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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
41

Estudo da preparação de eletrocatalisadores Pt-Sn/C por meio da deposição superficial de Pt sobre Sn/C utilizando diferentes metodologias para aplicação na oxidação eletroquímica do etanol / Study of the preparation of Pt-Sn//C electrocatalysts through deposition of Pt on the surface of Sn/C for ethanol electrooxidation

Vilmaria Aparecida Ribeiro 18 September 2015 (has links)
Foram preparados eletrocatalisadores Pt-Sn/C a partir da deposição de Pt sobre Sn/C por diferentes metodologias. Os suportes Sn/C foram preparados pela redução com boroidreto de sódio (BH) e pelo método da redução por álcool (MRA). A deposição da Pt foi efetuada pelo processo de troca galvânica e utilizando agentes redutores pelos métodos BH e MRA. Os materiais obtidos foram caracterizados por energia dispersiva de raios X (EDX), difração de raios X (DRX), microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (TEM), energia dispersiva de raios X de varredura linear (EDX- line scan), voltametria cíclica (VC) e stripping de CO e testados na oxidação eletroquímica do etanol. O difratograma de raios X do Sn/C preparado pelo método BH mostrou a presença da fase Sn metálico, enquanto que, o Sn/C preparado pelo método MRA levou a formação da fase SnO2. Apesar de o material obtido por deposição espontânea apresentar-se mais ativo que o suporte Sn(BH)/C, sua atividade foi inferior ao do catalisador comercial PtSn/C BASF. Os materiais obtidos apresentaram-se mais ativos que o catalisador comercial. A deposição da Pt pelo método BH sobre o suporte Sn(BH)/C levaram a catalisadores com desempenhos inferiores ao catalisador comercial, isto devido a deposição da Pt ocorrer preferencialmente sobre as nanopartículas de Sn metálico, tornando a superfície do catalisador rica em Pt. Os estudos realizados por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão EDX scan-line mostraram que este material apresentou a distribuição mais homogênea dos sítios de Pt e Sn na superfície do catalisador. Assim, nas condições estudadas, a deposição de Pt na superfície do Sn/C, apesar de alguns casos, os materiais obtidos apresentarem melhor atividade que o catalisador PtSn/C comercial, estes apresentaram-se menos ativos que os materiais preparados em uma única etapa por co-redução. / We present a study of the achievement of Pt-Sn/C electrocatalysts from the deposition of Pt on Sn/C surface using different methodologies. The Sn/C support were obtained by reduction method with sodium borohydride (BH) and by the alcohol reduction method (MRA). Pt deposition was carried out by the galvanic exchange process and by using reducing BH and MRA methods. The materials were characterized using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray linear scan (EDX- line scan), cyclic voltammetry (VC) and CO stripping and tested by electrochemical oxidation of ethanol. A comparison between MRA and BH method showed the presence of Sn metal phase in the X-ray diffractogram Sn/C using the first method while the second lead to the formation of the SnO2 phase. The obtained material resulted by deposition process more active than the Sn holder (BH)/C but less active than commercial catalyst PtSn/C BASF. The materials result to be more active than the commercial catalyst. The Pt deposition process using BH method on Sn (BH)/C support led to catalysts with lower performance to the commercial catalyst because, in this case, the deposition occurs of Pt preferably on Sn metal nanoparticles, making the surface of the catalyst rich in Pt. Studies by transmission electron microscopy EDX-line - scan showed that this material had the most even distribution of Pt and Sn sites on the catalyst surface. In this work, we obtained electrocatalyst by Pt deposition on Sn/C\'s surface, with higher activity than the Commercial PtSn/C catalyst and verified that the materials obtained in a single step process by co-reduction are the ones with higher activity.
42

Preparação, caracterização e propriedades catalíticas de filmes de politiofeno contendo eletrocatalisadores dispersos. / Preparation, characterization and catalytic properties of polythiophene films containing dispersed electrocatalysts.

