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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Analysis of copper fluxes in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and its implication for environmental management

Li, Heng, 李恒 January 2001 (has links)
published_or_final_version / Civil Engineering / Master / Master of Philosophy
2

Biological indicators of copper-induced stress in soil

Du Plessis, Keith R. (Keith Roland) 03 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MSc)--University of Stellenbosch, 2002. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The concentrations of copper (Cu) in vineyard soils of the Western Cape range from 0.1 to 20 ppm. However, more than 160 tons of the fungicide copper oxychloride are annually being sprayed on these vineyards. This has raised concerns that Cu may accumulate in these soils, resulting in a negative impact on the soil biological processes, especially since the soils in the Western Cape are slightly acidic, making Cu more mobile and available for soil organisms than would have been the case in alkaline soils. The goal of the initial part of this study was therefore to identify those soil microbial communities indigenous to the Western Cape, which are most susceptible to Cu-induced stress as a result of the addition of copper oxychloride. These potential bioindicators of Cu-induced stress were first searched for in uncultivated agricultural soil from Nietvoorbij experimental farm. Consequently, a series of soil microcosms was prepared by adding various concentrations of Cu as a component of copper oxychloride, to each of eight aliquots of soil: 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 ppm. The resulting concentrations of exchangeable Cu in these microcosms were found to be 2 (control), 12,23,34,42,59, 126,516 and 1112 ppm. Selected microbial communities in each microcosm were subsequently monitored over a period of 245 days. It was found that the culturable microbial numbers did not provide a reliable indication of the effect of Cu on community integrity. However, analyses of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) community fingerprints and especially analyses of the whole community metabolic profiles, revealed that shifts in the soil microbial communities took place as the Cu concentration increased. Direct counts of soil protozoa also revealed that the addition of Cu to the soil impacted negatively on the numbers of these eukaryotes. To confirm these findings in other soil ecosystems, the impact of copper oxychloride on whole community metabolic profiles and protozoan numbers were investigated in soils from Koopmanskloof commercial farm and Nietvoorbij experimental farm. These potential bioindicators were subsequently monitored in a series of soil microcosms prepared for each soil type by adding the estimated amounts of 0 (control), 30, 100 and 1000 ppm Cu as a component of copper oxychloride to the soil. The results confirmed the fmdings that elevated levels of copper impact negatively on the metabolic potential and protozoan numbers of soil. Consequently, it was decided to investigate a combination of protozoan counts and metabolic profiling as a potential bioindicator for Cu-induced stress in soil. Data collected from all the microcosms containing exchangeable Cu concentrations ranging from 1 ppm to 1112 ppm was used to construct a dendrogram using carbon source utilization profiles in combination with protozoan counts. It was found that the microcosms grouped into clusters, which correlated with the concentration of exchangeable Cu in the soil. Under the experimental conditions used in this study, the combination of protozoan counts and metabolic profiling seemed to be a reliable indicator of Cu-induced stress. However, this bioindicator must be further investigated in other soil types using other types of stress inducing pollutants. In addition to the above fmdings it was also found that the numbers of soil protozoa was particularly susceptible to Cu-induced stress in soils with a low soil pH. This is in agreement with the fmdings of others on the bio-availability of heavy metals in low pH soils. In these soils, nutrient cycling as a result of protozoan activity, may therefore be particularly susceptible to the negative impact of copper to the soil. