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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
21

Microwave assisted osmotic dehydration of apple cylinders under continuous medium flow conditions for improving moisture transfer rate and product quality

Li, Heping January 2005 (has links)
No description available.
22

Hybrid (osmotic, microwave-vacuum) drying of strawberries and carrots

Changrue, Viboon. January 2006 (has links)
No description available.
23

Combined osmotic and microwave drying of strawberries and blueberries

Venkatachalapathy, Kamadenahally. January 1998 (has links)
This work was aimed at obtaining high quality dried strawberries using microwaves to assist convection air of 2 m/s at 30--45°C. Preliminary trials with whole strawberries were unsuccessful. Fruits would cook rather than dry at low microwave power levels, and burst at higher powers. This was due to the inhibition of moisture movement by the waxy cuticle. Slice and pureed strawberries dried, but were of lower quality than freeze-dried / A treatment consisting of dipping the berries in a solution of ethyl oleate and sodium hydroxide was studied. Such treatments are used in industry to reduce the skin resistance to moisture diffusion. Result showed that the treatment greatly enhanced the drying rates of whole berries in convection and microwave regimes. A 1% concentration of ethyl oleate was sufficient for maximum reduction of drying time, and it is possible that even lower concentrations could be used for strawberries. Rehydration was similar to that of the dipped and freeze-dried samples, but the microwaved samples were a bit softer, and had less aroma, colour and flavour. / Osmotic dehydration was then studied as a technique of binding flavours and aromas and of reducing the time required for finish drying with microwaves. These studies were performed on strawberries and blueberries. Results showed berries that were dipped and then osmotically dehydrated for 24 h in sucrose, yielded a microwave-dried final product that was equal to the freeze-dried one in terms of quality, and this, with a much lower time for finish drying. / The shrinkage ratio of strawberries has a straight line relation to the moisture ratio. The reduction in equivalent diameter is well-described by a reciprocal logarithmic function. / The results of these major aspects of the research suggest that microwave-drying could be a viable and more rapid alternative to freeze-drying when berries are first subjected to a pretreatement of ethyl oleate and partial dehydration by osmosis. It was also found that if microwave energy is applied in continuous mode, the initial applied power should not exceed 0.2 W g--1, otherwise burning may occur. It is also recommended that osmotic dehydration be limited to not much longer than 24 hours, since off-odours, develop. The results apply to convective regimes with inlet air temperatures of 45°C and inlet velocity of 2 m/s.
24

Hybrid (osmotic, microwave-vacuum) drying of strawberries and carrots

Changrue, Viboon. January 2006 (has links)
The main purpose of this study was to improve the performance of microwave assisted drying. The osmotic treatment was used as pretreatment due to its inherent low energy requirement attributes. The vacuum was applied to microwave drying system to capture low temperature vaporization concepts. The whole process might be called "osmotically dehydrated microwave vacuum drying". Carrots and strawberries were selected to study as a representative of vegetables and fruits, respectively. / The laboratory scale microwave vacuum dryer was setup and the preliminary tests were done with carrots and strawberries. The occurrence of condensation of vapor in vacuum container was found during the drying trials. The location of the open-ended valve which controls the vacuum level was found to have an influence on the condensation. The re-location of valve which allowed air passage to the vacuum container was able to decrease the condensation. The input power for the microwave vacuum drying could not be greater than 1.5 W/g. The continuous use of input power caused the high temperature in the process. The pulse mode (on/off) was recommended for further studies. / Water removal and solid gain of osmotic treatment were considered as factors that affect the dielectric properties dielectric constant (epsilon') and the loss factor (epsilon"). The experiment was set up to investigate the influence of osmotic conditions to dielectric properties. Two osmotic agents, sucrose and salt, were used for carrots; but only sucrose was used for strawberries. The effects of variations in sucrose and salt concentrations, solution temperatures, and length of immersion time on the dielectric properties were studied. The empirical models were generated from response surface methodology (RSM) to predict epsilon' and epsilon" for the various ranges of osmotic conditions considered in this thesis. / As a consideration of the osmotic pre-drying treatment, it was considered appropriate to maximize water loss (WL) and minimize solid gain (SG). The parameter appropriate to study this situation was WL/SG. The optimum conditions of osmotic process to acquire the maximum ratio of WL/SG were investigated. The results of the optimum conditions for carrots were found to be sucrose concentration 50%(w/w), salt concentration 5%(w/w), temperature 20°C and immersion time 3 hours 38 minutes. The optimum conditions for strawberries were found to be sucrose concentration 60%(w/w), temperature 20°C and immersion time 24 hours. / The microwave vacuum drying was then studied as a technique combined with the osmotic pretreatment. The studies were performed on carrots and strawberries. The input power levels 1 and 1.5 W/g with different power modes (continuous, 45s on/15s off and 30s on/30s off) were experimentally studied with a certain condition of osmotic treatment, which was acquired from the previous study. Osmotic treatment prior to microwave vacuum of carrots showed the advantage in most cases; fast drying time, less energy consumption and superior quality aspects except the taste which was affected from the salt. The study of strawberries did not show great advantage of osmotic pretreatment. The drying time and energy consumption of the process with and without osmotic pretreatment were the same but the process with osmotic pre-treatment resulted in better quality of dried strawberries. / The microwave vacuum drying of carrots and strawberries after osmotic pretreatment did not show constant rate period in drying rate curve while the processes without osmotic treatment of strawberries showed longer constant rate period than those observed for carrot drying. According to these phenomena, thin layer models of Lewis and Henderson & Pabis were fitted to the observed data which showed excellent fit for the process without constant rate period, but Page's model was a good fit for both constant rate and falling rate period of microwave vacuum drying.
25

