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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
41

Quels leviers pour une collaboration efficace ? : le rôle de la confiance et de la culture : le cas de la fusion-acquisition entre Air-France et KLM / Which leverls for an efficient collaboration ? : the role of trust and culture : the case of the fusion-acquisition between Air-France and KLM

Van den Berg, Cindy 18 November 2016 (has links)
Le mode de développement externe le plus répandu pour faire face à l’environnement changeant des entreprises (Jacob et Poitras, 2015) est la fusion-acquisition (Meier et Schier, 2012). L’objectif principal des fusions-acquisitions est souvent la recherche de synergies. Or, pour réaliser les objectifs de la nouvelle entité, les individus doivent collaborer afin de créer l’efficacité collective qui permettra d’ajouter de la valeur au travail réalisé (Morin, 2015). Néanmoins, dans la littérature scientifique, nous ne retrouvons pas les déterminants de la collaboration interindividuelle.Cette thèse propose un modèle de recherche intégrant les différents déterminants de la collaboration. Elle accorde une attention particulière à la mesure de l’influence de la confiance et de la culture sur l’efficacité de la collaboration. À l’appui d’une étude empirique qualitative fondée sur 44 entretiens et d'une étude quantitative reposant sur 301 réponses, les deux effectuées au sein d’Air France-KLM, nous avons pu montrer que la confiance et la culture ont une influence particulière lorsqu’il s’agit de l’efficacité de la collaboration.Notre étude confirme, dans un premier temps, l’importance de l’efficacité de la collaboration en montrant qu’elle détermine pour 68 % la réalisation des objectifs. Ensuite, nous observons que la confiance est l’élément essentiel pour une bonne communication et une forte cohésion sociale, qui expliquent à leur tour ensemble 58 % de l’efficacité de la collaboration. Ainsi, nous constatons que la confiance interpersonnelle influence l’efficacité de la collaboration de manière indirecte. Cela est aussi le cas pour la culture. La distance hiérarchique au sein de la culture d’entreprise et l’évitement de l’incertitude au niveau de la culture nationale ont une influence négative sur la confiance et la cohésion sociale. De même, nous remarquons qu’il existe également une influence indirecte de la culture des individus sur l’efficacité de la collaboration. / Merger-acquisition is the most widespread mode of external development for dealing with the changing environment of business (Jacob and Poitras, 2015). The main objective of a merger-acquisition is most often seeking for synergies. However, in order to achieve the objectives of the new entity, individuals must work together to create collective efficiency that adds value to the work they realize (Morin, 2015). Nevertheless, we find no studies in the scientific literature on how to promote effective inter-individual collaboration after a merger-acquisition.This PhD proposes a research model integrating the various determinants of collaboration and pays particular attention to the extent of the influence of trust and culture that play, according to the existing literature, an important role in the effectiveness of inter-individual collaboration. The results of a qualitative study, based on 44 interviews, and a quantitative study, based on 301 questionnaires, that are both realized at Air France-KLM, allow us to see that trust and culture have an important and indirect influence on the effectiveness of collaboration.Our study confirms firstly the importance of studying inter-individual collaboration by showing that its effectiveness determines 68% of the realization of the objectives of the organization. Secondly, we observe that trust is essential for good communication and strong social cohesion, which in turn account for 58% of the effectiveness of collaboration. Thus, we remark that interpersonal trust influences the effectiveness of collaboration indirectly. This is also the case for culture. Power distances in corporate culture and avoidance of uncertainty in national culture have a negative impact on trust and social cohesion. Since social cohesion and communication determine the effectiveness of collaboration, we could conclude that cultural aspects influence the effectiveness of collaboration indirectly.
42

