Tse, Wan-wai, 謝韻慧
published_or_final_version / Anatomy / Master / Master of Philosophy
Investigation of the proteomic interaction profile of uncoupling protein 3 and its effect on epigeneticsYan, Xiwei 18 September 2014 (has links)
Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are localized on the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) and “uncouple” the electrochemical proton gradient formed by the electron transport chain (ETC) from ATP production. Though the prototypical uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is known to mediate the cold-induced thermogenesis in rodents and human neonates, the physiological and biochemical functions of the homologs UCP2-5 are still under debate. Our research focuses on UCP3, the homolog prevalently expressed in skeletal muscle (SKM), the most important metabolic organs. UCP3 has long been speculated to have a pivotal role in maintaining the mitochondrial metabolism. Several biochemical roles have been attributed to UCP3, including the regulation of fatty-acid transport and oxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and calcium uptake. And several proteins have been identified to directly bind with UCP3 and facilitate its function. But to further understand how UCP3 relates to different aspects of mitochondrial functions, a more comprehensive profile of the UCP3 interaction partners is needed. We performed a mass spectrometry-based experiment and successfully identified a list of over 170 potential proteins that may directly or indirectly interact with UCP3, and several novel functions of UCP3 are implied by these protein-protein interactions. Additionally, researches have shown that the metabolic defects are important contributing factors to the epigenetic changes. Considering the roles of UCP3 in sustaining the normal mitochondrial metabolism, we hypothesized that UCP3 has a novel function in regulating the genomic DNA methylation processes. The data we obtained from the pilot study confirms that loss of UCP3 will lead to aberrant DNA methylation changes. But further experiment is still needed to investigate the regulatory pathway between UCP3 and DNA methylation. The physiological role of UCP3 in defending against cancer, diabetes and obesity has been investigated, but the mechanisms how UCP3 protect the organism from these diseases have not been elucidated. Our research sheds light on the understanding of UCP3 functions and may be of significant therapeutic benefit in the prevention and treatment of these diseases. / text
Yim, Lok-hay, Rita, 嚴樂晞
abstract / Medicine / Doctoral / Doctor of Philosophy
Endotoxin- and Mechanical Stress–Induced Epigenetic Changes in the Regulation of the Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase PromoterElangovan, Venkateswaran Ramamoorthi, Camp, Sara M., Kelly, Gabriel T., Desai, Ankit A., Adyshev, Djanybek, Sun, Xiaoguang, Black, Stephen M., Wang, Ting, Garcia, Joe G. N. 12 1900 (has links)
Mechanical ventilation, a lifesaving intervention for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), also unfortunately contributes to excessive mechanical stress and impaired lung physiological and structural integrity. We have elsewhere established the pivotal role of increased nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) transcription and secretion as well as its direct binding to the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the progression of this devastating syndrome; however, regulation of this critical gene in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is not well characterized. On the basis of an emerging role for epigenetics in enrichment of VILI and CpG sites within the NAMPT promoter and 5'UTR, we hypothesized that NAMPT expression and downstream transcriptional events are influenced by epigenetic mechanisms. Concomitantly, excessive mechanical stress of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment led to both reduced DNA methylation levels in the NAMPT promoter and increased gene transcription. Histone deacetylase inhibition by trichostatin A or Sirt-1-silencing RNA attenuates LPS-induced NAMPT expression. Furthermore, recombinant NAMPT administration induced TLR4-dependent global H3K9 hypoacetylation. These studies suggest a complex epigenetic regulatory network of NAMPT in VILI and ARDS and open novel strategies for combating VILI and ARDS.
Donovan, Micah Gerard, Donovan, Micah Gerard
Breast cancer it is the most common type of cancer and leading cause of cancer mortality among women worldwide. Women who inherit mutations in the breast cancer 1 susceptibility gene (BRCA1) are five times more likely to develop breast cancer than women who do not. However, only ~5-10% of breast cancer cases are due to germline mutations in tumor suppressor genes. There are currently no targeted therapies available triple negative breast cancers (TNBC), which often lack BRCA1 expression. BRCA1 is epigenetically silenced by the activated aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), suggesting that dietary antagonists of the AhR may inhibit BRCA1 silencing. Genistein is an isoflavone abundant in soy foods and its high consumption levels is thought to underlie the lower prevalence of breast cancer in Asian countries compared to Western countries. The hypothesis of this work is that genistein antagonizes AhR-dependent epigenetic silencing of BRCA1. To test this hypothesis we first determined the capacity of genistein to prevent AhR-dependent silencing of BRCA1 in estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) expressing cells, with wild-type BRCA1 and inducible AhR (MCF-7). We also determined the effectiveness of genistein in reversing silencing of BRCA1 in ERα-negative cells with hypermethylated BRCA1 and constitutively active AhR (UACC-3199). The effect of genistein on BRCA1 promoter methylation and markers of cell proliferation was also determined in both cell lines.
