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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Studies of turbulence structure and turbulent mixing using petascale computing

Keshava Iyer, Kartik P. 27 August 2014 (has links)
A large direct numerical simulation database spanning a wide range of Reynolds and Schmidt number is used to examine fundamental laws governing passive scalar mixing and turbulence structure. Efficient parallel algorithms have been developed to calculate quantities useful in examining the Kolmogorov small-scale phenomenology. These new algorithms are used to analyze data sets with Taylor scale Reynolds numbers as high as 650 with grid-spacing as small as the Kolmogrov length scale. Direct numerical simulation codes using pseudo-spectral methods typically use transpose based three-dimensional (3D) Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT). The ALLTOALL type routines to perform global transposes have a quadratic dependence on message size and typically show limited scaling at very large problem sizes. A hybrid MPI/OpenMP 3D FFT kernel has been developed that divides the work among the threads and schedules them in a pipelined fashion. All threads perform the communication, although not concurrently, with the aim of minimizing thread-idling time and increasing the overlap between communication and computation. The new algorithm is seen to reduce the communication time by as much as 30% at large core-counts, as compared to pure-MPI communication. Turbulent mixing is important in a wide range of fields ranging from combustion to cosmology. Schmidt numbers range from O(1) to O(0.01) in these applications. The Schmidt number dependence of the second-order scalar structure function and the applicability of the so-called Yaglomメs relation is examined in isotropic turbulence with a uniform mean scalar gradient. At the moderate Reynolds numbers currently achievable, the dynamics of strongly diffusive scalars is inherently different from moderately diffusive Schmidt numbers. Results at Schmidt number as low as 1/2048 show that the range of scales in the scalar field become quite narrow with the distribution of the small-scales approaching a Gaussian shape. A much weaker alignment between velocity gradients and principal strain rates and a strong departure from Yaglomメs relation have also been observed. Evaluation of different terms in the scalar structure function budget equation assuming statistical stationarity in time shows that with decreasing Schmidt number, the production and diffusion terms dominate at the intermediate scales possibly leading to non-universal behavior for the low-to-moderate Peclet number regime considered in this study. One of the few exact, non-trivial results in hydrodynamic theory is the so-called Kolmogorov 4/5th law. Agreement for the third order longitudinal structure function with the 4/5 plateau is used to measure the extent of the inertial range, both in experiments and simulations. Direct numerical simulation techniques to obtain the third order structure structure functions typically use component averaging, combined with time averaging over multiple eddy-turnover times. However, anisotropic large scale effects tend to limit the inertial range with significant variance in the components of the structure functions in the intermediate scale ranges along the Cartesian directions. The net result is that the asymptotic 4/5 plateau is not attained. Motivated by recent theoretical developments we present an efficient parallel algorithm to compute spherical averages in a periodic domain. The spherically averaged third-order structure function is shown to attain the K41 plateau in time-local fashion, which decreases the need for running direct numerical simulations for multiple eddy-turnover times. It is well known that the intermittent character of the energy dissipation rate leads to discrepancies between experiments and theory in calculating higher order moments of velocity increments. As a correction, the use of three-dimensional local averages has been proposed in the literature. Kolmogorov used the local 3D averaged dissipation rate to propose a refined similarity theory. An algorithm to calculate 3D local averages has been developed which is shown to scale well up to 32k cores. The algorithm, computes local averages over overlapping regions in space for a range of separation distances, resulting in N^3 samples of the locally averaged dissipation for each averaging length. In light of this new calculation, the refined similarity theory of Kolmogorov is examined using the 3D local averages at high Reynolds number and/or high resolution.

