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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Pore pressure and moisture migration in concrete at high and non uniform temperatures

Khan, Saadat Ali January 1990 (has links)
No description available.
2

Engineered Wetlands and Reactive Bed Filters for Treatment of Landfill Leachate

Kietliñska, Agnieszka January 2004 (has links)
<p>The main objectives of this study were to investigate (i) anovel wetland treatment technology and (ii) selected bed filtermedia for the removal of contaminants from landfill leachate. Areview of the literature concerning experiences of the use ofconstructed wetlands (CW) for the removal of nitrogen fromlandfill leachate, showed that at least three groups oftreatment systems are in practice: sub-surface flow wetlands,hybrid systems (a combination of vertical and horizontal flowwetlands) and, compact constructed wetland (CCW). Most of thesetypeswere generally effective in reducing nitrogen (N,<i>e.g.</i>NH<sub>4</sub>-N, dominant N species in leachate) down toeffluent concentrations of about 10 mg L<sup>-1</sup>. Unfortunately, very little evidence ofresponsible mechanisms for the removal of N was presented,although some data indicated denitrification. The treatmentperformance of a compact constructed wetland (CCW) applied atthe Tveta Landfill, Södertälje, Sweden, wasevaluated. Chemically purified leachate and untreated leachatewere applied in periods of 7 day submergence and 7 day drainageto different sections of the CCW. The removal efficiency variedbetween 40 and 82%, and a mass removal rate of up to 5.1 g m<sup>2</sup>d<sup>-1</sup>was achieved. The chemical pre-treatment had adecisive role for the highest removal efficiencies obtained andit was unclear whether that treatment enhanced the efficiencybecause of lower toxicity and/or content of fewer competingcations. The possible combination of bed filter media and CCWas an ecotechnological treatment method for landfill leachatewas investigated by bench-scale laboratory column experiments.Reactive filter media (sorbents) was selected from their knownor suggested capacities for removal of heavy metals, nitrogenand phosphorus. Quartz sand or natural sand from an esker wasused as reference medium. Peat was used as an additionalcomponent in mixtures with the reactive media Polonite<sup>®</sup>(product from the bedrock opoka) and blastfurnace slag (BFS). A small column study also involved zeolite.Phosphorus was efficiently removed by Polonite<sup>®</sup>and NH<sub>4</sub>-N to some extent. Concerning metal removal, thebest performance was found as well for Polonite<sup>®</sup>, especially for Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu. The BFSshowed good removal efficiency for Cu, Ni and Mo. The removalof different elements was suggested to be a combination ofseveral factors,<i>e.g.</i>precipitation, ion exchange and adsorption. Priorto full-scale application of reactive filters at a landfillsite, matrix selection, filter design and operationalprocedures must be developed.</p><p><b>Keywords:</b>Blast furnace slag; Compact constructedwetland; Metals; Nitrogen; Polonite; Sorbents</p>
3

Cimentos de escória ativada com silicatos de sódio. / Sodium silicate activated blast furnance slag cements.