Engagement with text : collaborative writing in a high technology company

Begoray, Deborah Leslie 11 1900 (has links)
Over the past decade, an interest in collaboration has been coming to the fore in composition studies. Whereas once we were primarily interested in investigating the cognitive processes of the individual, we now seek to understand more about the social dynamics of writing in groups to improve our teaching of composition in the classroom. To that end, this dissertation looks at the real world collaborative activities of business proposal writers within a high technology company. Writing in the workplace is often undertaken in groups, and my work at Cerebellum, Inc. with computer professionals (who wrote as part of their jobs) reveals complexities hitherto unsuspected in the social writing process. The importance of a detailed understanding of collaboration has been called for in the literature by, for example, Ede and Lunsford (1990). My dissertation surveys current literature in composition, including a review of investigations into collaboration during business writing as a salient behaviour of such a discourse community. In order to accomplish my research, I used a video camera to record the activities which embodied the writing process at Cerebellum Inc. I found that the use of the video camera in an ethnographic manner not only helped me to gather detailed data, both verbal and nonverbal, in the continuous and comprehensive detail so vital to communication research, but also assisted in initiating better understanding within the business community of the aims and approaches of academic research. Video technology gave me a chance to participate in as well as observe situations, and also opened the door to conversation concerning my methods and my findings with both researchers and informants. I propose a model of the varying levels of engagement undertaken by the writers of a business proposal. I then suggest the educational value of the representation with a discussion of implications for the teaching of writing in the workplace and in more traditional school settings. Detailed research into collaboration offers us a window on the social processes which constitute writing for our students now and in their futures in the workplace. Such work is vitally important to ensuring superior levels of advanced literacy which will be in continuing demand now and in the next century. / Education, Faculty of / Curriculum and Pedagogy (EDCP), Department of / Graduate
43

Never Odd Or Even: Using Temporal Structures In Composing Music For Dance

Bernardo, Daniel 05 1900 (has links)
This study engages the collaboration of dance and music, focusing primarily on experiences in the production of a large scale collaborative concert entitled Never Odd or Even. Famous historical collaborations offer archetypal collaborative models, the more unconventional of which are applied to the pieces of the concert. Issues and observations regarding cross-influence, project evolution, and application of the collaborative models are engaged to determine effective means of collaboration given different circumstances. The key focus of the study, the temporal relationship between music and dance, is explored in great detail to determine three models for relating time between music and dance. These temporal relationship models are applied to the pieces and evaluated on effectiveness and potential strengths when applied to dance.
44

NetEdit: A collaborative Editor

Zafer, Ali Asghar 07 May 2001 (has links)
Centralized systems are easier to build and maintain as compared to completely distributed systems. However, distributed systems have the potential to be responsive and robust relative to centralized systems. This thesis proposes an architecture and concurrency algorithm for collaborative editing that lies between these extremes and preserves the advantages of both approaches while minimizing their shortcomings The Jupiter collaboration system at Xerox PARC uses a 2-party synchronization protocol for maintaining consistency between two users performing unconstrained edits to the document simultaneously. The primary goal of our work has been to extend this 2-party synchronization protocol to an n-way synchronization algorithm. NetEdit is a prototype collaborative editor built to demonstrate this n-way protocol. It uses a replicated architecture with the processing and data distributed across all the clients and the server. Due to replication, the response time of the local edits performed by the users is quite close to a single user editor. The clients do not need to be aware of other clients in the system since each of them synchronizes with their counterpart at the server. All communication regarding editing operations takes place through this server. As a result this system is quite scalable (linear growth) relative to distributed systems (quadratic growth) in terms of number of communication paths required as the number of clients grow. I discuss the details of this extension and illustrate it through an editing scenario. NetEdit uses groupware widgets (telepointers, and radarview) to distribute awareness information between participants. It supports completely unconstrained editing and allows late joining into a session. It does not assume any structure in terms of roles of participants or protocol for collaboration and thus allow users to form whatever protocol suits them. The results and conclusions derived from a preliminary usability study of NetEdit, discuss its efficacy. They also investigate the role of communication and its use in a groupware setting. / Master of Science
45

Collaboration as a Tool for Creating Sustainable Natural Resource Based Economies in Rural Areas

