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1 
Fault replication as a method of coding informationBarclay, Nicola January 1998 (has links)
No description available.

2 
Combining data structure repair and program repairMalik, Muhammad Zubair 19 September 2014 (has links)
Bugs in code continue to pose a fundamental problem for software reliability and cause expensive failures. The process of removing known bugs is termed debugging, which is a classic methodology commonly performed before code is deployed. Traditionally, debugging is tedious, often requiring much manual effort. A more recent technique that complements debugging is data structure repair, which handles bugs that make it to deployed systems and lead to erroneous behavior at runtime by modifying erroneous program states to recover from errors. While data structure repair presents a promising basis for dealing with bugs at runtime, it remains computationally expensive. Our thesis is that debugging and data structure repair can be integrated to provide the basis of an effective approach for removing bugs before code is deployed and handling them after it is deployed. We present a bidirectional integration where ideas at the basis of data structure repair assist in automating debugging and vice versa. Our key insight is twofold: (1)a repair action performed to mutate an erroneous object field value to repair it can be abstracted into a program statement that performs that update correctly; and (2)repair actions that are performed repeatedly to fix the same error can be memoized and reused. We design, develop, and evaluate two techniques that embody our insight. One, we present an automated debugging technique that leverages a systematic constraintbased data structure repair technique developed in previous work and provides suggestions on how to fix a faulty program. Two, we present repair abstractions that are based on the same central ideas as in our automated debugging technique and memoize how an erroneous state was repaired, which enables prioritizing and reusing repair actions when the same error occurs again. The focus of our work is programs that operate on structurally complex data, e.g., heapallocated data structures that have complex structural integrity constraints, such as acyclicity. Checking such constraints plays a central role in the techniques that lay at the foundation of our work. These techniques require the user to provide the constraints, which poses a burden on the user. To facilitate the use of constraintbased techniques, we present a third technique to check constraint violations at runtime using graph spectra, which have been studied extensively by mathematicians to capture properties of graphs. We view the heap of an objectoriented program as an edgelabeled graph, which allows us to apply results from graph spectra theory. Experimental results show the effectiveness of using graph spectra as a basis of capturing structural properties of a class of commonly used data structures. / text

3 
OSIDEM : a demonstration of the transmission of open systems interconnection high level protocolsAzizi, Davood January 1992 (has links)
No description available.

4 
LempelZiv Factorization Using Less Time and SpaceChen, Gang 08 1900 (has links)
<p> For 30 years the LempelZiv factorization LZx of a string x = x[1..n] has been a
fundamental data structure of string processing, especially valuable for string compression
and for computing all the repetitions (runs) in x. When the Internet came in, a huge need for LempelZiv factorization was created. Nowadays it has become a basic efficient data transmission format on the Internet.</p> <p> Traditionally the standard method for computing LZx was based on O(n)time processing of the suffix tree STx of x. Ukkonen's algorithm constructs suffix tree online and so permits LZ to be built from subtrees of ST; this gives it an advantage, at least in terms of space, over the fast and compact version of McCreight's STCA [37] due to Kurtz [24]. In 2000 Abouelhoda, Kurtz & Ohlebusch proposed a O(n)time LempelZiv factorization algorithm based on an "enhanced" suffix array  that is, a
suffix array SAx together with other supporting data structures.</p> <p> In this thesis we first examine some previous algorithms for computing LempelZiv factorization. We then analyze the rationale of development and introduce a collection of new algorithms for computing LZfactorization. By theoretical proof and experimental comparison based on running time and storage usage, we show that our new algorithms appear either in their theoretical behavior or in practice or both to be superior to those previously proposed. In the last chapter the conclusion of our new algorithms are given, and some open problems are pointed out for our future research.</p> / Thesis / Master of Science (MSc)