Epigenetické mechanismy v regulaci exprese molekul B7-H1 a IRF-1 v nádorových buňkách. / Epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of the B7-H1 and IRF-1 expression in tumour cells.Hrušková, Veronika January 2014 (has links)
Interferon γ is an important T-cell helper type 1 (Th1) cytokine involves in antimicrobial immunity. It is a part of the inflammatory immune response in the site of infection. However, for its proper function, the regulation of immunity is necessary to avoid injury of the tissue caused by long-term inflammation. While interferon γ triggers expression of proinflammatory genes, it also regulates genes which inactivate immune response. The B7-H1 molecule belongs among these inhibitory regulators. Furthermore, antitumour effect of interferon γ is well-known as well. After extensive experiments, interferon γ was tested as an immunotherapeutic drug against melanomas in clinical trials. However, the trials had to be terminated prematurely because of unsuccessful results. It started to be clear that interferon γ could have also a protumour effect. Interferon γ upregulates the expression of B7-H1 molecule which aids tumour in escape from immunity. The B7-H1 molecule possesses a binding site for interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) in its promoter region. This IRF-1 is induced by interferon γ - JAK/STAT signalling pathway. In our previous research, we observed interferon γ induced DNA demethylation of promoters in genes that are involved in antigen presenting machinery. Additionally, DNA methylation of...
Caractérisation de la diversité épigénétique chez différentes espèces cultivées et sauvages de tomateRainieri, Massimo 16 March 2012 (has links)
La tomate (Solanum lycopsersicum), qui forme un clade monophylétique restreint au sein de la large famille des Solanacées, est utilisée comme modèle pour l’analyse du génome, et le développement du fruit. A ce jour, de nombreux efforts ont été consacrés à l'analyse de la diversité génétique des espèces de tomate. Cependant peu de travaux ont porté sur l'analyse de la diversité épigénétique, alors qu’il est aujourd’hui admis que les processus épigénétiques jouent un rôle essentiel dans la diversité phénotypique. Dans un premier temps, le niveau de méthylation de l'ADN a été comparé dans les feuilles et les fruits de différentes variétés de tomates sauvages et cultivées. Puis la famille des gènes Enhancer of zeste (E (z)) a été analysée. Chez la tomate, cette famille comprend deux gènes fonctionnels ainsi qu’un pseudogène. Finalement la stabilité épigénétique reste un facteur majeur pouvant avoir un impact essentiel sur les stratégies de sélection végétales. En outre nous avons fait une caractérisation fine des différents aspects du développement du fruit et de la maturation. / Tomato (Solanum lycopsersicum) which forms a small monophyletic clade within the large Solanaceae family has been chosen as a model system for studying the Solanaceae genome, fruit development and ripening. At that time, many efforts have been devoted to the analysis of the genetic diversity of tomato species, little work has focused on the analysis epigenetic diversity in this clade, although there is a general agreement that epigenetic processes play essential role in the phenotypic diversity in animal and plant system. As first step, DNA methylation level was analyzed in leaves and fruits of various wild and cultivated tomato species.Additionally, the Enhancer of zest (E(z)) gene family has been analyzed. In tomato, the E(z) family consists in two functional genes (SlEZ1, SlEZ2) and in a pseudogene (SlEZ3). In addition, the epigenetic stability is an important consideration that could have a significant on strategies for crop breading. Finally, we made a fine characterization of the different aspects of fruit development and ripening. / All’interno della grande famiglia delle Solanacee è stato scelto il pomodoro (Solanum lycopsersicum) come sistema modello per studio dello sviluppo e maturazione del frutto. Molti sforzi sono stati fatti per analizzare la diversità genetica delle specie di pomodoro, pochi lavori invece riguardano l’analisi della diversità epigenetica, sebbene ci sia accordo sul fatto che processi epigenetici giochino un ruolo essenziale nella diversità fenotipica dei sistemi animali e vegetali. Inizialmente è stato analizzato il livello di metilazione del DNA in foglie e frutti delle diverse specie di pomodoro selvatico e coltivato. Inoltre, è stata analizzata la famiglia genica Enhancer of Zeste (E (z)). In pomodoro la famiglia E(z) consiste di 2 geni funzionali SlEZ1, SlEZ2 e di uno pseudogene SlEZ3. Inoltre la stabilità epigenetica è importante in quanto può avere un impatto sulle strategie di miglioramento genetico delle specie coltivate. Infine è stata condotta una attenta caratterizzazione dei meccanismi cellulari dello sviluppo del frutto e della sua maturazione.