Godwin, Dawn V. 27 April 1999 (has links)
The earth and its global economy are faced with many environmental considerations. Among those are limited resources such as food, energy, and water, as well as a myriad of complex issues including global warming and population growth. These environmental problems are not recent developments, and in attempting to remedy them in the past we have created solutions within the existing scientific and economic framework. However, in recent decades it has become apparent that these problems encompass more than simply science and economics, and an innovative model is supplanting traditional decision-making methods. This new model is collaborative environmental planning (CEM). Collaborative environmental planning differs from traditional problem solving methods in several critical ways. It goes beyond economics and science, incorporating values and norms. Collaborative planning views problems not as belonging to a single discipline, but rather in a holistic, multi-disciplinary manner. In addition, collaborative approaches focus on the process of problem solving, which means involving all stakeholders--in an effort to produce better solutions. The collaborative process ensures that all interested parties (stakeholders) have a voice in shaping solutions. This necessitates incorporating various competing interests from the beginning, thus framing problems in a different manner. Allowing stakeholders to participate and contribute their perspectives means that problems are defined differently than if one or two "experts" look at the same situation. It means that solutions are not necessarily defined by the "experts", or agencies, but within and from the community. Currently, we see this practice manifest in many community initiatives and it seems to be spreading. State and federal agencies are participating in collaborative partnerships as well, and the idea of collaborative planning is infusing into the mainstream of policy and planning. One area of particular interest with regards to collaborative environmental planning is rural resource-based economies. Many of these locales have many inherent features, such as strong ties to the land, that can create a successful platform from which to launch collaborative efforts. Many such communities suffer from resource depletion, loss of economic base, environmental degradation and a host of other resource issues, and face a rather unique situation. These communities depend on the environment in a way urban areas do not. For rural resource-based economies, the environment provides their livelihood and they must change the way that they interact with that environment. These areas must view environmental protection and economic development as one in the same, rather than as two irreconcilable goals. Collaborative environmental planning is using resources which exist within rural communities to create a new problem-solving framework in an effort to create self-sufficiency and positive change. This paper begins with an introduction to the history and theoretical components of collaborative environmental planning in Chapter Two, and then defines the concept by operationalizing several elements of the model in the subsequent chapter. Chapter Four examines rural communities, specifically the issues many currently face, and how collaborative environmental planning is assisting in the revitalization of faltering resource-based economies. Chapter Five provides an in-depth look at three rural collaborative environmental planning efforts, and the uncertainties and accomplishments of each. The final chapter provides lessons that can be applied to collaborative environmental planning and sustainable rural development. / Master of Urban and Regional Planning
46

Professional Learning and Collaboration

Greer, Janet Agnes 10 April 2012 (has links)
The American education system must utilize collaboration to meet the challenges and demands our culture poses for schools. Deeply rooted processes and structures favor teaching and learning in isolation and hinder the shift to a more collaborative paradigm. Professional learning communities (PLCs) support continuous teacher learning, improved efficacy, and program implementation. The PLC provides the framework for the development and enhancement of teacher collaboration and teacher collaboration develops and sustains the PLC. The interpersonal factors that influence collaboration make it difficult to implement and preclude the use of any systematic directions to develop a PLC successfully. However, research has identified emerging strategies that could guide the development of collaborative cultures for school improvement. The researcher designed this case study to describe collaboration in the PLC of an elementary school. The study focuses on collaborative behaviors, perceptions, influences, barriers, and strategies present in the school. The researcher utilized the Professional Learning Community Organizer (Hipp & Huffman, 2010) in the analysis of the data. Hipp, Huffman and others continued the research started by Hord (1990) and identified PLC dimensions and behaviors associated with those dimensions. The PLCO included behaviors aligned with the initiating, implementing, and sustaining phases of each dimension of a PLC. Structure and process, trust and accountability, and empowerment emerged as important themes in the observed PLC. The sequential path to teacher empowerment began with the development of structure and process. Teachers developed trust in each other by demonstrating accountability required by those structures and processes. Trust provided opportunities for risk taking and leadership to emerge. The teachers and administrators demonstrated their commitment to the vision and worked collaboratively for the learning success of all students. The data provided evidence of administrators and teachers making decisions to solve problems and improve instruction based on the vision. The PLC of the elementary school observed demonstrated development at the implementing and sustaining levels. The teachers and administrators worked collaboratively over time to improve teacher practice resulting in improved student learning. The opportunity to utilize the PLC for continuous growth by challenging the new norms and embracing risk taking remains. / Ed. D.
47