John, Vanderley Moacyr 18 May 1995 (has links)
Os cimentos de escória apresentam boas possibilidades de mercado, especialmente em aplicações em que o cimento Portland não possa ser utilizado ou onde o seu uso provoque uma elevação dos custos. A confecção de matrizes para fibras sensíveis aos álcalis e a produção de cimentos com baixo calor de hidratação são exemplos. Neste trabalho, a escória foi ativada com silicato de sódio e cal hidratada. O ativador foi formulado de maneira a proporcionar teores de Na2O de 2,5% e 5%, SiO2 de 0% a 14,8% e Ca(OH)2 de 0%, 2,5% e 5%. O aumento dos teores de Na2O e de SiO2, dentro de determinados limites, propicia um notável crescimento da resistência à compressão. Este crescimento da resistência está associado a uma diminuição da porosidade, para um mesmo fator/água aglomerante. Certamente a diminuição da porosidade é devida a um menor grau de organização cristalina dos produtos hidratados, decorrente do aumento da velocidade de precipitação de hidratados e de gel de N-C-S-H. A adição de Ca(OH)2 diminui a velocidade de perda da trabalhabilidade. Os cimentos de escória ativada com silicatos de sódio podem apresentar resistência à compressão de até 100 MPa, superior à dos cimentos Portland, com calor de hidratação da mesma ordem de grandeza. A velocidade de carbonatação destes cimentos é equivalente a dos cimentos Portland de mesma resistência. No entanto, estes cimentos apresentam maior retração hidráulica. / Binders based on ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) are suitable for the building industry, mainly if the use of Portland cement is expensive or may cause problems, such as: alkali sensitive fibre-reinforced cement and concretes and low heat-hydration concretes. BFS is activated by sodium silicates and hydrated lime. The compound\'s proportions are: Na2O - 2.5 and 5.0%; SiO2 from 0 to 14.8%; CaOH2 - 0, 2.5 and 5%. The increase of Na2O and SiO2 amounts allows a considerable improvement of binder strength, with values up to 100 MPa. This increase of the strength is related to the decrease of the porosity for a constant water-binder ratio. The porosity is affected certainly by the reduction of the degree of cristalynity of the hydrated compounds, due to the increase of the speed of precipitation of the hydrates or the N-C-S-H gel. It is possible to obtain BFS binders stronger than the Portland cement, with similar hydration heat. The carbonation rate of these new binders is equivalent to those of Portland cement specimens with similar strength. However these BFS binders have higher drying shrinkage.
4

Cimentos de escória ativada com silicatos de sódio. / Sodium silicate activated blast furnance slag cements.

Vanderley Moacyr John 18 May 1995 (has links)
Os cimentos de escória apresentam boas possibilidades de mercado, especialmente em aplicações em que o cimento Portland não possa ser utilizado ou onde o seu uso provoque uma elevação dos custos. A confecção de matrizes para fibras sensíveis aos álcalis e a produção de cimentos com baixo calor de hidratação são exemplos. Neste trabalho, a escória foi ativada com silicato de sódio e cal hidratada. O ativador foi formulado de maneira a proporcionar teores de Na2O de 2,5% e 5%, SiO2 de 0% a 14,8% e Ca(OH)2 de 0%, 2,5% e 5%. O aumento dos teores de Na2O e de SiO2, dentro de determinados limites, propicia um notável crescimento da resistência à compressão. Este crescimento da resistência está associado a uma diminuição da porosidade, para um mesmo fator/água aglomerante. Certamente a diminuição da porosidade é devida a um menor grau de organização cristalina dos produtos hidratados, decorrente do aumento da velocidade de precipitação de hidratados e de gel de N-C-S-H. A adição de Ca(OH)2 diminui a velocidade de perda da trabalhabilidade. Os cimentos de escória ativada com silicatos de sódio podem apresentar resistência à compressão de até 100 MPa, superior à dos cimentos Portland, com calor de hidratação da mesma ordem de grandeza. A velocidade de carbonatação destes cimentos é equivalente a dos cimentos Portland de mesma resistência. No entanto, estes cimentos apresentam maior retração hidráulica. / Binders based on ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) are suitable for the building industry, mainly if the use of Portland cement is expensive or may cause problems, such as: alkali sensitive fibre-reinforced cement and concretes and low heat-hydration concretes. BFS is activated by sodium silicates and hydrated lime. The compound\'s proportions are: Na2O - 2.5 and 5.0%; SiO2 from 0 to 14.8%; CaOH2 - 0, 2.5 and 5%. The increase of Na2O and SiO2 amounts allows a considerable improvement of binder strength, with values up to 100 MPa. This increase of the strength is related to the decrease of the porosity for a constant water-binder ratio. The porosity is affected certainly by the reduction of the degree of cristalynity of the hydrated compounds, due to the increase of the speed of precipitation of the hydrates or the N-C-S-H gel. It is possible to obtain BFS binders stronger than the Portland cement, with similar hydration heat. The carbonation rate of these new binders is equivalent to those of Portland cement specimens with similar strength. However these BFS binders have higher drying shrinkage.
5

Converting raw materials into the products–Road base material stabilized with slag-based binders

