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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
21

Inquiry in Early Childhood Teacher Education: Reflections on Practice

Broderick, Jane Tingle, Hong, Seong Bock 01 January 2005 (has links)
As teacher educators we work to make inquiry methodology explicit to help teacher candidates construct the link between theory and practice. Bringing inquiry learning into the early childhood curriculum method courses raises the potential for inquiry teaching practice for teacher candidates and models a constructivist practice in a higher education setting. Of the numerous curriculum studies available, few focus on methods of inquiry to guide adult learners’ to construct inquiry- teaching practices that they can transfer to their work with children. To improve the quality of our teaching in an Early Childhood Teacher Education program we researched and developed several tools to facilitate the transfer from teacher candidates own learning experiences to their teaching practice. We relied on the literature regarding the Reggio Emilia approach of inquiry learning and teaching based on documentation, as well as Creativity theory to help us develop a method to relate concepts with materials in a cycle of inquiry. Through our Cycle of Inquiry and the introduction of Concept Materials we promote representation which is a critical aspect of constructing knowledge about what it means to teach. We find that this differs from merely modeling hands-on activities in that it promotes higher level reasoning and creativity throughout the early childhood curriculum, as teacher candidates learn to reflect on and question the big ideas—thinking and learning—they observe in play to develop practice that extends learning along a conceptual continuum of inquiry. This data accumulated over the course of two years at East Tennessee State University and the University of Michigan-Dearborn through our process of developing and implementing curriculum for teacher educators that models action research and teacher as researcher.
22

The CAS and NEPSY as measures of cognitive processes: examining the underlying constructs

Jarratt, Kelly Pizzitola 30 October 2006 (has links)
Although there appears to be increasing popularity in neuropsychology across disciplines of study, only modest work has been conducted with preschool and schoolage children. Changes in the structure of cognitive processes during early childhood and the extent of frontal lobe maturation are important to consider when conducting assessments with young children. Many neuropsychological theories, however, are based primarily on adult research (e.g., Luria’s theory) and respective assessment measures are often the extension or slight modification of items from adult assessments. Because adults and children differ on a number of neuropsychological measures, especially at younger ages, the same underlying constructs and interpretive strategies may not be appropriate for use with young children. The CAS and NEPSY are two assessment measures based on Luria’s theory; however, each posits a different conclusion regarding the number of factors that explain neuropsychological functioning in young children. Luria asserted that neuropsychological functioning is comprised of three functional units, while Naglieri and Das (e.g., CAS) suggested a four factor model, and the authors of the NEPSY declared a five factor model of functioning. Due to the emerging development of a child’s frontal lobes, and the inconsistency regarding the number of factors related to neuropsychological functioning in young children, this study examined the CAS and NEPSY using factor analyses and model fit indices to determine the underlying structural model(s). The study also examined the usefulness of combining specific subscales from the CAS, NEPSY, and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III (PPVT-III; Dunn & Dunn, 1997) to create a cross-battery approach to assessing neuropsychological functioning in young children. In addition to the CAS, NEPSY, and PPVT-III, data was obtained from the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF; Gioia, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 2000) to gather background information and to assess parent and teacher ratings of behavioral and neuropsychological functioning.
23

Journey of a novice kindergarten teacher

Espinosa, Jessica Fernandez 19 September 2013 (has links)
<p> Teacher attrition is a growing concern among states and school systems. Novice teachers face many difficulties during their induction and the high attrition rates within the first five years of teaching are a testament to the challenges new teachers face (Herrington et al., 2006; Fantelli &amp; McDougall, 2009). Due to new demands emerging from U.S. education policies placing an emphasis on accountability and student mastery of predetermined learning outcomes, there have been many new demands placed on kindergarten teachers (Goldstein, 2007).</p><p> By using a narrative inquiry methodology, this research study seeks to answer the following overarching question: How do novice kindergarten teachers describe their experiences in their first of year teaching? The study also seeks to answer the following sub questions: What <i>domains of curriculum practice</i> act as constraints on novice kindergarten teachers curricular decision making? How do novice kindergarten teachers use their professional discretion in making decisions about how to integrate developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) into the mandated curriculum in an era of standards-based reform?</p><p> The research was guided by the following theoretical framework: Boote&rsquo;s (2006) Theory of Professional Discretion. Participants were interviewed using a semi-structured interview protocol (Patton, 2002). Interviews were transcribed and then coded for emerging themes. The researcher worked with the participants to re-story and create a narrative of their experiences in their first year of teaching.</p><p> The following themes emerged from the interview data: (a) Teaching was a lifelong career goal; (b) Teaching kindergarten was not a choice; (c) They planned as a team; (d) They had a fear of deviating from the prescribed curricula; (e) The participants were overwhelmed with standardized testing; (f) They experienced being a living contradiction; (g) The participants had a lack of job security; (h) The participants were all surplussed or &lsquo;let go&rsquo; at the end of the school year. These themes were used to write the <i> narratives of experience.</i> There were four <i>narratives of experience, </i> one for each participant. Each narrative tells the story of each participant&rsquo;s first year of teaching.</p>
24