Interagency Working Groups: Allegiances Across Agency Borders

Hopkins, Kathlyn J. 09 June 2020 (has links)
This study explores interagency collaboration among agencies within the executive branch of the federal government. Given the mandate to collaborate, conveyed through the Government Results and Performance Act Modernization Act (2010), along with the well-documented institutional challenges of working across agency borders in highly bureaucratic cultures, empirical studies to advance theoretical development are much needed. Cross-boundary studies are often conducted under the umbrella of network theory; however, they have generally explored collaboration across different levels of government (i.e., Federal, state, and local), across sectors (public, private, and non-profit), and among private-sector firms. This study, while likewise exploring multi-organizational collaboration, is situated within the context of public-to-public interorganizational collaboration. The study draws from a sample of interagency groups characterized as examples of action (Agranoff, 2007), transformational (O'Toole, 2014), or orchestrated networks (Müller-Seitz, 2012; Provan and Kenis, 2008). These interagency groups were created expressly to solve a collective problem, with support from an organizing entity. This study adopts from network theory the premise that organizations purposefully working together can achieve better results jointly than independently (O'Toole, 1997; Agranoff and McGuire, 2003; Koliba, et al. 2010; Keast, et al., 2014). It also draws from the few extant empirical studies of public-public collaborative efforts (Jensen, 2017; Scott and Thomas, 2015; Fountain, 2013; Lambert, et. al, 2013; Bardach, 1998; Lynch, 1997; Raach and Kass, 1995; Guetzkow, 1950), from which I surmised that interagency collaboration might be influenced by the differing allegiances of the individual members: (a) their organizational allegiances, (b) their professional allegiances, and (c) the relational allegiances that permeate day-to-day operations and create the structures needed to sustain the group's ongoing legitimacy. As several scholars have noted, more research is needed on the motivational underpinnings of individuals within interorganizational networks (Das and Kumar, 2011; Tasselli, Kilduff and Menges, 2015); such research might advance a fundamentally new understanding of how to manage, structure and govern interorganizational networks (Provan and Lemaire, 2012). This empirical study examined the allegiances that motivated individuals within four interagency working groups to contribute to the aggressive government-wide goals mandated by GPRAMA. Using a mixed-methods approach, my study featured the use of an original survey, complemented by in-depth interviews, administered to a sample of experts. My data suggested an inverse relationship between organizational allegiance and the perceived effectiveness of interagency working group efforts. My data also suggested that the motivational value of professional allegiance varies by type of professional, that weaker allegiances may signal the willingness to compromise, that the power of relational allegiances becomes stronger over time, that relational allegiance is especially important during a change in leadership, and that conscious design of interagency working groups can promote the likelihood of successful collaborations. Through this work, I hope to contribute to the scholarship on purpose-oriented interorganizational networks, while also helping public managers to collaborate across agency borders in order to better achieve results. / Doctor of Philosophy / This study probes the unique motivations of federal workers to collaborate across agency borders. The Government Results and Performance Act Modernization Act (GPRAMA, 2010) mandated greater collaboration among agencies; GPRAMA, along with the well-documented institutional challenges of horizontal collaboration within highly bureaucratic cultures, there is great need for empirical studies to advance theoretical development. Such cross-boundary studies are often conducted under the umbrella of network theory; however, they have generally explored collaboration across different levels of government (i.e., Federal, state, and local), across sectors (public, private, and non-profit), or among private-sector businesses. My research, while likewise exploring multi-organizational collaboration, is situated within the specific context of public-to-public interorganizational collaboration among executive branch agencies – entities with generally equal standing. Moreover, I will be studying interagency working groups that exemplify action (Agranoff, 