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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Desenvolvimento e aplicação de um novo ensaio para a determinação eletroquímica da capacidade antioxidante de compostos modelo e de matrizes complexas / Development and application of a new assay for the electrochemical determination of the antioxidant capacity of model compounds and of complex matrices

Ferreira, Rafael de Queiroz 22 July 2009 (has links)
Este trabalho descreve o desenvolvimento e aplicações práticas de uma nova e simples metodologia eletroquímica para a determinação da capacidade antioxidante de moléculas modelo específicas e/ou algumas amostras complexas de alimentos normalmente consumidas no Brasil. Outros sistemas de interesse teórico ou tecnológico também foram investigados. O método se baseia no uso de uma quantidade conhecida de um íon inorgânico como oxidante e na determinação cronoamperométrica de sua concentração remanescente após reação com as espécies antioxidantes de interesse. Contudo, testes iniciais para diferentes marcas comerciais de sucos de laranjas usando Fe3+ como oxidante (ensaio FRAP modificado), só obtiveram êxito quando o antioxidante apresenta um comportamento eletroquímico totalmente irreversível como, por exemplo, o ácido ascórbico. Para superar esse problema, o ensaio foi então desenvolvido usando o Ce4+ como oxidante (ensaio CRAC) uma vez que sua redução após reação pode ser realizada em 0,8 V vs Ag/AgCl, uma região de potencial na qual não ocorre a redução das espécies formadas pela oxidação reversível ou quase reversível do antioxidante. Devido ao elevado potencial anódico requerido quando o Ce4+ é usado, foi necessário um filme de diamante dopado com boro como eletrodo de trabalho. Após uma rigorosa caracterização do sistema eletroquímico, foram realizadas determinações da capacidade antioxidante de oito compostos padrões (ácido ascórbico, ácido gálico, ácido tânico, BHA, catequina, quercetina, rutina e trolox), usando o ensaio CRAC. Os resultados mostraram uma correlação satisfatória com ensaios mais complexos reportados na literatura e foram aplicados em um conjunto de sucos de frutas industrializados, mostrando valores máximos com quase uma ordem de grandeza superior ao apresentado pelo composto de referência (trolox), com a seguinte seqüência de capacidade antioxidante: caju > goiaba > uva > manga > laranja > maracujá. Considerando a busca da indústria local de \"cachaça\" por madeiras alternativas em contrapartida aos tonéis de carvalho, o ensaio CRAC foi realizado usando quatro extratos etanólicos de madeiras brasileiras [Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense), Imbuia (Octea porosa), Cabreúva (Myrocarpus frondosus) e Cabreúva-vermelha (Myroxylon balsamum)] assim como um extrato de Carvalho (Quercus sp), para comparação. Os resultados indicaram um aumento na capacidade antioxidante na ordem apresentada acima e, apesar da melhor amostra (Cabreúva-vermelha) ter apenas 60% da capacidade antioxidante apresentada pelo carvalho, sua disponibilidade e preço despertam o interesse por pesquisas futuras. Uma avaliação comparativa dos resultados obtidos usando os ensaios CRAC e DPPH foi realizado para extratos metanólicos de cana-de-açúcar e polpa de maracujá. Essa comparação revelou uma diferença quantitativa entre os valores dos ensaios, porém, a hierarquia foi mantida para cada conjunto de resultado. Esse efeito foi atribuído às diferenças nos mecanismos dominantes para a desativação radicalar, bem como para as condições experimentais de cada ensaio. A correlação entre a estrutura e a atividade antioxidante de moléculas modelo de flavonóides sob investigação foi relatada devido à presença de certos grupos substituintes na estrutura de difenilpirano. A atividade hierárquica para tais grupos foi estabelecida como: OH(C2´C4´) > OH(C4´) ~ OH(C3´C4´) > C2=C3 + 4-oxo > OH(C3,C5) + 4-oxo > OH(C3) + 4-oxo > OH(C5) + 4-oxo > OH(C3,C5). A formação de complexos entre flavonóides e íons metálicos, tal como o Fe2+, tem um forte efeito sobre a capacidade antioxidante e o ensaio CRAC mostrou que para a morina, quercetina e fisetina, esse aumento foi de 15,3; 31,8 e 27,9%, respectivamente. Por outro lado, para a catequina e crisina, o aumento foi de apenas 1,8 e 7,8%, respectivamente. Esses aumentos foram relatados devido