Márcia Toline Giacomini 29 March 2001 (has links)
Filmes de politiofeno foram eletroquimicamente depositados em diversos substratos eletródicos em meio aquoso fortemente ácido e as características dos materiais formados foram estudadas através de técnicas voltamétricas, espectroscópicas (FTIR e UV-Vis. e raios X) e por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. As propriedades foram comparadas com as de filmes sintetizados em meio não-aquoso concluindo-se que o material produzido em meio aquoso mostra-se mais adequado para a aplicação como suporte de partículas eletrocatalisadoras, por sua maior atividade eletroquímica, homogeneidade e estabilidade. Foram então incorporadas partículas de Pd e Pt que foram investigadas quanto a ação catalítica frente as reações de oxidação de hidrogênio (ROH) e redução de oxigênio (RRO) em ácido sulfúrico 2,0 M. Os materiais produzidos foram primeiramente caracterizados através de técnica de absorção de raios X, tendo sido observada a formação de aglomerados de partículas bastante pequenas que não alteram seu estado de oxidação com a mudança do potencial eletródico. Verificou-se que ambos os catalisadores apresentam uma certa atividade inicial frente a ROH, mas o desempenho não é estável devido à ocorrência de processos degradativos da cadeia polimérica. Por outro lado, observou-se que os filmes contendo Pt apresentam elevada atividade catalítica frente a RRO, substancialmente maior que a de filmes contendo Pd. O mecanismo da reação mostrou-se dependente da natureza do catalisador, sendo também influenciado pelo contato com o filme polimérico. Para a Pt em contato direto com o eletrólito, a reação ocorre com envolvimento de 4 elétrons e com formação de água como produto final. Para o caso em que as partículas de Pt são recobertas por politiofeno, verifica-se a participação do peróxido de hidrogênio como intermediário, sendo que somente uma certa fração do mesmo reduz-se para formar água. No caso do Pd, o processo leva à formação de peróxido de hidrogênio em baixos sobrepotenciais, que depois é reduzido, com formação de água, em sobrepotenciais mais elevados. / Polythiophene films were electrochemically grown on several electrode substrates from strong acid aqueous solutions, and the characteristics of the materials investigated using cyclic voltammetry, FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopies, and scanning electron microscopy. Compared to the materials prepared in non-aqueous media, the polymer synthesized in aqueous media shows more adequate characteristics for using as support for electrocatalytic particles, because of its higher electrochemical activity and stability, and bulk homogeneity. Particles of Pd and Pt were electrochemically incorporated on these polymer films, and the electrocatalytic properties of such composites investigated with respect to the hydrogen oxidation (HOR) and oxygen reduction (ORR) reactions in 2.0 M sulfuric acid solutions. Previously to these kinetic studies, the composites were characterized using X-ray absorption spectroscopy from which it is seen that the catalysts are deposited as agglomerates composed of very small particles whose oxidation states are not changed by changing the electrode potential. Both catalysts present some initial activity for the HOR, but the performance is not stable due to the occurrence of a degradation process involving the polymer chain. On the other hand, it is observed that the films containing Pt show an enhanced catalytic activity for the ORR which is considerably higher than of that containing Pd. The reaction mechanism is dependent on the catalyst nature and also influenced by the contact with a polymer film coating. For Pt in direct contact with the supporting electrolyte, the reaction occurs involving 4 electrons leading to water as final product. For Pt particles covered with a polymer layer, participation of hydrogen peroxide seems to be important with only a fraction of this specie being reduced to water. In the case of Pd, the process involves formation of hydrogen peroxide at low overpotentials, which is then reduced to water at higher overpotentials.
43

Function-led Design of Aerogels: Self-assembly of Alloyed PdNi Hollow Nanospheres for Efficient Electrocatalysis