Heat release effects on decaying homogeneous compressible turbulence

Lee, Kurn Chul 15 May 2009 (has links)
High Mach-number compressible flows with heat release are inherently more complicated than incompressible flows due to, among other reasons, the activation of the thermal energy mode. Such flow fields can experience significant fluctuations in density, temperature, viscosity, conductivity and specific heat, which affect velocity and pressure fluctuations. Furthermore, the flow field cannot be assumed to be dilatation-free in high Mach numbers and even in low Mach-number flows involving combustion, or in boundary layers on heated walls. The main issue in these high-speed and highly-compressible flows is the effect of thermal gradients and fluctuations on turbulence. The thermal field has various routes through which it affects flow structures of compressible turbulence. First, it has direct influence through pressure, which affects turbulence via pressure-strain correlation. The indirect effects of thermal fields on compressible turbulence are through the changes in flow properties. The high temperature gradients alter the transport coefficient and compressibility of the flow. The objective of this work is to answer the following questions: How do temperature fluctuations change the compressible flow structure and energetics? How does compressibility in the flow affect the non-linear pressure redistribution process? What is the main effect of spatial transport-coefficient variation? We perform direct numerical simulations (DNS) to answer the above questions. The investigations are categorized into four parts: 1) Turbulent energy cascade and kinetic-internal energy interactions under the influence of temperature fluctuations; 2) Return-to-isotropy of anisotropic turbulence under the influence of large temperature fluctuations; 3) The effect of turbulent Mach number and dilatation level on small-scale (velocity-gradient) dynamics; 4) The effect of variable transport-coefficients (viscosity and diffusivity) on cascade and dissipation processes of turbulence. The findings lead to a better understanding of temperature fluctuation effects on non-linear processes in compressible turbulence. This improved understanding is expected to provide direction for improving second-order closure models of compressible turbulence.

Premixed and Partial Premixed Turbulent Flames at High Reynolds Number

Luca, Stefano 06 1900 (has links)
Methane/air premixed and partially premixed turbulent flames at high Reynolds number are characterized using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) with detailed chemistry in a spatially evolving slot Bunsen configuration. Two sets of simulations are performed. A first set of simulations with fully premixed inlet conditions is considered in order to assess the effect of turbulence on the flame. Four simulations are performed at increasing Reynolds number and up to 22400, defined based on the bulk velocity, slot width, and the reactants' properties, and 22 billion grid points, making it one of the largest simulations in turbulent combustion. The simulations feature finite rate chemistry with a 16 species mechanism. To perform these simulations, few preliminary steps were required: (i) two skeletal mechanisms were developed reducing GRI-3.0; (ii) a convergence study is performed to select the proper spatial and temporal discretization and (iii) simulations of fully developed turbulent channel flows are preformed to generate the inlet conditions of the jet. The study covers different aspects of flame-turbulence interaction. It is found that the thickness of the reaction zone is similar to that of a laminar flame, while the preheat zone has a lower mean temperature gradient, indicating flame thickening. The characteristic length scales of turbulence are investigated and the effect of the Reynolds number on these quantities is assessed. The tangential rate of strain is responsible for the production of flame surface in the mean and surface destruction is due to the curvature term. A second set of simulations with inhomogeneous inlet conditions is performed to study how partial premixing and turbulence interact with the flame and with each other. The jet Reynolds number is 5600, and a 33 species mechanism is used. The effect of the inlet fluctuations is reflected on heat release rate fluctuations, however the conditional mean is not affected. The flames show thickening of the preheat zone, and for the lowest level of mixing a slight thickening of the reaction zone is observed. The effect of partially mixed mixture on the NOx formation is analyzed and no major impact was found.

Spectral-element simulations of separated turbulent internal flows

Ohlsson, Johan January 2009 (has links)
No description available.

