Kinetic studies of Cr(VI) reduction in an indigenous mixed culture of bacteria in the presence of As(III)Igboamalu, Tony E. January 2014 (has links)
An indigenous mixed culture of bacteria collected from a Wastewater Treatment Plant (Brits, North West Province, South Africa), biocatalytically reduced Cr(VI) in the presence of As(III). Both the reduced chromium (Cr(III)) and the oxidised arsenic (As(V)) readily form amorphous hydroxides that can be easily separated or precipitated from the aqueous phase as part of the treatment process. Treatment of Cr(VI) and As(III) before disposal of wastewater is critical since both compounds are known to be carcinogenic and mutagenic at very low concentrations, and acutely toxic at high concentrations. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the rate of Cr(VI) reduction under anaerobic condition in the presence of its co-contaminant As(III) typically found in the groundwater and mining effluent. Results showed near complete Cr(VI) reduction under initial Cr(VI) concentrations up to 70 mg/L in a batch amended with 20 mg/L As(III). However, increasing Cr(VI) concentrations up to 100 mg/L resulted in the inhibition of Cr(VI) reduction activity. Further investigation was conducted in a batch reactor amended with 70 mg/L Cr(VI) concentration at different As(III) concentrations ranging from 5-70 mg/L to evaluate the effect of varying As(III) concentration on Cr(VI) reduction efficiency. Results showed that Cr(VI) reduction efficiency increased as As(III) concentrations increased from 5-40 mg/L. However, further increase in As(III) concentration up to 50 mg/L resulted in incomplete Cr(VI) reduction and decrease in Cr(VI) reduction efficiency. These results suggest that the rate of Cr(VI) reduction depends on the redox reaction of As(III) and As(V) with Cr(VI). Moreover, the inhibitory effect observed at high Cr(VI) and As(III) concentration may also be attributed to the dual toxicity effect of Cr(VI) and As(III) on microbial cell. From the above batch kinetic studies lethal concentration of Cr(VI) and As(III) for these strains was evaluated and established. Initial evaluation of the bacteria using 16S rRNA partial sequence method showed that cells in the mixed culture comprised predominantly of the Gram-positive species: Staphylococcus sp., Enterobacter sp., and Bacillus sp. The biokinetic parameters of these strains were estimated using a non-competitive inhibition model with a computer programme for simulation of the Aquatic System “AQUASIM 2.0”. Microbial reduction of Cr(VI) in the presence of As(III) was further investigated in continuous-flow bioreactors (biofilm reactor) under varying Cr(VI) loading rates. The reactor achieved Cr(VI) removal efficiency of more than 96 % in the first three phases of continuous operation at lower Cr(VI) concentration ranging from 20-50 mg/L. However, 20 % decrease in Cr(VI) removal efficiency was observed as Cr(VI) concentration increase up to 100 mg/L. The reactor was able to recover from Cr(VI) and As(III) overloading phase after establishing the resilient nature of the microorganism. Similarly to the batch reactor studies the overall performance of the reactor also demonstrated that the presence of As(III) greatly enhance Cr(VI) reduction in a bioreactor. This was evident by near complete removal of Cr(VI) concentration up to 50 mg/L. The basic mass balance expressions on Cr(VI) along with the non-competitive inhibition model were used to estimate the biokinetic parameters in the continuous flow bioreactor system. Cr(VI) reduction efficiency along the longitudinal column was also evaluated in this study. Results showed that Cr(VI) efficiency increased as Cr(VI) concentration travels along the longitudinal column. Other important factors such as oxygen and pH during biological Cr(VI) reduction in the presence of As(III) oxidation were also evaluated. / Dissertation (MEng)--University of Pretoria, 2014. / tm2015 / Chemical Engineering / MEng / Unrestricted
18 December 2004
Recently there have been considerable interests in nanometerial study. In this work, we have used carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymers (CPs) as models to make a nanotube and conducting polymer composite material. Under electro-oxidation condition, the PPy/CNT films can be grown on conventional substrates such as a glassy carbon electrode in aqueous and non-aqueous media. These nano-conjugated materials are based on the doping of CNTs particles into conducting polymer network while oxidatively polymerizing. CNTs serve as dopants and solely supporting electrolytes in the preparation. The CP/CNT new composite materials have showed promise not only in a potential environmental remedy such as conversion of highly toxic Cr(VI) into less harmful Cr(III), but also in electrocatalysis of the quinone/hydroquinone redox reaction. Voltammetry, bulk electrolysis with coulometry, AC impedance, and EQCM techniques have been used to elucidate the preparation, ion transport, and intermolecular interaction processes within these composites.