à presença de, pelo menos, um dos três tipos de sítios ativos na molécula polifenólica que interage com íons metálicos. Todos esses resultados confirmam que o ensaio CRAC é uma ferramenta simples e viável para a determinação da capacidade antioxidante de uma variedade de sistemas práticos e moléculas modelo. / This work describes the development and practical applications of a novel and simple electrochemical methodology for the determination of the antioxidant capacity of specific model molecules and/or some complex food samples currently consumed in Brazil. Other systems having either theoretical or technological interest were also investigated. The method is based on the use of a known amount of an inorganic ion as the oxidant and in the chronoamperometric determination of its remaining concentration after reaction with the chosen antioxidant species. However, initial tests for different commercial brands of orange juices using Fe3+ as the oxidant (modified FRAP assay) were only successful when the antioxidant has a totally irreversible electrochemical behavior as, for example, ascorbic acid. To overcome this problem, the assays were then performed using Ce4+ as the oxidant (the CRAC assay) since its reduction after reaction can be carried out at 0.8 V vs Ag/AgCl, a potential region where the reduction of species formed by the reversible or quasi-reversible oxidation of the antioxidant does not occur. Due to the high anodic potentials required when using Ce4+, it was necessary to have a boron-doped diamond film as the working electrode. After a rigorous characterization of the electrochemical systems, measurements of the antioxidant capacity of eight standard compounds (ascorbic acid, gallic acid, tannic acid, BHA, catechin, quercetin, rutin and trolox) were carried out using the CRAC assay. The results showed a satisfactory correlation with those reported in the literature using other more complex assays and these studies were then applied to a set of industrialized fruit juices showing maximum values almost one order of magnitude higher than that of the reference compound (trolox) and following the antioxidant capacity sequence: cashew>guava>grape>mango>orange>passion fruit. Considering that the local \"cachaça\" industry is looking for alternative woods to the use of oak barrels, CRAC assays were carried out using four ethanol extracts of Brazilian woods [Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense), Imbuia (Octea porosa), Cabreúva (Myrocarpus frondosus) e Cabreúva-vermelha (Myroxylon balsamum)] as well as an Oak (Quercus sp) extract, for comparison. The results indicate an increasing antioxidant capacity in the order presented above and, although the best sample (Cabreúva-vermelha) has only 60% of the capacity shown by oak, its local availability and price makes it interesting for further research. A comparative evaluation of the results obtained using the CRAC and the DPPH assays was carried out for methanol extracts of sugar cane juice and passion fruit pulp. That comparison revealed a quantitative difference between the assay values but the hierarchy was maintained for each set of results. Such effect was attributed to differences in the prevailing mechanism for radical deactivation, as well as, the experimental conditions used for each assay. The correlation between structure and antioxidant activity of model flavonoid molecules under investigation was related to the presence of certain groups in the diphenilpyrene structure. The activity hierarchy for them was established as: OH(C2´C4´) > OH(C4´) ~ OH(C3´C4´) > C2=C3 + 4-oxo > OH(C3,C5) + 4-oxo > OH(C3) + 4-oxo > OH(C5) + 4-oxo > OH(C3,C5). The complex formation between flavonoids and metal ions, such as Fe2+, has a strong effect on the antioxidant capacity and CRAC assay showed that for morin, quercetin and fisetin the increase was 15.3, 31.8 and 27.9%, respectively. On the other hand, for catechin and chrysin the increase was only 1.8 and 7.8%, respectively. These increases were related to the presence of, at least, one of three types of active sites in the polyphenolic molecule that can interact with metal ions. All these findings confirm that the CRAC assay is simple and convenient tool for the determination of the antioxidant capacity of a variety of practical systems and model molecules.
2