The rotating-disk boundary-layer flow studied through numerical simulations

Appelquist, Ellinor January 2017 (has links)
This thesis deals with the instabilities of the incompressible boundary-layer flow thatis induced by a disk rotating in otherwise still fluid. The results presented include bothwork in the linear and nonlinear regime and are derived from direct numerical sim-ulations (DNS). Comparisons are made both to theoretical and experimental resultsproviding new insights into the transition route to turbulence. The simulation codeNek5000 has been chosen for the DNS using a spectral-element method (SEM) witha high-order discretization, and the results were obtained through large-scale paral-lel simulations. The known similarity solution of the Navier–Stokes equations for therotating-disk flow, also called the von K ́arm ́an rotating-disk flow, is reproduced by theDNS. With the addition of modelled small simulated roughnesses on the disk surface,convective instabilities appear and data from the linear region in the DNS are anal-ysed and compared with experimental and theoretical data, all corresponding verywell. A theoretical analysis is also presented using a local linear-stability approach,where two stability solvers have been developed based on earlier work. Furthermore,the impulse response of the rotating-disk boundary layer is investigated using DNS.The local response is known to be absolutely unstable and the global response, onthe contrary, is stable if the edge of the disk is assumed to be at radius infinity. Herecomparisons with a finite domain using various boundary conditions give a globalbehaviour that can be both linearly stable and unstable, however always nonlinearlyunstable. The global frequency of the flow is found to be determined by the Rey-nolds number at the confinement of the domain, either by the edge (linear case) or bythe turbulence appearance (nonlinear case). Moreover, secondary instabilities on topof the convective instabilities induced by roughness elements were investigated andfound to be globally unstable. This behaviour agrees well with the experimental flowand acts at a smaller radial distance than the primary global instability. The sharpline corresponding to transition to turbulence seen in experiments of the rotating diskcan thus be explained by the secondary global instability. Finally, turbulence datawere compared with experiments and investigated thoroughly. / <p>QC 20170203</p>

Turbulent burning, flame acceleration, explosion triggering

Akkerman, V'yacheslav January 2007 (has links)
The present thesis considers several important problems of combustion theory, which are closely related to each other: turbulent burning, flame interaction with walls in different geometries, flame acceleration and detonation triggering. The theory of turbulent burning is developed within the renormalization approach. The theory takes into account realistic thermal expansion of burning matter. Unlike previous renormalization models of turbulent burning, the theory includes flame interaction with vortices aligned both perpendicular and parallel to average direction of flame propagation. The perpendicular vortices distort a flame front due to kinematical drift; the parallel vortices modify the flame shape because of the centrifugal force. A corrugated flame front consumes more fuel mixture per unit of time and propagates much faster. The Darrieus-Landau instability is also included in the theory. The instability becomes especially important when the characteristic length scale of the flow is large. Flame interaction with non-slip walls is another large-scale effect, which influences the flame shape and the turbulent burning rate. This interaction is investigated in the thesis in different geometries of tubes with open / closed ends. When the tube ends are open, then flame interaction with non-slip walls leads to an oscillating regime of burning. Flame oscillations are investigated for different flame parameters and tube widths. The average increase in the burning rate in the oscillations is found. Then, propagating from a closed tube end, a flame accelerates according to the Shelkin mechanism. In the theses, an analytical theory of laminar flame acceleration is developed. The theory predicts the acceleration rate, the flame shape and the velocity profile in the flow pushed by the flame. The theory is validated by extensive numerical simulations. An alternative mechanism of flame acceleration is also considered, which is possible at the initial stages of burning in tubes. The mechanism is investigated using the analytical theory and direct numerical simulations. The analytical and numerical results are in very good agreement with previous experiments on “tulip” flames. The analytical theory of explosion triggering by an accelerating flame is developed. The theory describes heating of the fuel mixture by a compression wave pushed by an accelerating flame. As a result, the fuel mixture may explode ahead of the flame front. The explosion time is calculated. The theory shows good agreement with previous numerical simulations on deflagration-to-detonation transition in laminar flows. Flame interaction with sound waves is studied in the geometry of a flame propagating to a closed tube end. It is demonstrated numerically that intrinsic flame oscillations coming into resonance with acoustic waves may lead to violent folding of the flame front with a drastic increase in the burning rate. The flame folding is related to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability developing at the flame front in the oscillating acceleration field of the acoustic wave.