Estudo da especiação do cromo no processo de adsorção por carvão ativado usando a espectroscopia de emissão de raios X Kβ / Study of the chromium speciation during the adsorption process on activated carbon as assessed by X-ray Kβ emission spectroscopyCamera, Adriana Simane 25 February 2011 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2017-07-10T18:08:16Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Adriana Simane Camera.pdf: 3567207 bytes, checksum: 8d7a8eda99ee4c4d490c232bcc95cfd2 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2011-02-25 / Fundação Araucária / This work aims to study the reduction of hexavalent chromium to trivalent form through the adsorption process as assessed by the Kβ X-ray emission spectrometry. As adsorbent material activated carbon samples were used, while the resin Amberlite IR 120 was used as an indicator of the presence of Cr(III) in all solutions containing Cr(VI). Preliminar speciation tests were performed previously in solutions containing Cr(VI) in order to analyze the possible reduction to Cr(III) due to the effect of solution pH. A EDTA-based colorimetric speciation method of Cr(III) was applied. Preliminary kinetic Cr adsorption tests were performed at controlled temperature and agitation, achieving the equilibrium at 24 h for activated carbon. Batch single equilibrium Cr adsorption experiments using activated carbon and cation exchange resin materials as adsorbents and 8 mequiv.L-1 of Cr (III) and Cr(VI) ions as adsorvates were performed at pH 3.5 and under controlled temperature and agitation. Adsorbent and Cr reference material samples were pressed in pellets for spectrometric analysis. By using a high-resolution spectrometer of Johann type and a 6.1 keV monochromatic X-ray beam, Kβ X-ray emission spectra of Cr-treated adsorbent and reference material samples were registered by a Si detector, scanning the scattering X-ray by a spherycal bent analyzer around the Kβ1,3 spectral line of metallic chromium. The sample, spherical bent analyzer and detector system was positioned on the Rowland circle in order to scan in high resolution condition, focus the maximum back-scattered X-ray beam on the main detector and built Kβ X-ray emission spectra. As the incident monochromatic X-ray beam is a time-depending function, X-ray intensity that was registrated by detector was monitored and it was normalized to monitor-detector intensity. By setting measurement time of 2-4 h for Cr-treated adsorbent samples and 10-30 min for Cr reference material ones, a complete full scan of Kβ X-ray emission region was performed with enough statistic to observe the sattelite lines of chromium, which suffer a strong influence due to the oxidation state of metal ion and the chemical environment. The Cr-Kβ emission spectra were plotted on the basis of recorded X-ray intensity (y-axis) and spherical bent analyzer (SBA) position (x-axis), performing both the monitor-to-normalized intensity and the converted-to-energy SBA position. Besides this, scattered X-rays on matrix bulk and chromium absorption edge effect were systematically subtracted from Cr-Kβ emission spectra, applying pseudo-physical procedures and consequentely allowing enhancing the weaker sattellites lines of chromium. Main physical characteristic such as energy and intensity of main (Cr-Kβ1,3) and satellite lines (Cr-Kβ2,5 and Cr-Kβ ) for Cr-Kβ emission spectra of Cr treated-adsorbent samples were extracted by gaussian type peak fits and then compared with those of Cr reference materials, allowing to assign the oxidation state of chromium ions adsorbed on activated carbon surface and removed by an ion exchange process on cationic resin surface. In addition, no Cr(VI) reduction in acidic solutions was observed according to the EDTA-based colorimetric speciation result as well as with no presence of Cr(III)-Kβ spectral line pattern in Cr(VI) treated cationic resin samples. Based on Cr-Kβ spectral line analysis, the activated carbon samples