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy. Most ALL cases originate from immature B-cells (BCP-ALL) and are characterized by reoccurring structural genetic aberrations. These aberrations hold information of the pathogenesis of ALL and are used for risk stratification in treatment. Despite increased knowledge of genetic aberrations in pediatric T-cell ALL (T-ALL), no reliable molecular genetic markers exist for identifying patients with higher risk of relapse. The lack of molecular prognostic markers is also evident in patients with relapsed ALL. During the last decades, aberrant epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation have emerged as important components in cancer development. Telomere maintenance is another important factor in malignant transformation and is crucial for long-term cell survival. Like DNA methylation, telomere length maintenance has also been implicated to reflect outcomes for patients with leukemia. In this thesis, the prognostic relevance of DNA methylation and telomere length was investigated in pediatric ALL at diagnosis and relapse. The telomere length (TL) was significantly shorter in diagnostic ALL samples compared to normal bone marrow samples collected at cessation of therapy, reflecting the proliferation associated telomere length shortening. Prognostic relevance of TL was shown in low-risk BCP-ALL patients where longer telomeres at diagnosis were associated with higher risk of relapse. Genome-wide methylation characterization by arrays in diagnostic T-ALL samples identified two distinct methylation subgroups denoted CIMP+ (CpG Island Methylator Phenotype high) and CIMP- (low). CIMP- T-ALL patients had significantly worse outcome compared to CIMP+ cases. These results were confirmed in a Nordic cohort treated according to the current NOPHO-ALL2008 protocol. By combining minimal residual disease (MRD) status at treatment day 29 and CIMP status at diagnosis we could further separate T-ALL patients into risk groups. Likewise, the CIMP profile could separate relapsed BCP-ALL patients into risk groups, where the CIMP- cases had a significantly worse outcome compared to CIMP+ cases. From these data we conclude that DNA methylation subgrouping is a promising prognostic marker in T-ALL, as well as in relapsed BCP-ALL two groups where reliable prognostic markers are currently missing. By elucidating the biology behind the different CIMP profiles, the pathogenesis of ALL will be further understood and may contribute to new treatment strategies.
DNA Methylation in Lung Tissues of Mouse Offspring Exposed in Utero to Polycyclic Aromatic HydrocarbonsFish, Trevor 01 January 2015 (has links)
Appendices data can be found at: A: http://dx.doi.org/10.15142/T35P49 B: http://dx.doi.org/10.15142/T3201B C: http://dx.doi.org/10.15142/T3X59V D: http://dx.doi.org/10.15142/T3SG6K F: http://dx.doi.org/10.15142/T3NP4N
Lyst, Matthew James
Methylation of cytosines within CpG dinucleotides is a feature of vertebrate DNA. The precise role of DNA methylation is unknown to date, although it has been implicated in several processes relating to transcriptional regulation. One approach to study DNA methylation is the characterization of proteins that bind specifically to methylated DNA. One such family of proteins is the methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) containing family and MBD1 is a member of this family. MBD1 is implicated in transcriptional repression and various mechanisms by which it might bring about gene silencing have been proposed. These are mainly based on studies reporting interactions between MBD1 and various proteins that regulate chromatin structure. Also MBD1 function can be modified by PIAS proteins, which stimulate its conjugation to SUMO (small ubiquitinlike modifier).The original aim of this work was to address two questions about MBD1: (1) Does MBD1 form part of a stable complex with other factors, and if so, what are the identities of the other components? Purification of MBD1 revealed the presence of no stably bound interacting proteins. However, some evidence indicates MBD1 may interact with itself and form dimers, a finding which impacts on many aspects of the function of MBD1. Also a proteomics screen for transient interaction partners identified candidate binding partners for MBD1 and the related protein MeCP2, which may throw light on the function of these proteins. (2) Are there any activities which regulate MBD1 function by the removal of SUMO from this protein? No activities capable of removing SUMO from native MBD1 were found but it was demonstrated that this modification leads to the destabilization of MBD1 in vitro. The relevance of this finding in vivo is yet to be determined.
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