Stability of plane Couette flow and pipe Poiseuille flow

Åsén, Per-Olov January 2007 (has links)
This thesis concerns the stability of plane Couette flow and pipe Poiseuille flow in three space dimensions. The mathematical model for both flows is the incompressible Navier--Stokes equations. Both analytical and numerical techniques are used. We present new results for the resolvent corresponding to both flows. For plane Couette flow, analytical bounds on the resolvent have previously been derived in parts of the unstable half-plane. In the remaining part, only bounds based on numerical computations in an infinite parameter domain are available. Due to the need for truncation of this infinite parameter domain, these results are mathematically insufficient. We obtain a new analytical bound on the resolvent at s=0 in all but a compact subset of the parameter domain. This is done by deriving approximate solutions of the Orr--Sommerfeld equation and bounding the errors made by the approximations. In the remaining compact set, we use standard numerical techniques to obtain a bound. Hence, this part of the proof is not rigorous in the mathematical sense. In the thesis, we present a way of making also the numerical part of the proof rigorous. By using analytical techniques, we reduce the remaining compact subset of the parameter domain to a finite set of parameter values. In this set, we need to compute bounds on the solution of a boundary value problem. By using a validated numerical method, such bounds can be obtained. In the thesis, we investigate a validated numerical method for enclosing the solutions of boundary value problems. For pipe Poiseuille flow, only numerical bounds on the resolvent have previously been derived. We present analytical bounds in parts of the unstable half-plane. Also, we derive a bound on the resolvent for certain perturbations. Especially, the bound is valid for the perturbation which numerical computations indicate to be the perturbation which exhibits largest transient growth. The bound is valid in the entire unstable half-plane. We also investigate the stability of pipe Poiseuille flow by direct numerical simulations. Especially, we consider a disturbance which experiments have shown is efficient in triggering turbulence. The disturbance is in the form of blowing and suction in two small holes. Our results show the formation of hairpin vortices shortly after the disturbance. Initially, the hairpins form a localized packet of hairpins as they are advected downstream. After approximately $10$ pipe diameters from the disturbance origin, the flow becomes severely disordered. Our results show good agreement with the experimental results. In order to perform direct numerical simulations of disturbances which are highly localized in space, parallel computers must be used. Also, direct numerical simulations require the use of numerical methods of high order of accuracy. Many such methods have a global data dependency, making parallelization difficult. In this thesis, we also present the process of parallelizing a code for direct numerical simulations of pipe Poiseuille flow for a distributed memory computer. / QC 20100825

Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Dispersion of Buoyant Plumes in a Pressure-Driven channel flow.