Desenvolvimento e aplicação de um novo ensaio para a determinação eletroquímica da capacidade antioxidante de compostos modelo e de matrizes complexas / Development and application of a new assay for the electrochemical determination of the antioxidant capacity of model compounds and of complex matrices

Rafael de Queiroz Ferreira 22 July 2009 (has links)
Este trabalho descreve o desenvolvimento e aplicações práticas de uma nova e simples metodologia eletroquímica para a determinação da capacidade antioxidante de moléculas modelo específicas e/ou algumas amostras complexas de alimentos normalmente consumidas no Brasil. Outros sistemas de interesse teórico ou tecnológico também foram investigados. O método se baseia no uso de uma quantidade conhecida de um íon inorgânico como oxidante e na determinação cronoamperométrica de sua concentração remanescente após reação com as espécies antioxidantes de interesse. Contudo, testes iniciais para diferentes marcas comerciais de sucos de laranjas usando Fe3+ como oxidante (ensaio FRAP modificado), só obtiveram êxito quando o antioxidante apresenta um comportamento eletroquímico totalmente irreversível como, por exemplo, o ácido ascórbico. Para superar esse problema, o ensaio foi então desenvolvido usando o Ce4+ como oxidante (ensaio CRAC) uma vez que sua redução após reação pode ser realizada em 0,8 V vs Ag/AgCl, uma região de potencial na qual não ocorre a redução das espécies formadas pela oxidação reversível ou quase reversível do antioxidante. Devido ao elevado potencial anódico requerido quando o Ce4+ é usado, foi necessário um filme de diamante dopado com boro como eletrodo de trabalho. Após uma rigorosa caracterização do sistema eletroquímico, foram realizadas determinações da capacidade antioxidante de oito compostos padrões (ácido ascórbico, ácido gálico, ácido tânico, BHA, catequina, quercetina, rutina e trolox), usando o ensaio CRAC. Os resultados mostraram uma correlação satisfatória com ensaios mais complexos reportados na literatura e foram aplicados em um conjunto de sucos de frutas industrializados, mostrando valores máximos com quase uma ordem de grandeza superior ao apresentado pelo composto de referência (trolox), com a seguinte seqüência de capacidade antioxidante: caju > goiaba > uva > manga > laranja > maracujá. Considerando a busca da indústria local de \"cachaça\" por madeiras alternativas em contrapartida aos tonéis de carvalho, o ensaio CRAC foi realizado usando quatro extratos etanólicos de madeiras brasileiras [Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense), Imbuia (Octea porosa), Cabreúva (Myrocarpus frondosus) e Cabreúva-vermelha (Myroxylon balsamum)] assim como um extrato de Carvalho (Quercus sp), para comparação. Os resultados indicaram um aumento na capacidade antioxidante na ordem apresentada acima e, apesar da melhor amostra (Cabreúva-vermelha) ter apenas 60% da capacidade antioxidante apresentada pelo carvalho, sua disponibilidade e preço despertam o interesse por pesquisas futuras. Uma avaliação comparativa dos resultados obtidos usando os ensaios CRAC e DPPH foi realizado para extratos metanólicos de cana-de-açúcar e polpa de maracujá. Essa comparação revelou uma diferença quantitativa entre os valores dos ensaios, porém, a hierarquia foi mantida para cada conjunto de resultado. Esse efeito foi atribuído às diferenças nos mecanismos dominantes para a desativação radicalar, bem como para as condições experimentais de cada ensaio. A correlação entre a estrutura e a atividade antioxidante de moléculas modelo de flavonóides sob investigação foi relatada devido à presença de certos grupos substituintes na estrutura de difenilpirano. A atividade hierárquica para tais grupos foi estabelecida como: OH(C2´C4´) > OH(C4´) ~ OH(C3´C4´) > C2=C3 + 4-oxo > OH(C3,C5) + 4-oxo > OH(C3) + 4-oxo > OH(C5) + 4-oxo > OH(C3,C5). A formação de complexos entre flavonóides e íons metálicos, tal como o Fe2+, tem um forte efeito sobre a capacidade antioxidante e o ensaio CRAC mostrou que para a morina, quercetina e fisetina, esse aumento foi de 15,3; 31,8 e 27,9%, respectivamente. Por outro lado, para a catequina e crisina, o aumento foi de apenas 1,8 e 7,8%, respectivamente. Esses aumentos foram relatados devido à presença de, pelo menos, um dos três tipos de