Investigating the role of reactive oxygen species in transplacental benzene carcinogenesis

Badham, Helen J 22 December 2009 (has links)
The incidence of childhood leukemia is increasing, especially in urbanized areas. It is hypothesised that transplacental exposure to environmental carcinogens, such as benzene, plays a role in the etiology of childhood cancers. The studies in this thesis investigated mechanisms of transplacental benzene tumourigenesis focusing on the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Initially, we investigated the effect of maternal benzene exposure on fetal erythroid progenitor cell number and the role of ROS in benzene metabolite-induced dysregulation of erythropoiesis. In the CD-1 mouse, in utero benzene exposure caused significant alterations in female fetal liver erythroid progenitor cell numbers at gestational day 16 and postnatal day 2. Using an in vitro chicken erythroblast cell line capable of erythropoiesis, we found that hydroquinone significantly inhibited erythropoiesis and this effect was prevented by pretreatment with PEG-superoxide dismutase. The second objective investigated the role of ROS in dysregulated fetal hematopoietic progenitor cell growth after maternal benzene exposure in C57Bl/6N mice. In utero exposure to benzene caused changes in fetal hematopoietic progenitor cell numbers, an increase in levels of fetal liver intracellular ROS, and a decrease in IκB-α protein levels, which were all prevented by pretreatment with PEG-catalase. The final objective determined the incidence of cancer in offspring transplacentally exposed to benzene. This study compared two strains of mice (C57Bl/6N and CD-1), as well as male and female offspring. This study also measured levels of benzene and benzene metabolites present in maternal blood and fetal liver tissue after maternal benzene exposure. Transplacental exposure to benzene induced hepatic and hematopoietic tumours in male and female CD-1 mice, respectively. Interestingly, there were no significant changes in tumour incidence in C57Bl/6N mice demonstrating a significant strain difference in susceptibility to transplacental benzene carcinogenesis. Levels of fetal liver benzene metabolites also differed between genders and strains of mice suggesting that the gender and strain differences in tumour formation may be dependent on fetal benzene metabolism capability. In conclusion, this thesis supports the hypothesis that benzene exposure to pregnant women contributes to the etiology of childhood cancers and highlights ROS and fetal benzene metabolism as potential mechanisms. / Thesis (Ph.D, Pharmacology & Toxicology) -- Queen's University, 2009-12-21 13:10:12.747
25

Childhood Maltreatment and Stress Sensitization in Depression: Moderation by Age Group and Depression History

LAROCQUE, CHERIE LEE 01 September 2011 (has links)
Major Depressive Disorder is a highly prevalent and recurrent psychological disorder, affecting approximately 12% of Canadians across their lifetime and 5% each year. Studies have shown that a history of childhood maltreatment increases risk for depression by conferring a vulnerability to the effects of stressful life events (i.e., stress sensitization). The goal of the current investigation was to examine whether the relation between childhood maltreatment and stress sensitization in depression is influenced by age group and depression history. This study also sought to investigate whether specific characteristics of the maltreatment experience differentially relate to stress sensitization. Two hundred and seven clinically depressed adolescents (i.e., 12 – 17 years; n = 59) and adults (i.e., 18 – 64 years; n = 148) participated in this study. Childhood accounts of maltreatment were assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Scale, and stressful life events experienced 3 months prior to depression onset were assessed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule. Results revealed that individuals with a history of severe maltreatment reported lower severity levels of stressful life events prior to depression onset than did those without such a history, but only among adolescents. Further, this relation was specific to independent stressors (i.e., those totally or nearly totally independent of the behaviour of the individual) and not dependent stressors (i.e., those at least partly due to the individual’s behaviour), and was specific to emotional abuse. Results also suggested that it is the experience of severe maltreatment, rather than particular aspects of it, that sensitizes individuals to the effects of stress. In summary, this study provides support for the relation of childhood maltreatment to stress sensitization in adolescents. Maltreated adolescents may be especially vulnerable to the depressogenic effects of stress, perhaps because their maltreatment experience is more proximal to depression onset. In contrast, other relevant processes (e.g., cognitive schema and neurobiological consolidation, chronic stress) may drive stress sensitization in adulthood; however, further research is required to investigate such mechanisms. Limitations and clinical implications are discussed. / Thesis (Master, Psychology) -- Queen's University, 2011-08-31 19:15:16.313
26