2007), transformational (O'Toole, 2014), or orchestrated (Müller-Seitz, 2012; Provan and Kenis, 2008) networks. Interagency working groups are created expressly for the purpose of solving a collective problem, with support from an organizing entity such as the U.S. Office of Management and Budget. My study adopts from network theory the premise that organizations purposefully working together can achieve better results jointly than independently (O'Toole, 1997; Agranoff and McGuire, 2003; Koliba, et al. 2010; Keast, et al., 2014). It also draws from the few empirical studies of mostly public-public collaborative efforts that currently exist (Jensen, 2017; Scott and Thomas, 2015; Fountain, 2013b; Lambert, et. al, 2013; Bardach, 1998; Lynch, 1997; Raach and Kass, 1995; Guetzkow, 1950). The earliest study (Guetzkow, 1950) focused on bureaucratic processes such as frequency and duration of meetings and tightness of agendas, finding that 55 to 60 percent of judged effectiveness was not associated with any of the factors studied. Both Raach and Kass (1995) and Lambert, Lewis and Seawall (2013) posited that interagency efforts were riddled with ad hoc processes and personality-driven deliberations, and that inexperienced leaders tended to decrease group effectiveness. Thus, they stressed the criticality of having effective processes in place (a notion that goes back to Hult and Walcott, 1990) for the crises that will inevitably erupt. Bardach (1998) acknowledged the barriers to interagency collaboration, but also highlighted "value creating opportunities" (p. 53) that could motivate individuals to contribute to the collective effort. His empirical data suggested that, while good leadership helps, it is not essential. Fountain (2013) lamented the lack of empirical studies to help advance cross-agency collaboration theory, but pointed to "narratives of promising practice" (p. 109). It is widely accepted that trust and attraction (i.e., "relational allegiances," Bryson, Crosby and Stone, 2006) can stimulate positive results in networks (Issett, 2011), but interagency working groups are often comprised of individuals previously not known to one another, so other variables should also be studied. Scott and Thomas (2015) highlighted the importance of just the collaborative group itself, but to the multiple institutions within which the group was embedded. Jensen (2017) suggested that results-oriented interagency efforts might be predicated upon the motivation to be part of something novel, important, and ultimately rewarding. Summarizing the literature to date, I surmised that interagency collaboration could be influenced by the differing allegiances of the individual members: (a) their organizational allegiances, (b) their professional allegiances, and (c) the relational allegiances that permeate day-to-day operations and create the structures needed to sustain the group's ongoing legitimacy. As several scholars have noted, more research is needed on the motivational underpinnings of individuals within interorganizational networks (Das and Kumar, 2011; Tasselli, Kilduff and Menges, 2015). Such research might advance a fundamentally new understanding of how to manage, structure and govern interorganizational networks (Provan and Lemaire, 2012). Given the recent mandate to collaborate, the need for theoretical development in the realm of public-to-public collaboration is particularly acute. This empirical study examined the allegiances that motivated the individual members of four interagency working groups to contribute to the aggressive government-wide goals mandated by GPRAMA. Using a mixed-methods approach, my study featured the use of an original survey, complemented by in-depth interviews, administered to a sample of expert individuals. My data suggested an inverse relationship between the strength of organizational allegiance and the perceived effectiveness of interagency working group efforts. My data also suggested that the motivational value of professional allegiance varies by type of professional, that relatively weak allegiances, overall, may signal the willingness to compromise, that the power of relational allegiances becomes stronger over time, that strong relational allegiance is especially important when it is necessary to maintain continuity during a change in leadership, and that conscious design of interagency working groups can promote the likelihood of successful collaborations. Through this work, I hope to contribute to the scholarship on multiple allegiances within purpose-oriented interorganizational networks, while also helping public managers to collaborate across agency borders in order to in order to better achieve results.
48