sítios ativos na molécula polifenólica que interage com íons metálicos. Todos esses resultados confirmam que o ensaio CRAC é uma ferramenta simples e viável para a determinação da capacidade antioxidante de uma variedade de sistemas práticos e moléculas modelo. / This work describes the development and practical applications of a novel and simple electrochemical methodology for the determination of the antioxidant capacity of specific model molecules and/or some complex food samples currently consumed in Brazil. Other systems having either theoretical or technological interest were also investigated. The method is based on the use of a known amount of an inorganic ion as the oxidant and in the chronoamperometric determination of its remaining concentration after reaction with the chosen antioxidant species. However, initial tests for different commercial brands of orange juices using Fe3+ as the oxidant (modified FRAP assay) were only successful when the antioxidant has a totally irreversible electrochemical behavior as, for example, ascorbic acid. To overcome this problem, the assays were then performed using Ce4+ as the oxidant (the CRAC assay) since its reduction after reaction can be carried out at 0.8 V vs Ag/AgCl, a potential region where the reduction of species formed by the reversible or quasi-reversible oxidation of the antioxidant does not occur. Due to the high anodic potentials required when using Ce4+, it was necessary to have a boron-doped diamond film as the working electrode. After a rigorous characterization of the electrochemical systems, measurements of the antioxidant capacity of eight standard compounds (ascorbic acid, gallic acid, tannic acid, BHA, catechin, quercetin, rutin and trolox) were carried out using the CRAC assay. The results showed a satisfactory correlation with those reported in the literature using other more complex assays and these studies were then applied to a set of industrialized fruit juices showing maximum values almost one order of magnitude higher than that of the reference compound (trolox) and following the antioxidant capacity sequence: cashew>guava>grape>mango>orange>passion fruit. Considering that the local \"cachaça\" industry is looking for alternative woods to the use of oak barrels, CRAC assays were carried out using four ethanol extracts of Brazilian woods [Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense), Imbuia (Octea porosa), Cabreúva (Myrocarpus frondosus) e Cabreúva-vermelha (Myroxylon balsamum)] as well as an Oak (Quercus sp) extract, for comparison. The results indicate an increasing antioxidant capacity in the order presented above and, although the best sample (Cabreúva-vermelha) has only 60% of the capacity shown by oak, its local availability and price makes it interesting for further research. A comparative evaluation of the results obtained using the CRAC and the DPPH assays was carried out for methanol extracts of sugar cane juice and passion fruit pulp. That comparison revealed a quantitative difference between the assay values but the hierarchy was maintained for each set of results. Such effect was attributed to differences in the prevailing mechanism for radical deactivation, as well as, the experimental conditions used for each assay. The correlation between structure and antioxidant activity of model flavonoid molecules under investigation was related to the presence of certain groups in the diphenilpyrene structure. The activity hierarchy for them was established as: OH(C2´C4´) > OH(C4´) ~ OH(C3´C4´) > C2=C3 + 4-oxo > OH(C3,C5) + 4-oxo > OH(C3) + 4-oxo > OH(C5) + 4-oxo > OH(C3,C5). The complex formation between flavonoids and metal ions, such as Fe2+, has a strong effect on the antioxidant capacity and CRAC assay showed that for morin, quercetin and fisetin the increase was 15.3, 31.8 and 27.9%, respectively. On the other hand, for catechin and chrysin the increase was only 1.8 and 7.8%, respectively. These increases were related to the presence of, at least, one of three types of active sites in the polyphenolic molecule that can interact with metal ions. All these findings confirm that the CRAC assay is simple and convenient tool for the determination of the antioxidant capacity of a variety of practical systems and model molecules.
3