Mäkikyrö, M. (Marko) 13 February 2004 (has links)
Abstract A procedure is defined for commercializing slags arising as by-products of steelmaking, and this is used to develop certain products. The outcome of the present work comprised three products or groups of products: 1) slag-based binding agents, 2) a road structure improved by means of stabilization with such binding agents, and 3) a procedure for designing stabilized structures. The commercialization procedure was drawn up by examining the technical properties of the initial materials, excluding environmental acceptability and the mechanisms of their chemical reactions. The research proceeded in stages, of which the first was a reconsideration of the results presented in the author's licentiate thesis concerning factors affecting the stabilization of road construction aggregates with blast-furnace slag-based binding agents and their significance. This was followed by a series of experiments designed to test the validity of these results. At the third stage the selection of slag-based binding agents was extended to include LD steel slag products, while the final stage consisted of the implementation of a set of test structures and associated preliminary experiments and monitoring measurements. The binding properties of three blast-furnace slag products and three LD steel slag products, used separately or in various combinations, were examined in the course of this work, taking cement as a reference material. Materials were then eliminated as the research proceeded, either on account of their poor binding properties or on economic grounds. The final construction experiments were performed with three combinations: cement-activated granulated blast-furnace slag, LD steel slag-activated granulated blast-furnace slag and a mixture of ground granulated blast-furnace slag and cement. The actual novel product among the slag-based binding agents to be introduced here is LD steel slag-activated granulated blast-furnace slag, which was found to be similar in its technical properties to cement-activated granulated blast-furnace slag. Structural layers stabilized with these two binding agents showed very similar bearing capacities, although the former did not reach the same compression strengths at an age of 91 days. The reasons for these similarities lay in a larger amount of binding agent used when activated with LD steel slag and the greater thickness of the stabilized layer, factors which both tended to compensate for the poorer compression strength. The new information gained on the properties of cement-activated granulated blast-furnace slag and the mixture of ground granulated blast-furnace slag and cement opens up fresh opportunities for selecting binding agents and designing road structures. Formulae were developed here for predicting the uniaxial compression strength at 91 days, used as a stabilization criterion, from the value for a sample taken at 28 days, a technique which will speed up the assessment of stabilization results, especially when using slowly reacting slag-based binding agents.
6

Engineered Wetlands and Reactive Bed Filters for Treatment of Landfill Leachate

Kietliñska, Agnieszka January 2004 (has links)
The main objectives of this study were to investigate (i) anovel wetland treatment technology and (ii) selected bed filtermedia for the removal of contaminants from landfill leachate. Areview of the literature concerning experiences of the use ofconstructed wetlands (CW) for the removal of nitrogen fromlandfill leachate, showed that at least three groups oftreatment systems are in practice: sub-surface flow wetlands,hybrid systems (a combination of vertical and horizontal flowwetlands) and, compact constructed wetland (CCW). Most of thesetypeswere generally effective in reducing nitrogen (N,e.g.NH4-N, dominant N species in leachate) down toeffluent concentrations of about 10 mg L-1. Unfortunately, very little evidence ofresponsible mechanisms for the removal of N was presented,although some data indicated denitrification. The treatmentperformance of a compact constructed wetland (CCW) applied atthe Tveta Landfill, Södertälje, Sweden, wasevaluated. Chemically purified leachate and untreated leachatewere applied in periods of 7 day submergence and 7 day drainageto different sections of the CCW. The removal efficiency variedbetween 40 and 82%, and a mass removal rate of up to 5.1 g m2d-1was achieved. The chemical pre-treatment had adecisive role for the highest removal efficiencies obtained andit was unclear whether that treatment enhanced the efficiencybecause of lower toxicity and/or content of fewer competingcations. The possible combination of bed filter media and CCWas an ecotechnological treatment method for landfill leachatewas investigated by bench-scale laboratory column experiments.Reactive filter media (sorbents) was selected from their knownor suggested capacities for removal of heavy metals, nitrogenand phosphorus. Quartz sand or natural sand from an esker wasused as reference medium. Peat was used as an additionalcomponent in mixtures with the reactive media Polonite®(product from the bedrock opoka) and blastfurnace slag (BFS). A small column study also involved zeolite.Phosphorus was efficiently removed by Polonite®and NH4-N to some extent. Concerning metal removal, thebest performance was found as well for Polonite®, especially for Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu. The BFSshowed good removal efficiency for Cu, Ni and Mo. The removalof different elements was suggested to be a combination ofseveral factors,e.g.precipitation, ion exchange and adsorption. Priorto full-scale application of reactive filters at a landfillsite, matrix selection, filter design and operationalprocedures must be developed. Keywords:Blast furnace slag; Compact constructedwetland; Metals; Nitrogen; Polonite; Sorbents
7