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die konsentrasies van koper (Cu) in wingerdgronde van die Wes-Kaap wissel tussen 0.1 en 20 dpm. Meer as 160 ton van die fungisied koper-oksichloried word egter jaarliks op dié wingerde gespuit, wat kommer laat ontstaan het oor die moontlike akkumulasie van Cu in dié grond en die gevaar van 'n negatiewe impak op die biologiese prosesse in die grond. Die gevaar word vererger deur die feit dat die Wes-Kaapse grond effens suur is, wat Cu meer mobiel en beskikbaar maak vir grondorganismes as wat die geval sou wees in alkaliese grond. Die eerste doelstelling van hierdie studie was dus om die mikrobiese gemeenskappe in die grond, wat inheems is aan die Wes-Kaap, te identifiseer wat die meeste vatbaar is vir Cu-geïnduseerde stres as gevolg van die toevoeging van koper-oksichloried. Hierdie potensiële bioindikatore van Cu-geïnduseerde stres is eerstens gesoek in onbewerkte landbougrond van die Nietvoorbij-proefplaas. 'n Reeks grondmikrokosmosse is gevolglik berei deur verskillende konsentrasies Cu, as 'n komponent van koperoksichloried, by elk van agt hoeveelhede grond te voeg naamlik 0 (kontrole), 10,20, 30, 40, 50, 100, 500 en 1000 dpm. Die gevolglike konsentrasies van uitruilbare Cu in hierdie mikrokosmosse was 2 (kontrole), 12, 23, 34, 42, 59, 126, 516 en 1112 dpm. Geselekteerde mikrobiese gemeenskappe in elke mikrokosmos is vervolgens oor 'n tydperk van 245 dae bestudeer. Daar is gevind dat die kweekbare mikrobiese tellings nie 'n betroubare aanduiding kon gee van die uitwerking van Cu op gemeenskapsintegriteit nie. Die ontledings van terminale-restriksie fragment lengte polymorfisme (T-RFLP) gemeenskapsvingerafdrukke en veral van die metaboliese profiele van die totale gemeenskap, het getoon dat verskuiwings in die grondmikrobiese gemeenskappe plaasgevind het met 'n toename in Cu-konsentrasies. Direkte tellings van grondprotosoë het ook aangedui dat die toevoeging van Cu tot die grond 'n negatiewe uitwerking op die getalle van hierdie eukariote gehad het. Om dié resultate te bevestig, is die impak van koper-oksichloried op die metaboliese profiele van totale gemeenskappe en protosoë-getalle in ander grond-ekosisteme vervolgens bestudeer deur grond van die kommersiële plaas Koopmanskloof en die Nietvoorbij-proefplaas te gebruik. Dié potensiële bioindikatore is vervolgens bestudeer in 'n reeks grondmikrokosmosse, wat vir elke grondtipe voorberei is deur die toevoeging van beraamde hoeveelhede van 0 (kontrole), 30, 100 en 1000 dpm Cu as 'n komponent van koper-oksichloried. Die resultate het die bevindings bevestig dat verhoogde vlakke van Cu 'n negatiewe uitwerking het op die metaboliese potensiaal en op die protosoëgetalle in die grond. Daar is gevolglik besluit om 'n kombinasie van protosoë-tellings en metaboliese profiele te ondersoek as 'n potensiële bioindikator van Cu-geïnduseerde stres in grond. Data van al die mikrokosmosse wat uitruilbare Cu bevat, wisselend van 1 dpm tot 1112 dpm, is gebruik om 'n dendrogram te konstrueer wat koolstofbronbenuttingsprofiele in kombinasie met protosoë tellings gebruik. Daar is gevind dat die mikrokosmosse groepe vorm wat korrelleer met die konsentrasie uitruilbare Cu in die grond. Onder die eksperimentele kondisies wat in dié studie gebruik is, wil dit voorkom of die kombinasie van protosoë-tellings en metaboliese profiele 'n betroubare indikator van Cugeïnduseerde stres is. Hierdie bioindikator moet egter verder in ander grondtipes en met ander tipes stres-induserende besoedeling ondersoek word. By bogenoemde bevindings is daar ook gevind dat die getalle grondprotosoë besonder gevoelig is vir Cu-geïnduseerde stres in grond met In lae pH. Dit is in ooreenstemming met die bevindings van andere met betrekking tot die bio-beskikbaarheid van swaar metale in grond met 'n lae pH. In dié tipe grond mag nutriëntsiklering as gevolg van protosoë aktiwiteit besonder gevoelig wees vir die negatiewe uitwerking van koper in die grond.
3