5 
Data Structuring Problems in the Bit Probe ModelRahman, Mohammad Ziaur January 2007 (has links)
We study two data structuring problems under the bit probe model: the dynamic predecessor problem and integer representation in a manner supporting basic updates in as few bit operations as possible. The model of computation considered in this paper is the bit probe model. In this model, the complexity measure counts only the bitwise accesses to the data structure. The model ignores the cost of computation. As a result, the bit probe complexity of a data structuring problem can be considered as a fundamental measure of the problem. Lower bounds derived by this model are valid as lower bounds for any realistic, sequential model of computation. Furthermore, some of the problems are more suitable for study in this model as they can be solved using less than $w$ bit probes where $w$ is the size of a computer word.
The predecessor problem is one of the fundamental problems in computer science with numerous applications and has been studied for several decades. We study the colored predecessor problem, a variation of the predecessor problem, in which each element is associated with a symbol from a finite alphabet or color. The problem is to store a subset $S$ of size $n,$ from a finite universe $U$ so that to support efficient insertion, deletion and queries to determine the color of the largest value in $S$ which is not larger than $x,$ for a given $x \in U.$ We present a data structure for the problem that requires $O(k \sqrt[k]{{\log U} \over {\log \log U}})$ bit probes for the query and $O(k^2 {{\log U} \over {\log \log U}})$ bit probes for the update operations, where $U$ is the universe size and $k$ is positive constant. We also show that the results on the colored predecessor problem can be used to solve some other related problems such as existential range query, dynamic prefix sum, segment representative, connectivity problems, etc.
The second structure considered is for integer representation. We examine the problem of integer representation in a nearly minimal number of bits so that increment and decrement (and indeed addition and subtraction) can be performed using few bit inspections and fewer bit changes. In particular, we prove a new lower bound of $\Omega(\sqrt{n})$ for the increment and decrement operation, where $n$ is the minimum number of bits required to represent the number. We present several efficient data structures to represent integers that use a logarithmic number of bit inspections and a constant number of bit changes per operation.

6 
Contractbased data structure repair using alloyNokhbeh Zaeem, Razieh 25 October 2010 (has links)
Contracts and specifications have long been used in objectoriented design, programming and testing to enhance reliability before software deployment. However, the use of specifications in deployed software is commonly limited to runtime checking where assertions form a basis for detecting incorrect program states to terminate the erroneous executions. We present a contractbased approach for data structure repair, which repairs erroneous states in deployed software. The key novelty is the support for rich behavioral specifications, such as those that relate prestates with poststates of a method to accurately specify expected behavior and precise repair. The approach is based on the view of a specification as a nondeterministic implementation. The key insight is to use any correct state mutations by an otherwise erroneous execution to prune nondeterminism in the specification, thereby transmuting the specification to an implementation that does not incur a prohibitively high performance penalty. While invariants, preconditions and postconditions could be provided in different modeling languages, we leverage the Alloy toolset, specifically the Alloy language and the Alloy Analyzer for systematically repairing erroneous states. Four different algorithms are presented and implemented in our data structure repair framework. These algorithms can repair a medium sized erroneous data structure in a few seconds. We introduce repair guide annotations defined by the user to improve the accuracy and performance of the repair mechanism. Experiments using complex specifications show the approach holds much promise in increasing software reliability. / text

7 
Sequential and Parallel Algorithms for the Generalized Maximum Subarray ProblemBae, Sung Eun January 2007 (has links)
The maximum subarray problem (MSP) involves selection of a segment of consecutive array elements that has the largest possible sum over all other segments in a given array. The efficient algorithms for the MSP and related problems are expected to contribute to various applications in genomic sequence analysis, data mining or in computer vision etc. The MSP is a conceptually simple problem, and several linear time optimal algorithms for 1D version of the problem are already known. For 2D version, the currently known upper bounds are cubic or nearcubic time. For the wider applications, it would be interesting if multiple maximum subarrays are computed instead of just one, which motivates the work in the first half of the thesis. The generalized problem of Kmaximum subarray involves finding K segments of the largest sum in sorted order. Two subcategories of the problem can be defined, which are Koverlapping maximum subarray problem (KOMSP), and Kdisjoint maximum subarray problem (KDMSP). Studies on the KOMSP have not been undertaken previously, hence the thesis explores various techniques to speed up the computation, and several new algorithms. The first algorithm for the 1D problem is of O(Kn) time, and increasingly efficient algorithms of O(K² + n logK) time, O((n+K) logK) time and O(n+K logmin(K, n)) time are presented. Considerations on extending these results to higher dimensions are made, which contributes to establishing O(n³) time for 2D version of the problem where K is bounded by a certain range. Ruzzo and Tompa studied the problem of all maximal scoring subsequences, whose definition is almost identical to that of the KDMSP with a few subtle differences. Despite slight differences, their linear time algorithm is readily capable of computing the 1D KDMSP, but it is not easily extended to higher dimensions. This observation motivates a new algorithm based on the tournament data structure, which is of O(n+K logmin(K, n)) worstcase time. The extended version of the new algorithm is capable of processing a 2D problem in O(n³ + min(K, n) · n² logmin(K, n)) time, that is O(n³) for K ≤ n/log n For the 2D MSP, the cubic time sequential computation is still expensive for practical purposes considering potential applications in computer vision and data mining. The second half of the thesis investigates a speedup option through parallel computation. Previous parallel algorithms for the 2D MSP have huge demand for hardware resources, or their target parallel computation models are in the realm of pure theoretics. A nice compromise between speed and cost can be realized through utilizing a mesh topology. Two mesh algorithms for the 2D MSP with O(n) running time that require a network of size O(n²) are designed and analyzed, and various techniques are considered to maximize the practicality to their full potential.