Class-F Fly Ash and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) Mixtures for Enhanced Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Applications

Sharma, Anil Kumar January 2014 (has links) (PDF)
Fly ash and blast furnace slag are the two major industrial solid by-products generated in most countries including India. Although their utilization rate has increased in the recent years, still huge quantities of these material remain unused and are stored or disposed of consuming large land area involving huge costs apart from causing environmental problems. Environmentally safe disposal of Fly ash is much more troublesome because of its ever increasing quantity and its nature compared to blast furnace slag. Bulk utilization of these materials which is essentially possible in civil engineering in general and more particular in geotechnical engineering can provide a relief to environmental problems apart from having economic benefit. One of the important aspects of these waste materials is that they improve physical and mechanical properties with time and can be enhanced to a significant level by activating with chemical additives like lime and cement. Class-C Fly ashes which have sufficient lime are well utilized but class-F Fly ashes account for a considerable portion that is disposed of due to their low chemical reactivity. Blast furnace slag in granulated form is used as a replacement for sand to conserve the fast declining natural source. The granulated blast furnace slag (GBS) is further ground to enhance its pozzolanic nature. If GBS is activated by chemical means rather than grinding, it can provide a good economical option and enhance its utilization potential as well. GGBS is latent hydraulic cement and is mostly utilized in cement and concrete industries. Most uses of these materials are due to their pozzolanic reactivity. Though Fly ash and GGBS are pozzolanic materials, there is a considerable difference in their chemical composition. For optimal pozzolanic reactivity, sufficient lime and silica should be available in desired proportions. Generally, Fly ash has higher silica (SiO2) content whereas GGBS is rich in lime (CaO) content. Combining these two industrial wastes in the right proportion may be more beneficial compared to using them individually. The main objective of the thesis has been to evaluate the suitability of the class-F Fly ash/GGBS mixtures with as high Fly ash contents for Geotechnical and Geo-environmental applications. For this purpose, sufficient amount of class-F Fly ash and GGBS were collected and their mixtures were tested in the laboratory for analyzing their mechanical behavior. The experimental program included the evaluation of mechanical properties such as compaction, strength, compressibility of the Fly ash/GGBS mixtures at different proportions with GGBS content varying from 10 to 40 percent. An external agent such as chemical additives like lime or cement is required to accelerate the hydration and pozzolanic reactions in both these materials. Hence, addition of varying percentages of lime is also considered. However, these studies are not extended to chemically activate GBS and only GGBS is used in the present study. Unconfined compressive strength tests have been carried out on various Fly ash/ GGBS mixtures at different proportions at different curing periods. The test results demonstrated rise in strength with increase in GGBS content and with 30 and 40 percent of GGBS addition, the mixture showed higher strength than either of the components i.e. Fly ash or GGBS after sufficient curing periods. Addition of small amount of lime increased the strength tremendously which indicated the occurrence of stronger cementitious reactions in the Fly ash/GGBS mixtures than in samples containing only Fly ash. Improvement of the strength of the Fly ash/GGBS mixtures was explained through micro-structural and mineralogical studies. The microstructure and mineralogical studies of the original and the stabilized samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction techniques respectively. These studies together showed the formation of cementitious compounds such as C-S-H, responsible for imparting strength to the pozzolanic materials, is better in the mixture containing 30 and 40 percent of GGBS content than in individual components. Resilient and permanent deformation behavior on an optimized mix sample of Fly ash and GGBS cured for 7 day curing period has been studied. The Resilient Modulus (Mr) is a measure of subgrade material stiffness and is actually an estimate of its modulus of elasticity (E). The permanent deformation behavior is also important in predicting the performance of the pavements particularly in thin pavements encountered mainly in rural and low volume roads. The higher resilient modulus values indicated its suitability for