Preference avoidance reactions of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) following long term sublethal exposure to chromium and copper

Anestis, Ioannis D. January 1988 (has links)
No description available.
4

Preference avoidance reactions of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) following long term sublethal exposure to chromium and copper

Anestis, Ioannis D. January 1988 (has links)
A standard methodology was developed for performing avoidance-preference tests, using Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri) as the test organism. Experiments were conducted in a hydraulic channel, 9.15 m long by 0.30 m wide, partly divided along its length, and at a flow depth of 0.30 m. The design combined steep and shallow gradient characteristics. The toxicants investigated included Cu(II), Cr(III) and Cr(VI). The lowest avoidance threshold values were established at 2.1 $ mu$g/l for Cu(II) and 0.0026 mg/l and 0.026 mg/l for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) respectively while avoidance reactions increased with levels of toxicant in the channel. Similar experiments were performed with rainbow trout which were pre-exposed at sublethal levels to the toxicant, in order to assess the influence of toxic pre-exposure to the subsequent fish avoidance response. The length of pre-exposure varied between 7-20 weeks. Avoidance threshold values were correlated with safe levels of toxicant exposure. / Pre-exposed fish exhibited decreasing avoidance reactions compared to non-exposed populations. Increased tolerance to the toxicant, was suggested by the increase in avoidance threshold values with pre-exposure levels. Fish exposed to test concentrations matching their pre-exposure levels, clearly preferred this same concentration over the adjacent lower or higher test concentration. / A two mechanism avoidance model was proposed independent of toxicant used or level of pre-exposure. The toxicant concentration where the second mechanism begins to dominate was referred to as avoidance breakpoint, and was correlated to a MATC level for the toxicant in question. Olfactory responses were proposed to be associated with fish avoidance responses below the avoidance breakpoint, while hypoxic stress along with osmo- and iono regulatory stress appeared to be responsible for driving fish avoidance reactions beyond the avoidance breakpoint. / A clearance period of 7 days was sufficient to allow fish to recover normal avoidance behaviour following pre-exposure to Cr(VI) below the avoidance breakpoint.
5

Toxicity of copper to the shrimp Metapenaeus ersis.

January 1992 (has links)
by Janet Kwai-yu Cheung. / Thesis (M.Phil.)--Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1992. / Includes bibliographical references (leaves 130-106). / ABSTRACT --- p.1 / ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS --- p.4 / TABLE OF CONTENTS --- p.5 / LIST OF TABLES --- p.7 / LIST OF FIGURES --- p.9 / Chapter CHAPTER 1 --- GENERAL INTRODUCTION --- p.11 / Chapter CHAPTER 2 --- LITERATURE REVIEW / Chapter 2.1 --- Toxicity of heavy metals to crustaceans --- p.13 / Chapter 2.2 --- Heavy metal pollution in Hong Kong waters --- p.20 / Chapter 2.3 --- Copper: its nature and occurrence --- p.27 / Chapter 2.4 --- General biology of Metapenaeus ensis --- p.32 / Chapter CHAPTER 3 --- ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF COPPER TO METAPENAEUS ENSIS / Chapter 3.1 --- Introduction --- p.39 / Chapter 3.2 --- Materials and Methods --- p.39 / Chapter 3.3 --- Results --- p.45 / Chapter 3.4 --- Discussion --- p.68 / Chapter CHAPTER 4 --- SUBLETHAL EFFECTS OF COPPER TO METAPENAEUS ENSIS / Chapter 4.1 --- Introduction --- p.76 / Chapter 4.2 --- Materials and Methods --- p.76 / Chapter 4.3 --- Results --- p.82 / Chapter 4.4 --- Discussion --- p.96 / Chapter CHAPTER 5 --- GENERAL CONCLUSIONS --- p.101 / REFERENCES --- p.103
6

Biochemical and physiological indicators of behavioral impairment in salmonids exposed to chlorpyrifos and copper

Sandahl, Jason 17 September 2003 (has links)
The purpose of this work was to determine if environmentally-relevant concentrations of chlorpyrifos and copper, two commonly detected chemicals in Western surface waters, can negatively impact the biological health of salmonids. Both compounds are highly neurotoxic to fish, but each with distinct biological target sites and mechanisms of action. We used common biochemical and physiological indicators of toxicity, and correlated these effects with potentially significant behavioral alterations. For chlorpyrifos, the mechanism of toxic action is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) throughout the peripheral and central nervous system. Here, we conducted biochemical assays of AChE activity in brain and muscle tissues after exposing steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coho salmon (0. kisutch) to chlorpyrifos for 96 hours. We then correlated the AChE inhibition with behavioral impairment in swimming and feeding activities. In juvenile steelhead and coho exposed to 0.6-2.5 ��g/L chlorpyrifos, AChE activity was inhibited between ~10-65%. This biochemical indicator was significantly correlated with changes in behavioral patterns. Spontaneous swimming rates were reduced ~30-80% in the exposed fish, and strikes at food items (brine shrimp) were reduced ~10-70%. For copper and some other neurotoxicants, the olfactory nervous system is a sensitive target site in fish. The highly-developed olfactory system in salmonids is particularly susceptible to toxic insult by dissolved chemicals since receptor neurons are in direct contact with the aquatic environment. Here, we used electrophysiological techniques to record odor-evoked responses from the sensory epithelium and the olfactory bulb as direct measures of olfactory function in juvenile coho salmon. In fish exposed to copper, chlorpyrifos, or esfenvalerate for 7 days, field potentials recorded from the sensory epithelium and the olfactory bulb showed reduced or obscured olfactory responses to two classes of odorants, which activate non-overlapping populations of receptor neurons. To determine if this reduced sensory input can subsequently alter or diminish olfactory-mediated predator avoidance behaviors, paired physiological and behavioral tests were conducted on juvenile coho exposed to copper. In fish exposed to 2-20 ��g/L copper for 3 hours, olfactory sensitivity was reduced by ~50-9O%. When these fish were presented with a predatory alarm cue (conspecific skin extract), fish with reduced olfactory function increasingly failed to exhibit antipredator behavior. In the following experiments, we show that chlorpyrifos and copper can impair the biochemical and physiological biology of salmonids at environmentally-relevant concentrations, and that these sublethal effects can alter potentially important behavioral patterns. / Graduation date: 2004
7