8 
Data Structuring Problems in the Bit Probe ModelRahman, Mohammad Ziaur January 2007 (has links)
We study two data structuring problems under the bit probe model: the dynamic predecessor problem and integer representation in a manner supporting basic updates in as few bit operations as possible. The model of computation considered in this paper is the bit probe model. In this model, the complexity measure counts only the bitwise accesses to the data structure. The model ignores the cost of computation. As a result, the bit probe complexity of a data structuring problem can be considered as a fundamental measure of the problem. Lower bounds derived by this model are valid as lower bounds for any realistic, sequential model of computation. Furthermore, some of the problems are more suitable for study in this model as they can be solved using less than $w$ bit probes where $w$ is the size of a computer word.
The predecessor problem is one of the fundamental problems in computer science with numerous applications and has been studied for several decades. We study the colored predecessor problem, a variation of the predecessor problem, in which each element is associated with a symbol from a finite alphabet or color. The problem is to store a subset $S$ of size $n,$ from a finite universe $U$ so that to support efficient insertion, deletion and queries to determine the color of the largest value in $S$ which is not larger than $x,$ for a given $x \in U.$ We present a data structure for the problem that requires $O(k \sqrt[k]{{\log U} \over {\log \log U}})$ bit probes for the query and $O(k^2 {{\log U} \over {\log \log U}})$ bit probes for the update operations, where $U$ is the universe size and $k$ is positive constant. We also show that the results on the colored predecessor problem can be used to solve some other related problems such as existential range query, dynamic prefix sum, segment representative, connectivity problems, etc.
The second structure considered is for integer representation. We examine the problem of integer representation in a nearly minimal number of bits so that increment and decrement (and indeed addition and subtraction) can be performed using few bit inspections and fewer bit changes. In particular, we prove a new lower bound of $\Omega(\sqrt{n})$ for the increment and decrement operation, where $n$ is the minimum number of bits required to represent the number. We present several efficient data structures to represent integers that use a logarithmic number of bit inspections and a constant number of bit changes per operation.

9 
Realization Methods for the Quadtree Morphological Filter with Their ApplicationsChen, Yunglin 07 September 2011 (has links)
Quadtree algorithm and morphological image processing are combined in the proposed method in this paper. A new method is proposed to improve the previous pattern mapping method for faster processing.
The previous pattern mapping method is a pattern mapping method by storing the tree pattern by string form, which is a pointless data structure. In the proposed method the tree pattern is saved in a point data structure. Therefore, the pointer tree can be applied to the quadtree immediately without the transforming time, which was required in the previous pattern mapping method.
In this paper, the pointless quad tree work is modified to pointer quad tree to reduce the processing time. The modified algorithm is applied to circuit detection, image restoration, image segmentation and cell counting.