use as subgrade or sub-base materials in pavement construction. Permanent axial strain was found to increase with the number of load cycles and accumulation of plastic strain in the sample reduced with the increase in confining pressure. Consolidation tests were carried on Fly ash/GGBS mixtures using conventional oedometer to assess their volume stability. However, such materials develop increased strength with time and conventional rate of 24 hour as duration of load increment which requires considerable time to complete the test is not suitable to assess their volume change behavior in initial stages. An attempt was thus made to reduce the duration of load increment so as to reflect the true compressibility characteristics of the material as close as possible. By comparing the compressibility behavior of Fly ash and GGBS between conventional 24 hour and 30 minutes duration of load increment, it was found that 30 minutes was sufficient to assess the compressibility characteristics due to the higher rate of consolidation. The results indicated the compressibility of the Fly ash/GGBS mixtures slightly decreases initially but increase with increase in GGBS content. Addition of lime did not have any significant effect on the compressibility characteristics since the pozzolanic reaction, which is a time dependent process and as such could not influence due to very low duration of loading. Results were also represented in terms of constrained modulus which is a most commonly used parameter for the determination of settlement under one dimensional compression tests. It was found that tangent constrained modulus showed higher values only at higher amounts of GGBS. It was also concluded that settlement analysis can also be done by taking into account the constrained modulus. The low values of compression and recompression indices suggested that settlements on the embankments and fills (and the structures built upon these) will be immediate and minimal when these mixtures are used. In addition to geotechnical applications of Fly ash/GGBS mixture, their use for the removal of heavy metals for contaminated soils was also explored. Batch equilibrium tests at different pH and time intervals were conducted with Fly ash and Fly ash/GGBS mixture at a proportion of 70:30 by weight as adsorbents to adsorb lead ions. It was found that though uptake of lead by Fly ash itself was high, it increased further in the presence of GGBS. Also, the removal of lead ions increased with increase in pH of the solution but decreases at very high pH. The retention of lead ions by sorbents at higher pH was due to its precipitation as hydroxide. Results of the adsorption kinetics showed that the reaction involving removal of lead by both the adsorbents follow second-order kinetics. One of the major problems which geotechnical engineers often face is construction of foundations on expansive soils. Though stabilization of expansive soils with lime or cement is well established, the use of by-product materials such as Fly ash and blast furnace slag to achieve economy and reduce the disposal problem needs to be explored. To stabilize the soil, binder comprising of Fly ash and GGBS in the ratio of 70:30 was used. Different percentages of binder with respect to the soil were incorporated to the expansive soil and changes in the physical and engineering properties of the soil were examined. Small addition of lime was also considered to enhance the pozzolanic reactions by increasing the pH. It was found that liquid limit, plasticity index, swell potential and swell pressure of the expansive soil decreased considerably while the strength increased with the addition of binder. The effect was more pronounced with the addition of lime. Swell potential and swell pressure reduced significantly in the presence of lime. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the expansive soils can be successfully stabilized with the Fly ash-GGBS based binder with small addition of lime. This is also more advantageous in terms of lime requirement which is typically high when Fly ash, class-F in particular, is used alone to stabilize expansive soils. Based on the studies carried out in the present work, it is established that combination of Fly ash and GGBS can be advantageous as compared to using them separately for various geotechnical applications such as for construction of embankments/fills, stabilization of expansive soils etc. with very small amount of lime. Further, these mixtures have better potential for geo-environmental applications such as decontamination of soil. However, it is still a challenge to activate GBS without grinding.
8

Étude expérimentale et modélisation de l'auto-cicatrisation des matériaux cimentaires avec additions minérales / Experimental study and modelisation of self-healing cementitious materials with mineral additions