Parents' Impact on Their Young Children's Literacy Achievement

Williams, Christina A. 15 January 2013
Parents' Impact on Their Young Children's Literacy Achievement
27

An investigation of the role of legends and storytelling in a Kanien’kehá:ka (Mohawk) early childhood facility

Deer, Sandra January 2014 (has links)
AbstractThrough the course of our history, Indigenous cultural and spiritual knowledge remains, in many places as faint as the smoke rising from the embers of last nights fire; in other places, with enough flame to ignite another log. In spite of the genocidal acts portrayed through colonialism's experimentation through religious doctrine, residential school, legislation, treaties broken and unbroken, reservations, and spiritual disregard, we the Indigenous peoples of Turtle Island remain living, breathing and believing that our history is alive through the oral stories of our beginnings and endings.Indigenous education can only be defined through the culture of the people themselves. Building or rebuilding culturally relevant curriculum familiar to the children and teachers can only increase the value of student knowledge and in turn fulfilling a proud identity and natural relationship to the universe. The majority of on reserve education systems are based on provincial guidelines and standardized testing. Historical Indigenous education was transferred orally for thousands of years with very little disruption or inconsistencies; therefore distinct meanings and connections were continuously addressed throughout ones lifetime through the wisdom of elder's legends and stories. My investigation on the role of legends and storytelling in an early childhood setting in Kahnawa:ke, Quebec is portrayed through a combination of personal narrative interwoven with research literature, classroom observations and personal interviews as portraiture, and a discussion based on data collected. The main finding was that cultural legends and stories familiar to historical, ceremonial and spiritual practices are vital to the cultural foundation of the Haudenosaunee (peoples of the longhouse or the Iroquois) and Kahnawake'hró:non (people of Kahnawa:ke). / RésuméÀ travers le chemin de notre histoire, les connaissances culturelles et spirituelles du monde Indigène restent, en beacoup de places si faible comme la fumée qui lève de la braise du feu de la veille; en autres places avec assez de flamme pour allumer une autre bûche. Malgré les actes de genocide démontré par l`expérimentation de doctrine religieuse, les écoles résidentielles, la législation, les traités brisés et non brisés, les réserves, et le mépris spirituelle de colonisation, nous le peuple Indigène de l'Île de la Tortue, vivons, respirons, et croyons que notre histoire vie dans les contes oraux de nos débuts et fins.L'éducation Inidgène peut seulement être défini par la culture du peuple elle même. Construire ou réconstuire un programme culturellement pertinent familier pour les enfants et enseignants peut seulement augmenter la valeur de les connaissances des élèves ou ils réaliseront une identité fière et une relation naturelle avec l'univers. La majorité des systèmes d'éducation sur les réserves sont basés sur des directives provinciales et des épreuves standarisées. L'éducaton d'histoire Indigène était transmis orallement pendant des milliers d'années avec très peu d'interruption ou d'inconsistance; donc significations et connections distinctes étaient continuellement adressées à travers la sagesse des légendes et contes des ainées. Ma investigation sur le rôle de légendes et contes dans un milieu d'éducation de la petite enfance à Kahnawa:ke, Québec est démontrée par la combinaison de narratifs personnels entrelacées avec de la recherche de la littérature, des observations dans la classe, des entrevues personelles et de la discussion basé sur la collection de données. Le résultat principal est que les légendes et contes culturelles familiers aux practiques historiques, cérémoniaux et spirituelles sont essentiels pour la fondation des Haudenosaunee (peuples de la maison longue ou Iroquois) et des Kahnawake'hró:non (peuple de Kahnawa:ke).
28

Does Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection in the first two years of life contribute to the development of asthma among children in Manitoba?