Cai, Bin, Wen, Dan, Liu, Wei, Herrmann, Anne-Kristin, Benad, Albrecht, Eychmüller, Alexander January 2015 (has links)
Amelioration of the building blocks is a plausible approach to graft aerogels with distinguished properties while preserving the aerogel superiority. However, the incorporation of designated properties into metallic aerogels, especially catalytically beneficial morphologies and transition metal doping, still remains a challenge. Here, we report on the first case of an aerogel electrocatalyst composed entirely of alloyed PdNi hollow nanospheres (HNSs) with controllable chemical composition and shell thickness. The synergy of the transition metal doping, combined with the hollow building blocks and the three dimensional network structure make the PdNi HNS aerogels promising electrocatalysts towards ethanol oxidation, among which the Pd83Ni17 HNS aerogel shows a 5.6-fold enhanced mass activity compared to commercial Pd/C. This work expands the exploitation approach of electrocatalytic properties of aerogels into morphology and composition control of its building blocks.
44

<b>Materials Design using First Principles Calculations: Investigating halide perovskites and transition metal electrocatalysts</b>

Jiaqi Yang (16716363) 02 August 2023 (has links)
<p>With increasing global renewable energy demands, there is a need for new materials with improved performance, lower cost, and less toxicity. One such application is photovoltaics, where halide perovskites (HaPs) represent the fastest growing market of absorbers owing to their impressive optoelectronic properties and excellent tunability from composition engineering and structural manipulation. However, the practically infinite composition-structure space of HaPs when considering cation and/or anion site mixing, octahedral distortion and rotation, and other forms of polymorphism, raise considerable challenges when comprehensively exploring their stability and optoelectronic properties. First principles calculations are powerful tools that can investigate large numbers of compounds and structures in a high-throughput fashion. </p><p>In my thesis, I performed high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) computations to generate a HaP dataset within a wide chemical space covering ~500 unique chemical compositions in the (pseudo-)cubic phase, across a 14-dimensional ionic space. This work explored both pure and alloyed compositions, with the latter simulated using the special quasi-random structures approach. Many critical properties were computed using the semi-local GGA-PBE and hybrid non-local HSE06 functionals, including decomposition and mixing energies, electronic band gap, and spectroscopic limited maximum efficiency (SLME), which is a theoretical surrogate for the likely absorption efficiency of the compound when used in a single-junction solar cell. Property screening over this dataset yielded 32 stable perovskite candidates with attractive optoelectronic properties.</p><p>Polymorphism in HaPs is investigated by simulating larger supercell alloys with different ionic ordering, generating compounds with random octahedral distortions and rotations, and optimizing various compositions in non-cubic phases such as tetragonal and orthorhombic. Linear correlation analysis is performed to gain a critical understanding of how properties are influenced by specific cations and anions, their mixing fractions, the perovskite phase, ionic clustering, and amount of strain or distortion in the lattice. Finally, trends, design rules, and predictive insights achieved from the DFT datasets are applied over a much larger set of thousands of hypothetical compounds, resulting in identification of more promising materials and understanding of the most important A-B-X combinations that yield multiple desired objectives.</p><p>Furthermore, a similar DFT workflow is applied for designing transition metal electrocatalysts. DFT simulations are performed to model Hydrogen adsorption, OH adsorption, and the water splitting reaction on Ni3N/Ni and Co2N/Co hybrid structures, to explore their likelihood in being used for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction (HER). The results reveal the excellent catalytic performance of transition metal and transition metal nitride hybrid structures.</p><p><br></p>
45

Application of Lead Underpotential Deposition for the Characterization of Heterogeneous Surfaces in Electrochemical Systems

Yu, Lu 08 February 2017 (has links)
No description available.
46

Heteronuclear trimetallic polyazine complexes of iridium (III) or rhodium (III) as electrocatalysts for the reduction of CO2

Nallas, Girlie Naomi A. 22 December 2005 (has links)
The research investigations involved in this thesis were focused on the development of multimetallic systems to function as electrocatalysts for the reduction of CO₂. / Ph. D.
47

Engineering water dissociation sites in MoS2 nanosheets for accelerated electrocatalytic hydrogen production