Olivier, Kelly January 2016 (has links)
Résumé : L’auto-cicatrisation des fissures des matériaux cimentaires présente un intérêt important pour améliorer leur durabilité (propriétés de transfert par exemple). L’impact du laitier de haut-fourneau sur ce phénomène a été peu étudié bien qu’il ait été observé sur des ouvrages du Génie Civil. Dans cette étude, la cinétique et l’amplitude de l’auto-cicatrisation ont été suivies par des essais non destructifs : la tomographie aux rayons X et la perméabilité à l’air, pour une fissuration créée à 7 jours et à 28 jours. Les résultats montrent que le laitier de haut-fourneau possède un potentiel d’auto-cicatrisation intéressant pouvant dépasser les résultats obtenus pour les formulations de référence sans laitier. Ce bon potentiel dépend des caractéristiques physico-chimiques des matériaux brutes et du potentiel d’hydratation de la formulation au cours du temps. De plus pour suivre l’auto-cicatrisation, un nouvel essai a été mis en place afin de fissurer les éprouvettes de mortier par retrait gêné et d’étudier l’auto-cicatrisation d’une fissure naturelle. Cet essai s’est avéré efficace sur la formulation de référence. Une caractérisation des produits de cicatrisation par MEB-EDS témoigne de la formation de nouveaux produits dans les fissures et de l’impact important des conditions de stockage sur le type de produits formés: des C-S-H pour un stockage sous eau et des carbonates de calcium pour un stockage en chambre humide (CO2 + eau). Les résultats de migration aux chlorures de nano-indentation montrent que ces produits de cicatrisation possèdent de bonnes propriétés de durabilité et des propriétés mécaniques à l’échelle microscopique intéressantes (pour le carbonate de calcium). Enfin, une modélisation du phénomène d’auto-cicatrisation est proposée au moyen du code de calcul de géochimie PHREEQC. L’étude a révélé le potentiel intéressant de PHREEQC pour modéliser l’auto-cicatrisation et en faire un outil de prédiction du phénomène. / Abstract : Self-healing of cementitious materials presents great interest to improve the durability of concrete structure (transfer properties for example). The impact of blast-furnace slag on this phenomenon is not yet clear even if the self-healing of concrete with blast-furnace slag was observed in building sites. To understand the blast-furnace slag influence, non-destructive methods were used to follow self-healing: X-ray tomography and gas permeability test. All specimens were cracked at 7 days and 28 days. The results show that the blast furnace slag has an interesting self-healing potential that can exceed the reference formulation results. This good potential depends on the physico-chemical characteristics of the raw materials and the hydration potential of the formulation over time. In addition to follow the self-healing, a new trial was set up to crack mortar specimens by restrained shrinkage and study the self-healing of a natural crack. In addition to follow the self-healing, a new trial was set up to crack mortar specimens by restrained shrinkage and study the self-healing of a natural crack. This test has proven effective over the reference formulation.The SEM with EDS analysis showed the formation of new products in the crack and the impact of storage conditions on these products : C-S-H for specimens stored in water and calcium carbonate for specimens stored in a damp chamber (CO2 + water). Migration chlorures and nano-indentation tests results showed that self-healing products had interesting durability properties and micro-mechanical properties (for calcium carbonate). Finally, self-healing modelling is proposed by means of geochemistry PHREEQC calculation code. The study revealed interesting potential PHREEQC to model self- healing phenomenon and make it a of predictive tool.
9