Fabregat Tomàs, Alexandre 15 December 2006 (has links)
Simulacó numérica directa de la dispersió turbulenta de plomalls amb flotació en un flux en un canal Alexandre Fabregat Tomás, Tarragona, octubre del 2006 1 IntroduccióL'objectiu d'aquest treball és estudiar la dispersió turbulenta de calor en diferents configuracions basades en el canal desenvolupat mitjançant DNS (Direct Numerical Simulations). Aquesta eina ha demostrat ser de gran utilitat a l'hora d'estudiar fluxos turbulents ja que permet, donada una malla computacional capaç de capturar totes les estructures del flux i un esquema que minimitzi els errors i la dissipació numérica, descriure acuradament l'evolució temporal del flux. Permet a més, donada la descripció tridimensional i temporal del flux, determinar amb precisió qualsevol quantitat que seria impossible d'obtenir experimentalment.En el flux en un canal, el fluid esmou entre dues parets planes, llises i paral·leles separades una distància 2d impulsat per un gradient constant mitjà de pressió. El flux s'anomena desenvolupat quan ja no hi ha efectes de regió d'entrada i la única inhomogeneïtat es troba en la direcció normal a la paret. Sota aquestes condicions, les quantitats promitjades esdevenen estacionàries en el temps.En aquest treball s'ha validat el codi computacional mitjançant la reproducció d'algunes configuracions de flux prèviament estudiades per altres autors. Els nous coneixements en l'estudi de la dispersió turbulenta de calor s'han obtingut a l'incloure, en un flux totalment desenvolupat en un canal, una font lineal centrada verticalment que provoca l'aparició d'un plomall amb una temperatura més alta que la del flux del fons i que per tant, al tenir una menor densitat, experimenta flotació i es deflecteix. L'amitjanament temporal del flux permet estudiar les diferents contribucions dels diferents termes rellevants en les equacions de transport.És d'especial interés la comparativa d'aquests resultats amb els corresponents a la formació d'un plomall a partir d'una font lineal d'un escalar passiu.Per altra banda també s'ha estudiat l'eficiència en paral·lel dels mètodes multigrid en la resolució d'equacions de Poisson. Aquestes equacions són d'especial interés ja que apareixen en el càlcul de la pressió i representen un coll d'ampolla en termes de costos computacionals. Aquest mètode numèric ha estat comparat amb els mètodes de gradient conjugat (anteriorment emprats en el codi 3DINAMICS) en la resolució de diferents problemes comparant els costos en termes de temps de CPU i la seua escalabilitat en la màquina multiprocessador de memòria distribuïda del grup de recerca de Mecànica de Fluids de Tarragona.2 Descripció matemàticaUn cop adimensionalitzades mitjançant les escales adequades, les equacions de transport de quantitat de moviment i energia han estat discretitzades sobre una malla desplaçada mitjançant el mètode de volums finits emprant un esquema centrat de segon ordre. La discretització dels termes advectius en els casos amb fonts lineals ha requerit, però, d'un cura especial ja que la no-linealitat d'aquests termes pot provocar oscil·lacions artificials en el camp dels escalars. La difusió numèrica dels mètodes upwind, com el QUICK, ha estat quantificada i comparada amb resultats obtinguts per a esquemes centrats de segon ordre. Les equacions han estat integrades en el temps mitjançant un esquema implícit de segon ordre tipus Crank-Nicholson. També ha estat necessari implementar condicions de sortida per a la temperatura en els casos A i C del tipus no reflectant per tal de garantir la conservació i evitar l'aparició d'estructures artificials en el flux.3 Descripció físicaLa figura 1 presenta un esquema del domini computacional corresponent al canal desenvolupat. De l'esquema es desprén que x, y i z corresponen a les direccions principal del flux, la perpendicular i la normal a les parets respectivament. Les configuracions del flux estudiades es troben resumides a la taula 1 on s'indica la resolució de la xarxa computacional, el nombre de Reynolds (basat en la velocitat de fricció ut) i en el casos amb flotació, el nombre de Grashof, la temperatura de referència i la direcció de flotació (la direcció del vector gravetat).Les dimensions del canal s´on 8pd×2pd×2d en les direccions x, y i z respectivament.En el cas A la temperatura representa un escalar de manera que el plomall format és passiu, és a dir, no hi ha acoblament entre les equacions de quantitat de moviment i energia. A diferència d'aquest, en els casos B i C totes dues equacions queden acoblades pel terme de flotació. Aquest terme apareix quan les diferències de temperatura en el si del fluid generen diferències de densitat. En el cas B, el canal vertical amb convecció mixta, cada paret del canal es troba a una temperatura constant però diferent. El vector gravetat i la direcció del corrent estan alineades de manera que aquesta direcció continua sent homogènia. En la zona propera a la paret calenta la flotació actua en la direcció del corrent imposada pel gradient mitjà de pressió. En canvi, en la zona propera a la paret freda, la flotació s'oposa al moviment del flux.El cas C és similar al cas A però en aquesta ocasió la temperatura no es considera un escalar passiu i per tant la flotació acobla el camp dinàmic amb el de temperatures. El vector gravetat actua en aquest cas en la direcció normal. La inhomogeneïtat en la direcció del flux no permet continuar emprant condicions de contorn periòdiques i per tant, al domini presentat en la figura 1, se li ha acoblat una regió auxiliar a l'entrada on es resolen únicament les equacions de quantitat de moviment. Els camps de velocitat i pressió per a un canal totalment desenvolupat obtinguts en aquest domini auxiliar s'empraran com a condició de contorn a l'entrada del domini de computació. No és necessari cap tipus d'interpolació ja que la resolució del a xarxa d'aquest domini auxiliar és la mateixa que l'emprada en el domini de computació.4 ResultatsEls resultats per a les simulacions presentades en la taula 1 contenen, principalment, els perfils de velocitat i temperatura mitjans així com la intensitat de les fluctuacions. A més, es presenten els perfils de les diferents contribucions dels termes relevants de les equacions de transport amitjanades. Per al cas C, els camps dinàmics i