Feng, Xinliang, Zhang, Jian, Wang, Tao, Liu, Pan, Liu, Shaohua, Dong, Renhao, Zhuang, Xiaodong, Chen, Mingwei 21 July 2017 (has links) (PDF)
Earth-abundant MoS2 is widely reported as a promising HER electrocatalyst in acidic solutions, but it exhibits extremely poor HER activities in alkaline media due to the slow water dissociation process. Here we present a combined theoretical and experimental approach to improve the sluggish HER kinetics of MoS2 electrocatalysts through engineering the water dissociation sites by doping Ni atoms into MoS2 nanosheets. The Ni sites thus introduced can effectively reduce the kinetic energy barrier of the initial water-dissociation step and facilitate the desorption of the −OH that are formed. As a result, the developed Ni-doped MoS2 nanosheets (Ni-MoS2) show an extremely low HER overpotential of ∼98 mV at 10 mA cm−2 in 1 M KOH aqueous solution, which is superior to those (>220 mV at 10 mA cm−2) of reported MoS2 electrocatalysts.
48

Engineering water dissociation sites in MoS2 nanosheets for accelerated electrocatalytic hydrogen production

Feng, Xinliang, Zhang, Jian, Wang, Tao, Liu, Pan, Liu, Shaohua, Dong, Renhao, Zhuang, Xiaodong, Chen, Mingwei 21 July 2017 (has links)
Earth-abundant MoS2 is widely reported as a promising HER electrocatalyst in acidic solutions, but it exhibits extremely poor HER activities in alkaline media due to the slow water dissociation process. Here we present a combined theoretical and experimental approach to improve the sluggish HER kinetics of MoS2 electrocatalysts through engineering the water dissociation sites by doping Ni atoms into MoS2 nanosheets. The Ni sites thus introduced can effectively reduce the kinetic energy barrier of the initial water-dissociation step and facilitate the desorption of the −OH that are formed. As a result, the developed Ni-doped MoS2 nanosheets (Ni-MoS2) show an extremely low HER overpotential of ∼98 mV at 10 mA cm−2 in 1 M KOH aqueous solution, which is superior to those (>220 mV at 10 mA cm−2) of reported MoS2 electrocatalysts.
49

"Preparação de eletrocatalisadores PtRu/C utilizando radiação Gama para aplicação como ânodo na oxidação direta de metanol" / PREPARATION OF PtRu/C ANODE ELECTROCATALYSTS USING GAMMA RADIATION FOR METHANOL ELECTRO-OXIDATION