The effects of copper and zinc on seven species of Atriplex

Weinstein, Jeffrey Michael January 1980 (has links)
No description available.
8

Phosphate cycling in copper mine tailings

Wilson, Margaret B. January 1981 (has links)
No description available.
9

Movement of copper from in-ground root control fabrics

Kosuta, Sonja A. January 1998 (has links)
Copper hydroxide-treated surfaces are commonly used to control roots in horticultural production systems, although the particulars of Cu movement from the treated surface are largely unknown. The rate and temporal pattern of Cu mobility from in-ground Cu-treated growing baskets, and the fate of this Cu, was studied. In a field experiment involving Acer platanoides, an alternative Cu formulation consisting of Cu metal powder was determined to move slightly more slowly from the basket fabric than Cu(OH)2 over the first season while providing adequate root control. Addition of Glomus intraradices inoculum to the basket system increased the mobility of Cu metal and had no effect on Cu(OH) 2. This suggests that VAM fungi can actively solubilize Cu metal. These results also confirm that the chemistry of the Cu, possibly in addition to the chemistry of the resin, determines Cu movement from the treated surface. The fate of Cu from in-ground baskets planted with Acer jinnala was elucidated in a second field experiment. After one field season, the majority of Cu initially on the basket fabric had been deposited in the soil both in- and outside the basket. While Cu recovered in leachate represented only a tiny fraction of basket Cu, the concentration of Cu in leachate exceeded acceptable limits in the majority of samples. This indicates that the use of Cu(OH) 2-treated baskets in the field may have a negative impact on groundwater quality.
10

Copper migration through petroleum-treated soils

Woods, William Eric January 1990 (has links)
The purpose of the project was to determine the effect of various petroleum amendments on the migration rate of Cu. The petroleum amendments used in this research are frequently added to the soil surface in petroleum landfarming. Such petroleum wastes often contain significant amounts of Cu and other metals.Soil columns were amended with citric acid, used crankcase oil and Illinois crude oil. Each amendment was spiked (treated) with three different concentrations of Cu and each treatment was replicated three times. The columns were leached once per week, for ten weeks, with distilled water acidified to pH 4.5 to simulate acid rain. Leachate from the soil columns was analyzed weekly for total Cu. At the end of the ten week period, the soil was analyzed for Cu and TOC content at 7 cm intervals to determine the amount of migration by Cu and the organic amendments, resectively. The soil (a Glynwood silt loam) and the organic amendments were each analyzed for total Cu to determine background levels. The soil was analyzed for pH, TOC, electrical conductivity and soil texture.Analysis of the leachate and soil showed differential migration of Cu through the soil columns. Significant levels of Cu leached in the columns amended with citric acid (as high as 85.3 mg/L) in the first 3 weeks of the study. The Cu content of the leachate from columns amended with crude petroleum were at approximately background levels (5.5 mg/L) as was the leachate from columns amended with crankcase oil (0.2 mg/L). In the later weeks of the research, as the petroleum amendments were broken down by microorganisms, some Cu was chelated to small fragments of the petroleum and leached through the soil columns. Most of the Cu appeared to remain on the surface of the columns, bound to the petroleum amendments. Analysis of the soil, for total Cu content with depth, showed very little Cu accumulation at any depth in the soil column, beyond the soil surface. In most cases Cu levels remained near the background levels found in the control columns.Moderate correlation was found (r2 = .59 for crude oil; r2 = - .54 for crankcase oil; r2 = .85 for citric acid) between Cu levels and TOC levels in the soil columns with depth.From the results of the current study it can be inferred that practices such as petroleum landfarming and land disposal of some hazardous materials may allow for the migration of both the applied petroleum wastes and any metals which may be contained within. / Department of Natural Resources

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