Investigating Awareness-Supporting Techniques in Co-located Sensemaking

Niu, Shuo 07 August 2019 (has links)
Co-located sensemaking has benefitted from multi-user multi-touch devices such as tabletops and wall-mounted displays. Sensemakers use these displays to establish personal workspaces in which to perform individual sensemaking tasks, while preserving a shared space for the exchange and integration of findings. A large open interaction space allows multiple sensemakers to interact with the display at the same time and to communicate with partners face-to-face. However, collaborative systems must balance the tradeoff between working separately to complete individual work, and the need to communicate and maintain collaborative awareness. Dividing the tasks and working at the same time might encourage more alternative exploration paths, but reduced social exchange could also lead to weak mutual understanding and increased effort for work integration. Furthermore, close collaboration on the same task increases mutual awareness, but the tendency toward one-person dominance or turn-taking interaction underutilizes individual time and space, thereby reducing the benefits of divide-and-conquer. The four studies introduced in this dissertation investigated co-located space factors for notifications and shared visualization as two awareness-supporting techniques to assist individual contribution and teamwork. The research identifies control, awareness, and communication as key co-located space factors to balance cooperation, coordination, contribution, and communication. Knowledge on how notification and visualization techniques affect the co-located factors is explored and summarized. The findings identify design knowledge to better balance the individual work and styles of collaboration. Finally, this dissertation concludes by examining how awareness-supporting techniques affect the relationship between control, awareness, and communication. / Doctor of Philosophy / Co-located sensemaking has benefitted from multi-user multi-touch devices such as tabletops and wall-mounted displays. Sensemakers use these displays to perform individual sensemaking tasks, while preserving a shared space for the exchange and integration of findings. A large open interaction space allows multiple sensemakers to interact with the display at the same time and to communicate with partners face-to-face. However, collaborative systems must balance individual work and collaboration with other partners. Dividing the sensemaking tasks and working at the same time might encourage more alternative exploration paths, but reduced conversation could also lead to weak mutual understanding and increased effort for work integration. Furthermore, close collaboration on the same task increases mutual understanding, but the tendency toward one-person dominance or turn-taking interaction reduces the benefits of divide-and-conquer. Through four studies, this dissertation investigates notifications and shared visualization as two awareness-supporting techniques to assist individual contribution and team work. The research identifies individual control, awareness, and communication as key co-located space factors to balance cooperation, coordination, contribution, and communication. Knowledge on how notification and visualization techniques affect the co-located space factors is explored and summarized, to better design collaborative systems to support co-located sensemaking.
49

A Study of the LiNC Project: Collaboration, Teaching, Research, and the Social Construction of Technology

Dunlap, Daniel Ray 22 April 2002 (has links)
This dissertation presents a case study the Learning in Networked Communities (LiNC) project. The focus of the study is on the social processes involved in the development and deployment of technologies associated with the LiNC project. These processes involved the work of university investigators, software developers, teachers and other researchers. The technologies that were developed and deployed were collaborative computer network-based software tools for use in several local high school and middle school science classrooms. I discuss methodological implications for the study of the social construction of technology in the field of Science and Technology Studies in regards to my methodological approach to the study of this project. I describe the political context of surrounding the National Science Foundation and the funding of research and development programs related to the Internet. I trace the historical infrastructure development of Internet technologies especially as they relate to the technology developed in the LiNC project. I describe the execution of the main grant that funded the LiNC project, the methods employed in that study, and the activities of researchers, teachers, and students focusing on their perspectives, interactions, and understandings of the events of that period of time. Finally, I draw conclusions about such study of technological development, university research, teaching, the field of Human-Computer Interaction, and the prospects for future research in these areas. / Ph. D.
50

Developing Collaboration Between the Figsboro Elementary School Child Study Committee and Agencies That Serve Children and Families

Grandinetti, Patricia Hylton 11 August 1998 (has links)
This study was designed to show how the Figsboro Elementary School Child Study Committee transformed from an uninformed committee to one that became informed. This created a more effective Child Study Committee. Strategies were identified and implemented to show how this process evolved. / Ed. D.

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