Brr2 RNA helicase and its protein and RNA interactions

Hahn, Daniela January 2011 (has links)
The dynamic rearrangements of RNA and protein complexes and the fidelity of pre-mRNA splicing are governed by DExD/H-box ATPases. One of the spliceosomal ATPases, Brr2, is believed to facilitate conformational rearrangements during spliceosome activation and disassembly. It features an unusual architecture, with two consecutive helicase-cassettes, each comprising a helicase and a Sec63 domain. Only the N-terminal cassette exhibits catalytic activity. By contrast, the C-terminal half of Brr2 engages in protein interactions. Amongst interacting proteins are the Prp2 and Prp16 helicases. The work presented in this thesis aimed at studying and assigning functional relevance to the bipartite architecture of Brr2 and addressed the following questions: (1) What role does the catalytically inert C-terminal half play in Brr2 function, and why does it interact with other RNA helicases? (2) Which RNAs interact with the different parts of Brr2? (1) In a yeast two-hybrid screen novel brr2 mutant alleles were identified by virtue of abnormal protein interactions with Prp2 and Prp16. Phenotypic characterization showed that brr2 C-terminus mutants exhibit a splicing defect, demonstrating that an intact C-terminus is required for Brr2 function. ATPase/helicase deficient prp16 mutants suppress the interaction defect of brr2 alleles, possibly indicating an involvement of the Brr2 C-terminus in the regulation of interacting helicases. (2) Brr2-RNA interactions were identified by the CRAC approach (in vivo Crosslinking and analysis of cDNA). Physical separation of the N-terminal and C-terminal portions and their individual analyses indicate that only the N-terminus of Brr2 interacts with RNA. Brr2 cross-links in the U4 and U6 snRNAs suggest a step-wise dissociation of the U4/U6 duplex during catalytic activation of the spliceosome. Newly identified Brr2 cross-links in the U5 snRNA and in pre-mRNAs close to 3’ splice sites are supported by genetic analyses. A reduction of second step efficiency upon combining brr2 and U5 mutations suggests an involvement of Brr2 in the second step of splicing. An approach now described as CLASH (Cross-linking, Ligation and Sequencing of Hybrids) identified Brr2 associated chimeric sequencing reads. The inspection of chimeric U2-U2 sequences suggests a revised secondary structure for the U2 snRNA, which was confirmed by phylogenentic and mutational analyses. Taken together these findings underscore the functional distinction of the N- and C-terminal portions of Brr2 and add mechanistic relevance to its bipartite architecture. The catalytically active N-terminal helicase-cassette is required to establish RNA interactions and to provide helicase activity. Conversely, the C-terminal helicase-cassette functions solely as protein interaction domain, possibly exerting regulation on the activities of interacting helicases and Brr2 itself.
4

Linear-Quadratic Regulation of ComputerRoom Air Conditioners

Aasa, Johan January 2018 (has links)
Data centers operations are notoriously energy-hungry, with the computing and cooling infrastructures drawing comparable amount of electrical power to operate. A direction to improve their efciency is to optimizethe cooling, in the sense of implementing cooling infrastructures controlschemes that avoid performing over-cooling of the servers.Towards this direction, this work investigates minimum cost linearquadratic control strategies for the problem of managing air cooled datacenters. We derive a physical and a black box model for a general datacenter, identify this model from real data, and then derive, present andtest in the eld a model based Linear-Quadratic Regulator (LQR) strategy that sets the optimal coolant temperature for each individual coolingunit. To validate the approach we compare the eld tests from the LQR strategy against classical Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controlstrategies, and show through our experiments that it is possible to reducethe energy consumption with respect to the existing practices by severalpoints percent without harming the servers within the data center fromthermal perspectives.
5

Structural and Biophysical Studies of the Role of Stromal Interaction Molecules STIM1 and STIM2 in Initiating Store-operated Calcium Entry

Zheng, Le 29 July 2010 (has links)
Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is the major Ca2+ entry pathway in most non-excitable cells maintaining prolonged elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ levels required for gene transcription. SOCE is activated by the loss of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ through stromal interaction molecules (STIM), ER-membrane associated Ca2+ sensors. In humans, STIM1 and STIM2 share 65% sequence similarity but differentially regulate SOCE. Biophysical studies on the luminal Ca2+-binding region suggests that STIM2 EF-SAM is more stable than STIM1. The NMR structure of Ca2+-loaded STIM2 EF-SAM determined in this work suggests a more stable SAM and a tighter EF-hand and SAM interaction in STIM2 may be account for its higher stability. Chimeric swapping of the EF-hand and SAM domains generates an unstable ES211. Introducing ES211 into cherryFP-STIM1 shows constitutive puncta which activate SOCE independent of ER depletion. The current work demonstrates that the instability of the EF-SAM plays an important role in regulating SOCE initiation.
6

Structural and Biophysical Studies of the Role of Stromal Interaction Molecules STIM1 and STIM2 in Initiating Store-operated Calcium Entry