treated with Cr(III) and Cr(VI) ions have shown the same spectral line pattern corresponding to the Cr(III) one. Thus, the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) has occurred by the adsorption process / Este trabalho visa estudar a redução do cromo hexavalente à forma trivalente através do processo de adsorção, avaliada pela espectrometria Kβ de emissão. Amostras de carvão ativado foram utilizados como material adsorvente, enquanto a resina Amberlite IR 120 foi usada como um indicador da presença de Cr(III) em todas as soluções contendo Cr(VI). Testes preliminares de especiação foram realizados em soluções contendo Cr(VI), a fim de analisar a possível redução para Cr(III) devido ao efeito do pH da solução. Foi aplicado o método de especiação colorimétrica de Cr(III), usando como complexante o EDTA. Testes preliminares da cinética de adsorção de íons de Cr foram realizados em batelada a temperatura e agitação controlada, alcançando o equilíbrio em 24 h para o carvão ativado. Foram realizados experimentos de adsorção de Cr utilizando carvão ativado e resina de troca catiônica materiais em soluções contendo 8 mequiv L-1 de Cr(III) e Cr(VI) em pH 3,5 e com temperatura e agitação controladas. Foram prensados, em forma de pastilhas, amostras de adsorventes tratados com Cr(III) e (VI), além de materiais de referência de Cr, para análise espectrométrica. Usando um espectrômetro de alta resolução do tipo de Johann e um feixe de raios X monocromático de 6,1 keV, foram registrados, por um detector de Si, espectros de emissão de raios-X Kβ de amostras de material adsorbente tratados com íons de Cr bem como de materiais de referência, fazendo para tanto a varredura em energia dos raios-X espalhados pela amostra em torno da linha espectral principal Kβ do cromo metálico. O conjunto amostra, analisador esfericamente curvado (SBA) e detector foi posicionado sobre um círculo de Rowland, a fim de obter, em condições de alta resolução, a focalização do feixe de raios X retro-espalhados no detector principal e permitindo a construção de espectros de emissão Kβ. Como a intensidade do feixe incidente de raios-X monocromático foi uma função dependente do tempo, a intensidade de raios-X registrada pelo detector foi monitorada e normalizada por aquela registrada pelo detector-monitor. Ao definir o tempo de medição de 2-4 h para amostras adsorvente tratadas com íons de Cr e 10-30 min para os compostos de referência de Cr, uma região completa do espectro de emissão de raios-X foi obtida com estatística suficiente para observar as linhas satélite dos íons de cromo, que sofrem uma forte influência devido ao estado de oxidação do íon metálico e do ambiente químico. Os espectros Kβ foram graficados em intensidade de raios-X contra a posição do analisador curvado (SBA), sendo sistematicamente normalizados a intensidade do detector-monitor e convertendo a posição do SBA em energia. Além disso, o fundo oriundo dos raios X espalhados na amostra e do efeito da borda de absorção do Cr foi subtraído de todos os espectros de emissão Cr-K, destacando assim as linhas satelites de cromo. As características físicas, como a energia e a intensidade, das linhas principais (Cr-Kβ1,3) e linhas satélite (Cr-Kβ2,5 e Cr-Kβ") foram extraídas dos espectros de emissão Cr-K das amostras tratadas com Cr e comparados com os dos materiais de referência, permitindo inferir o estado de oxidação do cromo adsorvido no carvão ativado e os que também foram removidos pela resina catiônica. Além disso, não foi observado a redução do Cr(VI) na solução, de acordo com a ausência das linhas espectrais de Cr(III) em amostras de resina catiônica tratadas com Cr(VI). Baseado na análise das linhas espectrais, as amostras de carvão ativado tratadas com Cr(III) e Cr(VI) têm mostrado o mesmo padrão de linhas espectrais correspondentes ao Cr(III) e portanto, a redução de Cr(VI) para Cr(III) ocorreu durante o processo de adsorção
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