Tungmetaller i lakvatten : avskiljning med mineraliska filtermaterial

Hjelm, Veronica January 2005 (has links)
<p>Four different kinds of filter-materials with reactive surfaces have been studied concerning their capacity to absorb heavy metals in leachate from a municipal waste deposit. The heavy metals studied were: lead, cadmium, copper, mercury, chromium, nickel and zinc. The leachate contains high levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and has a high pH-value along with a high buffer capacity. These characteristics of the leachate make it difficult to remove pollutants and require efficient filters. The filters that were examined in the report are blast-furnace slag with CaO, sand covered with iron oxides, olivine and nepheline. The experiment was carried out in two sets, starting with batch experiments followed by a column study. The objective of the batch experiments was to find out how variations in pH affected the sorption capacity of the materials. The interval used during the test was from pH 5 to pH 10. The computer program VisualMinteq was used to evaluate the dominating sorption processes when the materials interacted with the solutions. Two different kinds of solutions were used in the batch experiment. One of them was the leachate, to which known concentrations of heavy metals were added (about 1 μM) and the other consisted of sodium nitrate, a solution without organic compounds, which was used as a reference. The sodium nitrate solution was also spiked with the same concentration of heavy metals as the leachate.</p><p>The results from the batch experiment showed that the sorption of heavy metals was lowered if the DOC level was high. No relation between pH and sorption ability could be found for the leachate, but for some metals in the sodium solution a higher pH improved the removal of heavy metals. The two materials that showed best results in the batch experiment were the blast-furnace slag and the sand with iron oxides. These materials were used in the column study. The olivine material was somewhat better than the nepheline in the batch experiment.</p><p>Four columns were used in the column study, two for each material. Leachate with heavy metals was pumped into the columns with a specific flow rate; at first a low flow rate was used and when half the experiment time had passed the flow rate was increased. The flow rates used were 0.12 m/24 h and 0.62 m/24 h. The outcome of the column experiment showed that the slag had the highest ability to adsorb metals. The metal sorption was over 60 percent for lead, cadmium and zinc, where the highest sorption was obtained for lead. No affects were noticed when the flow rate was increased.</p> / <p>I detta examensarbete har fyra olika reaktiva filtermaterials kapaciteter att ur deponilakvatten avskilja tungmetallerna bly, kadmium, koppar, kvicksilver, krom, nickel och zink testats. Deponilakvatten är ett avloppsvatten med höga halter organiskt material (DOC), högt pH och en hög buffertkapacitet. Dess sammansättning ställer stora krav på ett filter och närvaron av ligander påverkar sorptionprocesserna. Filtren som ingått i studien är kalciumoxiddopad masugnsslagg, järnoxidtäckt sand, olivin och nefelin.</p><p>Försöken utfördes i två delar, med inledande skakförsök och därefter kolonnförsök. I båda försöken användes lakvatten med en extra tillsats av tungmetaller. I skakförsöken användes även natriumnitrat; ett referensvatten utan organiska ligander, även det spikat med tungmetaller. I skakförsöken studerades avskiljningens pH-beroende för de olika filtren, med ett pH-intervall på ca 5 – 10. Därefter modellerades resultaten i jämviktsprogrammet VisualMinteq för att fastställa vilka processer som styr avskiljningen. Skakförsöken och kolonnförsöken utfördes båda i klimatrum vid 8 ºC, för att efterlikna markens naturliga temperatur.</p><p>Resultaten från skakförsöken visade att masugnsslagg och järnoxidsand gav bäst avskiljning för de flesta tungmetaller. Olivin och nefelin var sämre metallsorbenter, där olivin uppvisade något bättre resultat än nefelin. Inget tydligt pH-beroende för lakvattnet kunde utläsas, men för natriumnitratlösningen gav en pH-höjning en ökad sorption för vissa metaller. Den kemiska jämviktsmodelleringen visade att den dominerande processen i filtermaterialen var sorption på filterytorna. De två filtermaterialen som visade bäst resultat i skakförsöken (slagg och järnoxid) studerades vidare i kolonnförsök, där ett bestämt lakvattenflöde pumpades genom kolonner packade med materialen. Två olika flödeshastigheter testades (0,12 m/dygn och 0,62 m/dygn) och sorptionen av metaller analyserades. Slaggen uppvisade högst avskiljningskapacitet av de studerade filtren. De metaller som sorberades bäst var bly, kadmium och zink (över 60 % avskiljning), där den högsta sorptionen erhölls för bly. Gemensamt för både skak- och kolonnförsöken var att sorptionen försvårades då halten organiskt material (DOC) ökade, vilket beror på att DOC konkurrerar med de reaktiva ytorna på filtren om att binda den fria metalljonen. Ingen minskande avskiljningseffekt av en flödesökning kunde utläsas.</p>
10

Fosforavskiljning i reaktiva filter vid småskalig avloppsrening / Reactive Filter Materials for Removal of Phosphorus in Small Scale Wastewater Treatment Plants

