Menzel, Lorenzo P.
12 November 2013
The immune systems of cnidaria are important to study for two reasons: to gain a better understanding of the evolution of immune responses, and to provide a basis to partially redress the precipitous world-wide die-offs of reef corals, some of which have been attributed to diseases and stress. Many immune responses share ancient evolutionary origins and are common across many taxa. Using Swiftia exserta, an azooxanthellate ahermatypic local octocoral, as a proxy model organism to study aspects of innate immunity in corals and cnidaria allows us to address both of the reasons listed above while not using endangered species. Utilizing a coral that does not contain symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) simplifies the system by restricting the source of proteins to a single genome. The lack of zooxanthellae in Swiftia exserta also allows the animal’s simple adaptation to lab settings. This study of the innate immune system of an octocoral demonstrates: 1) a novel understanding of the microanatomy of octocoral tissues; 2) that Swiftia exserta has at least two cell types that function as constitutive immunocytes; and 3) the presence of two potent antibacterial peptides, one with a mass between 4694 and 4696 Daltons. My report on the microanatomy of the coenenchyme, the tissue between polyps, advances the understanding of octocoral anatomy by systematically comparing histology sections with electron micrographs. Applying various techniques of enzyme histochemistry, coupled with cryo-preservation, to the coenenchyme I have identified at least two populations of constitutive immunocytes in Swiftia exserta. Two antibacterial proteins are identified by protein purification and antimicrobial testing techniques. The more active protein is partially characterized with modern hyphenated mass-spectrometry techniques, and can be the focus of future study.
Metody a strategie výuky žahavců se zaměřením na medúzy v přírodopisu na základní škole / Methods and Strategies in Teaching of Cnidarians with Focus on Jellyfish in Biology Education at Primary SchoolMalúšová, Klára January 2020 (has links)
This diploma thesis deals with the topic of phylum cnidaria as it is being taught in biology classes at primary schools and grammar schools. This work is divided into three parts. The first part deals the position of the topic of phylum cnidaria among curricular documents. It states its classification in the Czech Framework education programme (for Elementary Education) and some chosen School Education Programme. Furthermore, this part analyses the topic as it is written in biology class books, with the clause by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic. Representatives of phylum cnidaria that are mentioned in biology class books are characterised more thoroughly within the scope of the analysis. The second part of the thesis deals with the teaching methods and forms that are used in teaching biology the most frequently and the questionnaire research that tells us which forms and methods are being used the most by teachers to teach about phylum cnidaria and what specific activities they employ in class. The last part of the thesis consists of suggestions for practical activities for teaching the topic of phylum cnidarian inspired by the results of the survey and a description of educational excursion to the World of Jellyfish aquarium with 6th grade pupils. KEYWORDS phylum...
15 December 2017
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) sind kurze nicht-kodierende RNAs, die auf posttranskriptionaler Ebene die Genexpression hemmen. Dafür bilden miRNAs Ribonukleoprotein-Komplexe, deren Kernbestandteile aller Bilateria Argonaute (AGO) und GW182 /TNRC6 Proteine sind. GW182 / TNRC6-Proteine rekrutieren CCR4-NOT-Deadenylasen über kurze Tryptophan-reiche Motive (W-Motive), welche additiv wirken und fördern so die translationale Repression und den Abbau von Ziel-mRNAs. Um mehr über die Mechanismen der miRNA-abhängigen Genrepression zu erfahren, habe ich W-Motiv-abhängige Interaktionspartner humaner TNRC6C Proteine bestimmt. Hierzu habe ich, mithilfe von quantitativer Massenspektrometrie, das Interaktom von wildtyp TNRC6C Proteinen mit dem von TNRC6C Proteinen, deren W-Motive mutiert wurden, verglichen. Neben bekannten Interaktionspartnern, wie Untereinheiten des CCR4-NOT Komplexes, habe ich Komponenten von Clathrin-Vesikeln (CCVs), Stoffwechsel assoziierte Enzyme, mitochondriale Proteine, RNA Helikasen, Kinasen und Phosphatasen mit potentiellen Funktionen in der miRNA-assoziierten Repression identifiziert. Die im ersten Teil dieser Studie vorgestellten Ergebnisse legen nahe, dass CCVs die Speicherung oder das Recycling von TNRC6 und AGO Proteinen vermitteln können und somit das miRNA-Silencing modulieren. Der zweite Teil dieser Studie befasst sich mit der Konservierung von miRNA vermitteltem Gen-Silencing in Cnidaria (Nematostella vectensis), welche sich vor 600 Millionen Jahren von der Ahnenreihe der Metazoa abspalteten. Hier zeige ich anhand humaner Zellen, dass Nematostella GW182, ähnlich wie in Bilateria, von AGO rekrutiert wird und nachfolgend in der Repression der mRNA fungiert, was darauf hinweist, dass dieser Mechanismus der miRNA-vermittelten Geninhibition bereits in den letzten gemeinsamen Vorfahren von Cnidaria und Bilateria aktiv war. / MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional repressors of gene expression. To function miRNAs are assembled in ribonucleoprotein complexes, whose core components in bilaterian animals are Argonaute (AGO) and GW182/TNRC6 proteins. GW182/TNRC6 proteins additively recruit CCR4-NOT deadenylases via short tryptophan-containing motifs (W-motifs), thereby promoting translational repression and the decay of target mRNAs. To gain deeper insights into the mechanisms of miRNA silencing I determined the W-motif-specific interactome of human TNRC6C proteins. Using Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino acids in Cell Culture (SILAC) coupled to affinity purification and Mass Spectrometry (MS) I identified proteins enriched with wild type TNRC6C as compared to two mutants with disrupted W-motifs. Besides known functional interactors, such as subunits of the CCR4-NOT complex, I identified several components of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs), metabolic enzymes, mitochondrial proteins, RNA helicases, kinases, and phosphatases with potential functional roles in miRNA-mediated repression. The results presented in the first part of this thesis indicate that CCVs may mediate the storage or recycling of TNRC6 and AGO proteins, thus modulating miRNA silencing. The second part of the thesis addressed the conservation of the mechanisms of miRNA silencing via W-motifs in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, separated by 600 million years from other Metazoa. Using cultured human cells, I showed that similarly to bilaterians, GW182 in Nematostella is recruited to the miRNA repression complex via interaction with AGO proteins, and functions downstream to repress mRNA, indicating that this mechanism of miRNA-mediated silencing was already active in the last common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria.
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