Zheng, Le 29 July 2010 (has links)
Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is the major Ca2+ entry pathway in most non-excitable cells maintaining prolonged elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ levels required for gene transcription. SOCE is activated by the loss of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ through stromal interaction molecules (STIM), ER-membrane associated Ca2+ sensors. In humans, STIM1 and STIM2 share 65% sequence similarity but differentially regulate SOCE. Biophysical studies on the luminal Ca2+-binding region suggests that STIM2 EF-SAM is more stable than STIM1. The NMR structure of Ca2+-loaded STIM2 EF-SAM determined in this work suggests a more stable SAM and a tighter EF-hand and SAM interaction in STIM2 may be account for its higher stability. Chimeric swapping of the EF-hand and SAM domains generates an unstable ES211. Introducing ES211 into cherryFP-STIM1 shows constitutive puncta which activate SOCE independent of ER depletion. The current work demonstrates that the instability of the EF-SAM plays an important role in regulating SOCE initiation.
7

Dissecting the mechanism of STIM coupling to Orai

Deng, Xiaoxiang January 2011 (has links)
Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) triggered by the depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) luminal Ca2+ stores is a major Ca2+ entry pathway in non-excitable cells and is essential in physiological Ca2+ signaling and homeostasis. STIM proteins are sensors of ER luminal Ca2+, which translocate to ER-plasma membrane (PM) junctional regions to activate the family of Orai channels mediating Ca2+ entry. This study is focused on dissecting the mechanism of STIM interacting with Orai. A powerful modifier of SOCE, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) is utilized. First, the action of 2-APB on the mammalian Orai homologues are characterized using the DT40 STIM knockout cells. 50 ìM 2-APB directly activates Orai3 but not Orai1 or Orai2. Second, while it stimulates the STIM2-mediated constitutive Ca2+ entry through Orai, 2-APB also induces the cytosolic STIM C-terminus fragments to translocate to the PM and activate Orai1. These data reveal 50 ìM 2-APB enhances STIM-Orai coupling. Further, this enhanced binding of STIM and Orai leads to a conformational change within the STIM-Orai complex, which is possibly the underlying mechanism for the 50 ìM 2-APB inhibitory effect on SOCE. Finally, six residues (344-349) at the N-terminus of the STIM-Orai activation region (SOAR) prove to be critical for this inhibitory action. These same six amino acid region also constitutes an ancillary Orai binding site within SOAR, in addition to the main polybasic region. The deletion of this ancillary site abolishes the ability of SOAR to bind to and activate Orai1, but can be compensated for by the STIM-Orai binding enhancing effect of 50 ìM 2-APB. The majority of STIM1 is located on the ER membrane, while a small proportion of STIM1 is on the PM. Using an extracellularly applied STIM1 antibody, the PM STIM1 can be aggregated to exert an influence on the ER STIM1. Although the PM STIM1 is not obligatory for STIM1-mediated Orai activation, it nevertheless may have a functional presence in the PM. Lastly, a regulatory link between voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (Cav channels) and the STIM proteins is established. After activation by store depletion, STIM strongly suppresses the Cav1.2 channels. There is a biochemical interaction between STIM1 and the Cav1.2 pore subunit á1C. This inhibitory effect is independent of Orai1 activation. Hence, STIM1 interacts with and reciprocally controls two major Ca2+ channels. / Biochemistry
8

Expressing human Orai3 in insect cells for pharmacological studies

Bennett, Orville R. 21 March 2012 (has links)
No description available.
9

Homéostasie calcique au cours des évènements précoces de la maturation des cellules dendritiques humaines