de temperatura no estan desenvolupats. Els perfils mitjans a diferents posicions aigües avall permeten estudiar l'evolució del plomall ascendent a més d'analitzar com la flotació afecta al balanç de les diferents contribucions. La figure 2 presenta el camp mitjà de temperatures per al cas C amb les tres posicions en la direcció principal del flux per a les quals s'han inclòs els perfils.Finalment, es presenten els resultats corresponents a la comparativa entre els diferents solvers per a una equació de Poisson. Tots els mètodes numèrics han es-3Figura 2: Camp mitjà de temperatures per al cas C tat paral·lelitzats mitjançant les llibreries Message Passing Interface. En la figura 3 es presenten com a exemple els resultats (en termes de temps de CPU i speedup) per a la resolució de l'equació de Poisson per al desacoblament de pressió i velocitat en el cas del flux desenvolupat en un canal.Els resultats de speed-up per als diferents mètodes mostren la baixa escalabilitat del solver multigrid comparat amb els altres mètodes del tipus gradient conjugat. La raó radica en les grans necessitats de comunicació d'un algoritme construït sobre un esquema de relaxació tipus SOR. Tanmateix, multigrid és el mètode numèric que requereix menys temps de CPU per concloure la tasca. El factor respecte als mètodes de gradient conjugat pot arribar a ser de 30 i per tant és el millor candidat per a la resolució d'aquests tipus de problemes. / The main goal of this work is to study the turbulent heat transfer in a developed channel flow using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). These simulations solve explicitly all the scales present in the turbulent flow so, even for moderate Reynolds numbers, the discretization grids need to be fine enough to capture the smallest structures of the flow and, consequently, DNS demands large computational resources. The flow, driven by a mean constant pressure gradient in the streamwise direction, is confined between two smooth, parallel and infinite walls separated a distance 2d.The turbulent heat transport is studied for three different flow configurations.Some of them are used as benchmark results for this work. The three cases reported can be summarized as:· case A: Scalar plume from a line source in a horizontal channel.· case B:Mixed convection with the gravity vector aligned with the streamwise direction (vertical channel).· case C: Buoyant plume from a line source in a horizontal channel.In addition, preliminary results for a turbulent reacting flow in a fully developed channel are also presented.In the case B heat flux results from a temperature difference between the channel walls. The gravity vector is aligned with the streamwise direction and the Grashof, Reynolds and Prandtl numbers are Gr = 9.6 · 106, Ret = 150 and Pr = 0.71 respectively. Close to the hot wall, buoyancy acts aligned to the flow direction imposed by the mean pressure gradient so velocities are generally increased in comparison with a purely forced convection flow. Oppositely, near the cold wall, buoyancy is opposed to the flow and consequently velocities are decreased.Cases A and C are similar because in both cases a hot fluid is released within a cold background flow through a line source vertically centered in the wall-normal direction located at the inlet. The height of the source is 0.054d. The injected hot fluid disperses forming a hot plume that is convected downstream between the two adiabatic walls of the channel.The difference between cases A and C lies in the fact that for case A heat and momentum are decoupled and temperature acts as an scalar. Advection and diffusion are the only phenomena responsible for the evolution of the plume. On the other hand, in case C, buoyancy couples heat and momentum and, consequently, the plume floats drifting upward as it advances in the channel due to its lower density. In case C, the streamwise direction is not homogenous because of the coupling between heat and momentum. To guarantee developed conditions at the inlet of the channel it has been necessary to attach a buffer domain just before the computational domain. In this buffer domain, the momentum transport equations for a fully developed channel are solved with the same resolution used in the main domain.The results of cases A and B have been used to validate the 3DINAMICS CFD code by comparison with data reported in the literature. This code is written in FORTRAN 90 and parallelized using the Message Passing Interface (MPI-CHlibrary). It uses the second order in time Crank-Nicholson scheme to integrate numerically the transport equations which are discretized spatially using the centered second-order finite volume approach.The analysis of averaged turbulent quantities and the contributions of the different terms of the time-averaged transport equations is used to show how buoyancy affects the turbulent transport of momentum and heat along the channel.Finally, following a similar configuration than that of case A, a chemical reactantA released through line source reacts with a background reactant B following a second order chemical reaction with Damkh¨oler number of 1. Preliminary results for turbulent species transport are also included in this work.Special attention have been devoted to the discretization of the advective terms to avoid non-realistic values of the variables because of the non-linearities of the transport equations. The conservative non-reflecting boundary conditions have been implemented at the outlet to simulate the convected outflow when the streamwise direction can not be considered homogeneous, as in case C. For homogeneous directions, periodic boundary conditions have been used.Large grid resolutions (up to 8 million grid nodes for case C including the buffer region) demand important computational resources. A parallel Multigrid solver has substituted the previous conjugate gradient method to solve the Poisson equation in the pressure calculation. This step was the most expensive in terms of CPU costs. The Multigrid method efficiency has been compared with two different versions of the conjugate gradient approach and it has been demonstrated that this method is the most efficient in terms of CPU time although the current algorithmcan be improved to enhance the scalability inmultiprocessor computers.