Combined osmotic and microwave drying of strawberries and blueberries

Venkatachalapathy, Kamadenahally. January 1998 (has links)
No description available.
26

Relationships in the pneumatic dehydration of alfalfa

Haney, William Arthur January 1950 (has links)
Typescript, etc.
27

Preparation of a potato hydrolysate with Bacillus subtilis α-amylase

Dondero, Marta Luisa 16 June 1977 (has links)
Bacillus subtilis α-amylase was used to hydrolyze starch from peeled and whole potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). Effect of gelatinization temperature, pH, enzyme concentration, temperature of hydrolysis and presence of calcium ions were investigated. Optimum conditions for hydrolysis were when α-amylase levels were 0.3 percent of the starch concentration in the presence of 400 ppm calcium at pH 7.0 and 80°C for 2 hr. After centrifugation to remove residual material, the supernatants were adjusted to pH 5.0 to 5.5 with 30 percent sulfuric acid and heated at 100°C for 10 min to inactivate α-amylase. Treatment with four percent activated charcoal decolorized the clear hydrolysate before the product was spray dried. The dried product was a light yellow powder, slightly sweet, relatively bland in taste and readily soluble in water. Dried potato hydrolysate made from peeled potatoes had a dextrose equivalent of 30 and contained 85 percent carbohydrates, 8.4 percent protein and 5.5 percent ash; while the hydrolysate from whole potatoes had a dextrose equivalent of 26 and contained 86 percent carbohydrates, 8.4 percent protein and 6.0 percent ash. The composition of the carbohydrates of the two hydrolysates were similar except the hydrolysate from peeled contained a higher concentration of glucose and lower concentration of saccharides with a degree of polymerization greater than four. At concentrations of greater than 40 percent, the potato hydrolysate made from whole potatoes did not show as high a viscosity as commercial corn syrup solids with a dextrose equivalent of 24; the potato hydrolysate adsorbed twice as much moisture as the commercial corn syrup solids at 75 percent relative humidity at 23°C for 30 days. Substitution of sucrose with whole potato hydrolysate in chocolate milk revealed that substitution of two parts of sucrose by two parts of potato hydrolysate could be used with a slight loss of desirability. Fifty and one hundred percent addition of whole potato hydrolysate to a commercial dehydrated vegetable soup mix showed no decrease in the desirability of the product. This work has shown that a useful potato hydrolysate containing significant amounts of protein can be prepared from either peeled or whole potatoes. / Graduation date: 1978
28

The dehydration of white potatoes

Honstead, William Henry January 2011 (has links)
Typescript, etc. / Digitized by Kansas State University Libraries
29

Rice drying rates

Robayo, Jairo F January 2010 (has links)
Digitized by Kansas Correctional Industries
30

Foliar application of nitrogen solution for desiccation of grain sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

Donnelly, Kevin James January 2010 (has links)
Digitized by Kansas Correctional Industries

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