Félix, Romain 13 December 2010 (has links)
En transplantation d’organes, la réponse immunitaire de l’hôte contre son donneur reste une cause très importante de perte de greffons. Ainsi, un meilleur contrôle de la réponse par induction d’une tolérance spécifique reste une priorité en transplantation humaine. Dans ce projet,nous avons donc étudié l’homéostasie calcique au cours des phénomènes précoces de la maturation des cellules dendritiques (DC) humaines. Nous avons mis en évidence la présence d’une ECC (Entrée Capacitive de Calcium), dans la DC humaine, lors d’une stimulation par des agonistes des TLR (LPS ou Zymosan) ou des cytokines inflammatoires (TNF-α). De plus, cette ECC est gouvernée par le complexe ORAI-1 / STIM-1. En effet, l’absence d’expression de ces protéines induit une diminution de la maturation des DC humaines (phénotype, synthèse de cytokines). Par ailleurs, le Calcium, entré par l’ECC, va induire l’activation de canaux potassiques, sensibles à la concentration intracellulaire en Calcium : les canaux KCa3.1. Ces canaux, outre leur rôle dans la facilitation de l’ECC par hyperpolarisation de la membrane,contrôlent la migration des DC humaines. En effet, leur activation permet une sorte d’état de quiescence où les DC restent dans les tissus périphériques. L’ensemble de ces résultats obtenus,in vitro, suggèrent que ces canaux ioniques pourraient être une cible privilégiée pour le développement de nouvelles thérapies pour l’induction de tolérance immune en transplantation. / In organ transplantation, host immune response against donor still remains a major causeof graft loss. A better control of allogeneic response through the induction of specific tolerance isa major goal in human transplantation. In this work, we studied the calcium homeostasis during the earlier events of the human dendritic cells (DC) maturation. We showed the presence of a CCE(Capacitative Calcium Entry), in the human DC, during the stimulation by TLR agonists (LPS andZymosan) or inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α). Moreover, this CCE was managed by the ORAI-1/ STIM-1 complexe. Indeed, an inhibition of these proteins expression induced a decrease in theDC maturation (phebnotype, cytokines production). Then, the Calcium, issued to CCE, could activate potassium channels, sensitive to intracellular Calcium concentration: KCa3.1 channels.These channels, excepted their role in the facilitation of CCE by membrane hyperpolarisation,control the capacity of human DC migration. Their activation induced a kind of steady state where the DC staied in peripheral tissues. These results taken together suggest that the ion channels seemto be a good target for the development of new therapies to in order to promote allograft tolerance.
10

Characterisation of store-operated calcium entry in a vascular endothelial cell line and impact on the production of nitric oxide

Batchelor, Helen R. January 2014 (has links)
Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is a principal mechanism for extracellular calcium entry in non-excitable cell types, and is primarily facilitated by the calcium- release activated calcium (CRAC) channel; itself comprised of the pore-forming Orai-1 and calcium-sensing Stromal interaction molecule (STIM)-1 proteins. Depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium stores initiates STIM-1 translocation to defined ER-plasma membrane puncta, and subsequent Orai-STIM interaction and opening of Orai. The importance of this mechanism in calcium signalling in diverse tissue types is becoming increasingly clear. The vascular endothelium is a dynamic tissue, involved in the maintenance of vascular homeostasis and haemostasis. Many endothelium-derived bioactive agents, such as endothelin-1, prostaglandins, and the potent vasodilator nitric oxide (NO), are known to be produced via calcium- dependent mechanisms. However, the role of the CRAC channel in the vascular endothelium is poorly defined with little known about downstream targets of calcium influx through CRAC channels. The dysregulation of NO production by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a major contributory factor in many vascular disease states, yet the calcium channel responsible for eNOS activation has yet to be identified. Within this thesis, I establish the endothelial cell line sEnd.1 as a new model system for studying CRAC channel signalling in the vascular endothelium, defining sEnd.1 SOCE as being CRAC channel-dependent. Inhibition of CRAC channels with an array of inhibitors, and knock-down of STIM-1, both reduced ATP- and TG-induced SOCE. The sEnd.1 model system was subsequently used to identify calcium entry through the CRAC channel as the elusive activation mechanism for eNOS. Through real-time imaging with the fluorescent NO dye DAF-2-DA, we established that NO production is non-linear, with a slow initial increase preceding a faster NO production phase. These kinetics, with a characteristic delay before fast production have, to our knowledge, not previously been reported. The time taken to reach the fast phase of NO production could be manipulated through changes in both local and bulk calcium rises, which indicated roles for both elements of calcium signalling in eNOS activation. eNOS regulation by calcium is complex, occurring not only through direct binding of calcium-calmodulin, but additionally through changing post-translational modifications, which in turn regulate the calcium-dependency of eNOS, such as phosphorylation of Ser1177. We propose that the delay in fast production of NO is due to the time taken to alter eNOS post-translational modifications, which thus remove inhibition on eNOS. Activation of CRAC channels increased phosphorylation of residue Ser1177 via calcium-calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII), with a similar time course to that required to reach the fast phase of NO production. Inhibition of CaMKII increased the time taken to reach fast activation. In conclusion this thesis presents a new model system for investigation of CRAC channel signalling in the endothelium. Furthermore, we clearly identify a critical endothelial pathway as being regulated by CRAC channels, by demonstrating the production of NO in response to both ATP and TG, which stimulate calcium entry through CRAC channels.

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