Khan, Sazzadul Khan 11 April 2011 (has links)
The study was conducted with a total of 13980 children of the 1995 birth cohort, who were living in Manitoba by the end of December, 2006. Higher frequency of RSV-associated LRTI before 2 years was associated with higher risks of asthma diagnosis at 7 and 11 years and also with risks of transient wheeze and early persistent asthma. Higher risk of asthma diagnosis was associated with more severe episode(s) of RSV-associated LRTI within the first 2 years of life. First clinically significant RSV-LRTI between 6 and 12 months was associated with the highest risks of asthma diagnosis at 7 and at 11 years. But first RSV-associated LRTI within the first 6 months of life was associated with the highest risk of asthma/transient wheezing before the age of 3 years and early persistent asthma and transient wheeze. These associations were diminishing with increasing age of the children of the study cohort.
29

Does Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection in the first two years of life contribute to the development of asthma among children in Manitoba?

Khan, Sazzadul Khan 11 April 2011 (has links)
The study was conducted with a total of 13980 children of the 1995 birth cohort, who were living in Manitoba by the end of December, 2006. Higher frequency of RSV-associated LRTI before 2 years was associated with higher risks of asthma diagnosis at 7 and 11 years and also with risks of transient wheeze and early persistent asthma. Higher risk of asthma diagnosis was associated with more severe episode(s) of RSV-associated LRTI within the first 2 years of life. First clinically significant RSV-LRTI between 6 and 12 months was associated with the highest risks of asthma diagnosis at 7 and at 11 years. But first RSV-associated LRTI within the first 6 months of life was associated with the highest risk of asthma/transient wheezing before the age of 3 years and early persistent asthma and transient wheeze. These associations were diminishing with increasing age of the children of the study cohort.
30

The acquisition of English phonological awareness in Mandarin-speaking children

Chiang, Pi-Yu January 2010 (has links)
This thesis investigated the effectiveness of 3 intervention programs on the acquisition of English phonological awareness by 58 typically-developing Mandarin-speaking kindergarteners learning English as a foreign language. The programs consisted of perceptual-based, production-based, and phonemic awareness activities. The perceptual-based or production-based intervention was conducted in Phase I, followed by the phonemic awareness activities in Phase II. Children's phonological awareness skills in both Mandarin and English were assessed before and after each Phase. Results indicated that in Phase I, there was no significant difference of phonological awareness skills after the intervention for the groups who received either the perceptual- or the production-based intervention when compared to the control groups. In Phase II, there was a significant difference in overall English and Mandarin phonological awareness test scores for the groups who received phonemic awareness instruction when compared to the control group. Moreover, those children given the perceptual-based or the production-based intervention previously along with phonemic awareness instruction in Phase II did not show an advantage over those who received only phonemic awareness instruction in Phase II. Even though phonemic awareness intervention was carried out with English materials, children's performance in phonological awareness in both Mandarin and English improved. The findings suggest that implementing phonemic awareness activities in English-learning classrooms and in clinical settings where clients have limited English experiences could enhance children's phonological awareness skills in both English and their native language. / Cette thèse évalue l'efficacité de 3 programmes d'intervention visant l'acquisition de la conscience phonologique (CP) de l'anglais par 58 enfants parlant mandarin de maternelle ayant un développement normal et apprenant l'anglais comme langue étrangère. Une intervention au niveau de la perception ou de la production avait lieu lors de la phase I, qui était suivie par des activités de CP lors de la phase II. Les habiletés des enfants au niveau de la CP du mandarin et de l'anglais étaient évaluées avant et après chacune des phases. Les résultats indiquent que suite à la phase I, il n'y avait pas de différence significative au niveau de la CP entre les groupes ayant reçus les interventions au niveau de la perception ou de la production et les groupes contrôles. Suite à la phase II, il y avait une différence significative dans les résultats au niveau de la CP de l'anglais et du mandarin entre les groupes ayant reçus une intervention au niveau de la CP et le groupe contrôle. De plus, les enfants ayant reçu aussi une intervention au niveau de la perception ou de la production, en plus de celle portant sur la CP lors de la phase II, n'ont pas montré un avantage par rapport aux enfants ayant reçus seulement l'intervention portant sur la CP. Malgré le fait que les interventions utilisaient du matériel en anglais, les performances au niveau de la CP de l'anglais et du mandarin se sont améliorées. Ces résultats suggèrent que l'utilisation d'activités de CP dans les classes d'apprentissage de l'anglais et dans le milieu clinique lorsque les clients ont une expérience limité avec l'anglais peut améliorer les habiletés de CP des enfants en anglais de même que dans leur langue maternelle.

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