Investigation of Transition and Vortex Systems of a Dynamically Pitching Airfoil Under the Free-stream Turbulence Conditions

January 2017 (has links)
abstract: The effect of reduced frequency on dynamic stall behavior of a pitching NACA0012 airfoil in a turbulent wake using Direct Numerical Simulations is presented in the current study. Upstream turbulence with dynamically oscillating blades and airfoils is associated with ambient flow unsteadiness and is encountered in many operating conditions. Wake turbulence, a more realistic scenario for airfoils in operation, is generated using a small solid cylinder placed upstream, the vortices shed from which interact with the pitching airfoil affecting dynamic stall behavior. A recently developed moving overlapping grid approach is used using a high-order Spectral Element Method (SEM) for spatial discretization combined with a dynamic time-stepping procedure allowing for up to third order temporal discretization. Two cases of reduced frequency (k = 0:16 and 0:25) for airfoil oscillation are investigated and the change in dynamic stall behavior with change in reduced frequency is studied and documented using flow-fields and aerodynamic coefficients (Drag, Lift and Pitching Moment) with a focus on understanding vortex system dynamics (including formation of secondary vortices) for different reduced frequencies and it’s affect on airfoil aerodynamic characteristics and fatigue life. Transition of the flow over the surface of an airfoil for both undisturbed and disturbed flow cases will also be discussed using Pressure coefficient and Skin Friction coefficient data for a given cycle combined with a wavelet analysis using Morse wavelets in MATLAB. / Dissertation/Thesis / Masters Thesis Mechanical Engineering 2017

Spectral-element simulations of separated turbulent internal flows

Ohlsson, Johan January 2009 (has links)
QC 20101105

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