Silva, Dionisio Furtunato da 18 April 2006 (has links)
Foram preparados eletrocatalisadores PtRu/C (nanopartículas PtRu suportadas em carbono) utilizando processos radiolíticos (radiação gama) e testados na oxidação direta na oxidação direta de metanol. Neste procedimento submeteu-se à radiação gama, sob agitação, soluções de água/2-propanol e água/etileno glicol, ambas contendo íons dos metais precursores e o suporte de carbono. Foram variadas as razões volumétricas água/2-propanol e água/etileno glicol e a dose de radiação total recebida (kGy). A razão atômica nominal Pt:Ru utilizada em todos os experimentos foi de 50:50. Os eletrocatalisadores obtidos foram caracterizados por análise de raios X por energia dispersiva (EDX), por difração de raios X (DRX), por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET) e por voltametria cíclica (VC). A eletro-oxidação do metanol foi estudada por voltametria cíclica (VC) utilizando a técnica do eletrodo de camada fina porosa. Os eletrocatalisadores preparados no meio reacional água/2-propanol apresentaram tamanho de cristalito na faixa de 3 - 5 nm e razão atômica Pt:Ru de 50:50. Os eletrocatalisadores preparados em água/etileno glicol apresentaram tamanho de cristalito na faixa de 2 - 3 nm, menores que os obtidos em água/2-propanol, no entanto, as razões atômicas Pt:Ru obtidas foram de aproximadamente 80:20, mostrando que nem todo o rutênio foi reduzido nas condições estudadas. Na eletro-oxidação do metanol, a atividade catalítica dos materiais obtidos mostrou-se bastante dependente do álcool utilizado e das razões volumétricas água/2-propanol e água/etileno glicol utilizadas nos meios reacionais. Os eletrocatalisadores preparados em água/2-propanol mostraram desempenho inferior aos preparados em água/etileno glicol, os quais mostraram desempenhos similares ou superiores (amperes por grama de platina) ao eletrocatalisador comercial PtRu/C da E-TEK, tido como referência na área. / PtRu/C (carbon-supported PtRu nanoparticles) anode electrocatalysts were prepared using radiolytic process (gamma radiation) and tested for methanol electro-oxidation. In this process, water/2-propanol and water/ethylene glycol solutions containing the metallic ions and the carbon support were submitted to gamma radiation under stirring. The water/alcohol ratio (v/v) and the total dose (kGy) were studied. A nominal Pt:Ru atomic ratio of 50:50 were used in all experiments. The electrocatalysts were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electro-oxidation of methanol was studied by cyclic voltammetry using the thin porous coating technique. The electrocatalysts prepared in water/2-propanol showed crystallite size in the range of 3-5 nm and Pt:Ru atomic ratio of 50:50. The electrocatalysts prepared in water/ethylene glycol showed crystallite size (2-3 nm) smaller than the ones obtained in water/2-propanol, however, the Pt:Ru atomic ratios obtained were approximately 80:20, showing that only part of ruthenium ions were reduced. For methanol oxidation the electrocatalytic activity depends on the water/2-propanol and water/ethylene glycol ratio used in the reaction medium. The electrocatalysts prepared in water/2-propanol showed inferior performance to the ones prepared in water/ethylene glycol, which showed similar or superior performances (amperes per gram of platinum) to the commercial electrocatalyst from E-TEK.
50

Preparação de eletrocatalisadores PtRuNi/C pelo método da redução por álcool para  aplicação como ânodo na oxidação direta de metanol em células a combustível de eletrolito polimérico sólido / Preparation of PtRuNi/C eletrocatalysts prepared by an alcohol reduction process for methanol electro-oxidation in Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