10 
Le parrainage sportif en PME PMI : de l'émergence d'un processus d'identification à l'évolution de la satisfaction au travail et l'implication organisationnelle des employés / Sport sponsorship in SME's : from the emergence of identification process to the evolution of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on the sponsors' employeesJouny, Julien 17 November 2014 (has links)
Depuis près de quarante ans, la recherche sur le parrainage s’inscrit dans la mouvance d’un phénomène qui ne cesse de se développer. A ce jour, plus de 55 milliards de dollars sont consacrés dans notre monde à cette pratique (Kantar, 2014). La France n’est pas en reste avec près de 2 milliards d’euros d’investissement en 2013 (FPI, 2014). Le parrainage sportif représente la majeure partie de ces dépenses, ce qui en fait l’un des secteurs les plus dynamiques de l’activité de communication marketing. La recherche porte principalement sur son impact externe (spectateurs, consommateurs,…) dans le cadre du parrainage d’entités ou d’événements sportifs au fort potentiel marketing (Jeux Olympiques, Championnats du Monde, clubs professionnels…) par de grandes entreprises. Le terrain des PMEPMI s’avère peu investi. De même, peu de recherches relatives aux conséquences de cette pratique sur le public interne du parrain ont vu le jour. Notre travail met en relief les effets de ce type de parrainage sportif sur le public interne des PMEPMI. Cette recherche base sa réflexion sur la problématique suivante : Le parrainage sportif à faible potentiel marketing et commercial par une PMEPMI engendretil des effets sur les employés du parrain ?Nous développons notre réflexion autour de cette question en trois temps. Premièrement, nous précisons respectivement l’intérêt théorique et managérial de cette recherche. Une revue de la littérature sur la thématique du parrainage et du parrainage sportif est proposée. Celleci permet d’ériger notre définition du concept principal mobilisé dans ce travail. Puis, une étude qualitative réalisée auprès de 18 dirigeants de PMEPMI parrain confirme l’intérêt managérial du sujet et l’impact possible du parrainage sportif sur le public interne. Deuxièmement, nous réalisons une étude qualitative auprès de 16 employés de PMEPMI parrain sportif. A partir de leur discours, nous développons une datastructure qui met en relief un processus d’impact du parrainage sportif affectant leur identité organisationnelle. De plus, des effets notoires sur leur satisfaction au travail et leur implication organisationnelle sont identifiés. Troisièmement, nous confirmons l’existence de ces effets à travers une troisième étude, de nature quantitative, réalisée auprès de 421 employés de 41 PMEPMI parrains sportifs. Suite aux résultats obtenus, nous indiquons la relative méconnaissance et inexploitation du potentiel du parrainage sportif au sein de ces entreprises. Des lors, d’un point de vue managérial, cette recherche souligne les conditions optimales à mettre en place afin d’utiliser efficacement le parrainage sportif à faible ampleur marketing et commercial en tant que moyen de communication interne au sein des PMEPMI / Over the last 40 years, research on sponsorship has been growing, and so have investments in this communication instrument. Today, worldwide sponsorship investments exceed 55 billion US Dollars (Kantar, 2014), while investments in France total more than two billion Euros (FPI, 2014). Roughly two thirds of these investments concern the area of sport making sport sponsorship one of the most dynamic fields of marketing communication. In the past, research has focused mainly on the impact of sponsorship on the external targets of the sponsor, typically analyzing large multinational companies supporting large scale events with high marketing potential (Olympic games, Soccer World championships, auto racing, etc.). Very few studies have targeted the use sponsorship by SMEs. Moreover, there is a lack of research on the internal consequences of this practice. Our study focuses on the effects of sport sponsorship on the internal public of SMEs by addressing the following question: How do employees of SMEs perceive the littlemediated sponsorship activities of their employers and how are they impacted by them?This work is structured in three parts. First, a literature review about sport sponsorship highlights the theoretical and managerial interests of the research and proposes a definition of sport sponsorship. A qualitative study conducted on 18 directors of SME confirms the managerial interest of this research and sheds light on the potential impact of sport sponsorship on the internal public of this kind of company. Second, based on a qualitative study on 16 employees of SMEs, a datastructure is developed which allows to grasp the organizational identification processes that result from sponsorship activities, and the effects of these activities in terms of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. In a third part, the existence of these effects is further analyzed through a quantitative survey upon 421 employees of 41 different SMEs sponsors. Overall, results show the lack of awareness and the quite confidential use of sport sponsorship within these organizations. From a managerial perspective, our research highlights the optimal conditions required to make effective use of sport sponsorship with minor marketing and sales potential by SMEs

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