Stark, Therese January 2004 (has links)
<p>An excessive input of nutrients to lakes and other water bodies has created a problem with eutrophication in Sweden. Untreated, or partially treated, domestic sewage is a major source for discharge of phosphorus (P), which is the nutrient most frequently responsible for eutrophication of most fresh waters and the Baltic Sea. The waste water can be cleaned by filter materials, which have a high P-retention ability and which after saturation may be used as fertilizers. Four potentially suitable filter materials were tested in batch- and column experiments in this study. In the batch experiments, the following materials were shaken with waste water in time series ranging from 5 seconds to 60 minutes: coarse (1-4 mm) and fine (0-2 mm) Polonite® (heated bedrock from Poland); Filtralite® (light expanded clay aggregates with limestone added before burning); water cooled blast furnace slag (BF-slag) and BF-slag mixed with 10% burned limestone. In the column experiment, the phosphorus sorption capacity in BF-slag and BF-slag mixed with burned limestone was observed under saturated and unsaturated flow conditions for 10 weeks. The waste water used in both experiments originated from the full scale testing site at Ångersjön in Sweden. After the column experiment was ended, the filter materials were investigated with XRD (X-ray diffraction) and SEM (scanning electron microscope) in order to figure out which chemical reactions that had taken place.</p><p>The results from the batch experiments show that fine Polonite® and BF-slag mixed with limestone have the fastest P sorption capacity. Already after 5 seconds of shaking the materials showed effective retention of P. The coarse Polonite®, Filtralite® and BF-slag showed similar sorption capacities, although the coarse Polonite® tended to be somewhat inferior. The column studies showed that the materials used in the columns had a sorption capacity of 98 % or more. The XRD and SEM indicated that an amorphous calcium-P-compound was created in the filter material.</p> / <p>I Sverige är reningen av fosfor i vatten från enskilda avlopp ofta bristfällig, vilket bland annat kan leda till övergödning av sjöar, hav och vattendrag. Sedan några år tillbaka har olika filtermaterial med speciella reaktiva egenskaper, som bland annat avskiljer fosfor från avloppsvatten, undersökts. Tanken med filtermaterialen är att de efter mättnad med näringsämnen ska kunnas användas som jordförbättringsmedel. I denna rapport har några olika filtermaterial, lämpade för fosforavskiljning, undersökts genom skak- och kolonnförsök. I skakförsök, där skaktiderna varierade mellan 5 sekunder och 60 minuter, testades Polonite®, Filtralite®, Hyttsand och Hyttsand blandad med 10 % bränd kalk. Polonite® är en upphettad form av bergarten opoka varav två olika kornstorleksfraktioner (0-2 mm och 1-4 mm) användes. Filtralite® och Hyttsand är antropogena filtermaterial. Filtralite® tillverkas i Norge och består av kalkhaltiga kulor av expanderad lera (Leca®). Hyttsand framställs genom vattenkylning av masugnsslagg som bildas vid framställningen av råjärn vid stålverket i Oxelösund. I kolonnförsöken, som utfördes under 10 veckor, studerades Hyttsand och Hyttsand blandad med 10 % bränd kalk under omättade och mättade flödesförhållanden. I samtliga experiment användes avloppsvatten från reningsverket vid Ångersjön, där Filtralite® och Hyttsand testas i fullskala. Efter kolonnförsöken avslutats undersöktes filtermaterialen med XRD (röntgendiffraktion) och SEM (svepelektron mikroskop) för att utreda vilka mekanismer som medverkat vid avskiljningen av fosfor.</p><p>Resultaten från skakförsöken visade att finkornig Polonite® och Hyttsand blandad med kalk avskiljer fosfor effektivt redan efter skakning i 5 sekunder. Grovkornig Polonite, ren Hyttsand och Filtralite® sorberade fosfor tämligen likartat, även om den grovkorniga Poloniten® tenderade att vara aningen sämre än de övriga. Resultaten från kolonnförsöken visade att fosfor kunde avskiljas till över 98 % i alla kolonner och att det bildats amorfa fosfatföreningar, främst med kalcium, under den 2,5 månader långa experimentperioden.</p>

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