazy regime.
46

Model-Checking Infinite-State Systems For Information Flow Security Properties

Raghavendra, K R 12 1900 (has links) (PDF)
Information flow properties are away of specifying security properties of systems ,dating back to the work of Goguen and Meseguer in the eighties. In this framework ,a system is modeled as having high-level (or confidential)events as well as low-level (or public) events, and a typical property requires that the high-level events should not “influence ”the occurrence of low-level events. In other words, the sequence of low-level events observed from a system execution should not reveal “too much” information about the high-level events that may have taken place. For example, the trace-based “non-inference” property states that for every trace produced by the system, its projection to low-level events must also be a possible trace of the system. For a system satisfying non-inference, a low-level adversary (who knows the language generated by the system) viewing only the low-level events in any execution cannot infer any in-formation about the occurrence of high-level events in that execution. Other well-known properties include separability, generalized non-interference, non-deducibility of outputs etc. These properties are trace-based. Similarly there is another class of properties based on the structure of the transition system called bisimulation-based information flow properties, defined by Focardiand Gorrieriin1995. In our thesis we study the problem of model-checking the well-known trace-based and bisimulation-based properties for some popular classes of infinite-state system models. We first consider trace-based properties. We define some language-theoretic operations that help to characterize language-inclusion in terms of satisfaction of these properties. This gives us a reduction of the language inclusion problem for a class of system models, say F, to the model-checking problem for F, whenever F, is effectively closed under these language-theoretic operations. We apply this result to show that the model-checking problem for Petri nets, push down systems and for some properties on deterministic push down systems is undecidable. We also consider the class of visibly pushdown systems and show that their model-checking problem is undecidable in general(for some properties).Then we show that for the restricted class of visibly pushdown systems in which all the high (confidential) event are internal, the model-checking problem becomes decidable. Similarly we show that the problem of model-checking bisimulation-based properties is undecidable for Petrinets, pushdown systems and process algebras. Next we consider the problem of detecting information leakage in programs. Here the programs are modeled to have low and high inputs and low outputs. The well known definition of“ non-interference” on programs says that in no execution should the low outputs depend on the high inputs. However this definition was shown to be too strong to be used in practice, with a simple(and considered to be safe)“password-checking” program failing it.“Abstract non-interference(ANI)”and its variants were proposed in the literature to generalize or weaken non-interference. We call these definitions qualitative refinements of non-interference. We study the problem of model-checking many classes of finite-data programs(variables taking values from a bounded domain)for these refinements. We give algorithms and show that this problem is in PSPACE for while, EXPTIME for recursive and EXPSPACE for asynchronous finite-data programs. We finally study different quantitative refinements of non-interference pro-posed in the literature. We first characterize these measures in terms of pre images. These characterizations potentially help designing analysis computing over and under approximations for these measures. Then we investigate the applicability of these measures on standard cryptographic functions.
47

Simulations and Antichains for Efficient Handling of Finite Automata / Simulace a protiřetězce pro efektivní práci s konečnými automaty

Holík, Lukáš January 2011 (has links)
Cílem této práce je vývoj technik umožňujících praktické využití nedeterministických konečných automatů, zejména nedeterministických stromových automatů. Jde zvláště o techniky pro redukci velikosti a testování jazykové inkluze, jež hrají zásadní roli v mnoha oblastech aplikace konečných automatů. V oblasti redukce velikosti vycházíme z dobře známých metod pro slovní automaty které jsou založeny na relacích simulace.  Navrhli jsme efektivní algoritmy pro výpočet stromových variant simulačních relací a identifikovali jsme nový typ relace založený na kombinaci takzvaných horních a dolních simulací nad stromovými automaty. Tyto kombinované relace jsou zvláště vhodné pro redukci velikosti automatů slučováním stavů. Navržený princip kombinace relací simulace je relevantní i pro slovní automaty.  Náš přínos v oblasti testování jazykové inkluze je dvojí. Nejprve jsme zobecnili na stromové automaty takzvané protiřetězcové algoritmy, které byly původně navrženy pro slovními automaty. Dále se nám podařilo použitím simulačních relací výrazně zefektivnit protiřetězcové algoritmy pro testování jazykové inkluze jak pro slovní, tak pro stromové automaty. Relevanci našich technik pro praxi jsme demonstrovali jejich nasazením v rámci regulárního stromového model checkingu, což je verifikační metoda založená na stromových automatech. Použití našich algoritmů zde vedlo k výraznému zrychlení a zvětšení škálovatelnosti celé metody. Základní myšlenky našich algoritmů pro redukci velikosti automatů a testování jazykové inkluze jsou aplikovatelné i na jiné typy automatů. Příkladem jsou naše redukční techniky pro alternující Büchiho automaty prezentované v poslední části práce.

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