Ribeiro, Vilmaria Aparecida 20 June 2008 (has links)
Foi estudada a preparação de eletrocatalisadores PtRuNi/C (nanopartículas PtRuNi suportadas em carbono) pelo método da redução por álcool utilizando H2PtCl6.6H20, RuCl3.1,5H2O e NiCI2.6H2O como fonte de metais, etileno glicol como solvente e agente redutor e Carbón Vulcan XC72R como suporte. Os eletrocatalisadores obtidos foram caracterizados por análise de raios X por energia dispersiva (EDX), difração de raios X (XRD), microscopía eletrônica de transmissão (TEM) e voltametria cíclica (CV). A eletro-oxidação do metanol foi estudada por voltametria cíclica e cronoamperometria visando aplicação em células a combustível a metanol direto (DMFC). Inicialmente, os eletrocatalisadores PtRuNi/C (20% em massa de metais) foram preparados com uma razão atômica Pt:Ru:Ni de 50:40:10 em meio ácido e em meio alcalino (razão molar OHVmetais = 8) sendo que, neste caso, uma solução de KOH 1 mol L-1 foi adicionada ao meio reacional na proporção desejada. Para o material preparado em meio ácido foi observado apenas a redução dos íons Pt(IV) e Ru(lll), enquanto que os íons Ni(ll) permaneceram em solução. A redução dos íons Ni(ll) e sua incorporação nas nanopartículas metálicas ocorreu somente em meio alcalino. Neste caso observou-se uma estrutura cúbica de face centrada característica de Pt e suas ligas e também um menor tamanho de cristalito. Por outro lado, a quantidade de metais depositada no suporte de carbono foi de apenas 10%, Foi estudada também a variação da razão atômica Pt:Ru:Ni (70:20:10, 60:30:10, 50:40:10, 50:25:25, 50:10:40 e 40:30:30) utilizando uma razão molar OH-/metais = 8. Neste caso, os materiais obtidos apresentaram razões atômicas Pt:Ru:Ni semelhantes as razões nominais e um aumento da quantidade de metais (% massa) depositada no suporte de carbono foi observado com o aumento da quantidade de Ni presente nos eletrocatalisadores. No entanto, a deposição da quantidade total de metais no suporte de carbono não foi observada em nenhum caso. Nestas condições, o eletrocatalisador PtRuNi/C com razão atômica 50:40:10 apresentou-se o mais ativo na eletro-oxidação do metanol. Dessa forma, foi realizado um estudo do efeito da razão molar OH-/metais para o eletrocatalisador PtRuNi/C (50:40:10) visando a redução total dos íons metálicos, bem como, a deposição total das nanopartículas formadas no suporte de carbono. Para isso, a razão atômica OH-/ /metais foi variada entre 4 e 12. Observou-se que a redução dos íons Pt(IV) e Ru(lll) ocorreu em toda a faixa estudada, no entanto, a redução dos ions Ni(ll) só ocorreu a partir de uma razão molar OH-/metais igual a 6. Para valores OH- /metais entre 5 e 8 os tamanhos de cristalito apresentaram-se menores que 2 nm, enquanto que, para valores menores que 5 e maiores que 10 ocorreu um aumento nos tamanhos. Por outro lado, a deposição total de metais sobre o suporte só foi observada para valores OH-/metais menores que 6 onde a redução dos íons Ni(ll) não ocorreu. / PtRuNi/C electrocatalysts (carbon-supported PtRuNi nanoparticles) were prepared by an alcohol-reduction process using H2PtCl6.6H20, RuCl3.1,5H2O and NiCl2.6H2O as metal sources, ethylene glycol as solvent and reducing agent, and Vulcan XC 72R as carbon support. The electrocatalysts were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electro-oxidation of methanol was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry aiming direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications. Initially, PtRuNi/C electrocatalysts (20 wt%.) with Pt:Ru:Ni atomic ratio of 50:40:10 were prepared in acid and alkaline medium (OH-/metals molar ratio = 8). In alkaline medium, a solution of KOH 1 mol L-1 was added to the reaction medium. For the material prepared in acid medium only the reduction of Pt(IV) and Ru(lll) occurs, while the Ni(ll) ions remains in solution. The reduction of Ni(ll) ions and its incorporation into the nanoparticles were observed for the materials prepared in alkaline medium. In this case, it was observed a face centered cubic structure (fcc) characteristic of Pt and Pt alloys and a smaller crystallite size. On the other hand, the total amount of metals deposited on the carbon support was only 10 wt%. The Pt:Ru:Ni atomic ratio was varied (70:20:10; 60:30:10; 50:40:10; 50:25:25; 50:10:40 and 40:30:30) using an OH-/metais molar ratio = 8. The obtained Pt:Ru:Ni atomic ratio were similar to the nominal ones and an increase of metals content (wt%) deposited on the carbon support was observed with the increase of Ni content on the samples. However, the deposition of the total metals content on the carbon support was not observed In any case. In these conditions, the PtRuNi/C electrocatalyst with Pt:Ru:Ni atomic ratio of 50:40:10 was the most active for methanol electro-oxidation. In this manner, it was studied the effect of OH-/metals molar ratio for PtRuNi/C (50:40:10) electrocatalysts in order to reduce all metal ions, as well its total deposition on the carbon support. Thus, the OH-/metals molar ratio was varied between 4 and 12. It was observed that the reduction of Pt(IV) and Ru(lll) ions occurred in all range studied, however, the reduction of Ni(ll) ions occurred only for OH-/metals atomic ratios greater than 6. For OH-/metals values between 5 and 8 the crystallite sizes were smaller than 2 nm, while for OH-/ metals smaller than 5 and greater than 8 an increase of the crystallite size occurs. On the other hand, the total metals (wt%) deposition on the carbon support was observed only for OH-/ metals atomic ratios smaller than 6, however, the Ni(ll) ions reduction not occurred.

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