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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

The implementation of e-business in the South African automative industry

Khayundi, Silas Imende January 2010 (has links)
Globally, the automotive industry has progressed through various stages of manufacturing paradigms over many decades. The automotive industry is one of South Africa's most important sectors, with many of the major automotive multinationals using South Africa to source components and assemble vehicles for both the local and international markets. Lean production has been recognised as the most effective manufacturing strategy that generates high quality products at low costs, while still producing different varieties of products. The effectiveness of the lean production lies in the relationships that exist between the original equipment manufacturer and its suppliers. Klopping and McKinney (2004) state that the evolution of the Internet as a business tool enhanced by the development of the World Wide Web has led to the emergence of the fast growing e-commerce applications. This quantitative research study aims at investigating the e-business relationships that exist between a selected Eastern Cape Original Equipment Manufacturer and its first tier suppliers. The primary objective of the study was to obtain and document direct feedback from the South African Automotive Manufacturing Industry about their perceptions, opinions, plans and activities in respect to Business to Business Electronic Commerce - called "e-Business" for the remainder of this study. The study shows that most automotive suppliers are comparatively heavy users of e-business. Many of these suppliers are also using e-mail and have a website, but comparatively few engage in more complex e-business operations. The greater majority of respondents reported that e-business has facilitated efficiency of their operations. However, e-business is not being utilised effectively between the OEM and its suppliers even with the introduction of Covisint which is a common e-business interface that was created through collaboration between major OEMs and their suppliers to ease e-business in the automotive industry.

An examination of e-business adoption by South African companies.

Paes, Mario Jorge. January 2002 (has links)
Globally, companies are adopting electronic business to sustain their competitive advantage and to link this with their core competencies. The world, as described by Gartner, is currently in a "Trough of Disillusionment" - an area of pessimism where the perceived value of e-business are thought of not delivering sustainable value. However, challenges and opportunities exist to change this perception. This dissertation makes a case for e-business adoption by laying out the value of e-business and discussing the components that make up e-business. Evidence exits linking e-business and competitive advantage and the degree of e-business adoption is producing shifts in the competitive landscape, thereby becoming a integral part of business activities across the world. Literature research is presented, making a case for adoption of e-business and its role in sustainable competitive advantage. The case therefore can also be made for South African companies and their e-readiness can be determined. The dissertation then proceed to examine the adoption of e-business by South African companies, looking at their readiness and making conclusions based in various criteria such as market segmentation, company size and so forth. Qualitative and quantitative research is presented in the form of secondary data from reputable sources and is discussed as and when presented. Evidence of IT contribution to competitive advantage is presented and the concept of the Intelligent Enterprise is introduced. International e-commerce trends is discussed along with Gartner's Net Liberalised Organisations (NLO) and the specific components making up e-business, such as supply chain management, business intelligence, enterprise resource planning, infrastructure, intermediation and customer relationship management, are examined in order to determine adoption levels in these technologies and business enablers. The dissertation goes onto examine South African B2B adoption trends focusing on e-commerce enabling technologies and components as a function of company size. Implementations, solutions and obstacles are presented and discussed. An Examination of E-Business Adoption by South African Companies. Closer examination of corporate IT trends for certain industry segments is evaluated with the primary focus on enterprise software application implementation phases. This is an exhaustive look at implementation of tools ranging from CRM through to portal technologies and network security. Next the penetration levels of enterprise applications for various vertical industries are looked into, as well as the degree of penetration propensity as a gauge of trends. Obstacles to e-business, Internet connectivity and the effects of IT budgets on adoption are examined. Future trends are discussed during these chapters. Internet based B2B exchanges and offerings (both vertical and functional or hub exchanges) have been researched in various industry sectors. These are presented and conclusions drawn as to the positioning of these exchanges in the South African marketplace. Finally, recommendations, trends, conclusions and future predictions are presented along with the challenges that the marketplace (both small and large company size segments), is facing. / Thesis (MBA)-University of Natal, Durban, 2002. / Telkom.

The adoption of electronic commerce by small and medium enterprises in Pretoria.

Choeu, Thobeng Leenah. January 2013 (has links)
M. Tech. Business Administration / Small and medium enterprises are the cornerstones of the economy as research indicates that they create jobs and also contribute to the gross domestic product of a country. Several studies on e-commerce adoption by small and medium enterprises in developing countries have found that small and medium enterprises are said to be generally lagging behind to large organisations as far as the adoption of e-commerce is concerned. There were studies done on e-commerce adoption. However, no study has been done on e-commerce adoption in Pretoria East. The objectives of the study were to determine the current level of e-commerce adoption by small and medium enterprises in Pretoria East. The study assessed whether the influence of factors such as relative advantage, competitive pressure, IT knowledge, security and government support motivates the adoption of e-commerce by small and medium enterprises in Pretoria East and the relative importance thereof.

Business-to-business e-commerce in the South African feed industry.

Bissasser, S. January 2002 (has links)
S.A. Bioproducts, a biotechnology company that started in the 1993 manufactures and markets a product called Lysine, which is an animal feed additive. It operates in both the international and local animal feed markets, which are volatile and highly competitive. S.A Bioproducts envisages using e-commerce to streamline business processes and to improve customer service. This study was designed to assist S.A Bioproducts with the decision making process about the introduction of e-commerce to its customers. It examined the readiness and willingness of Bioproducts customers to purchase Lysine online. The study also explored the behaviour of the industrial buyer with a view to understanding the factors that affect the adoption of e-commerce. Another objective of the research was to understand customers perceived barriers and the benefits of e-commerce. The study took the form of a research project conducted amongst the current local customers of Bioproducts. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain information about customers' attitudes and perceptions about ecommerce. Due to the small number of customers a census sample was used with one representative from each company filling out a questionnaire. The data was analysed with statistical software called SPSS and mostly descriptive statistics has been used to interpret the results. Decisions about e-commerce has been gaining importance in organisations and generally forms part of the strategic decision making process either at the functional or the business level. By the end of 2002 it is expected the B2B e-commerce will account for 83% of the total online sales in the world and this is expected to grow to 88% by 2006. Africa's implementation of e-commerce has been lagging behind Europe and U.S due mainly to the lack of infrastructure. By the end of 2002 South Africa is expected to spend R35 billion online, the bulk of which will be B2B e-commerce. This study shows that the information technology infrastructure amongst Bioproducts customers is very well developed. Although all respondents have access to the Internet only 23.3% of them actually purchased goods online. Currently, the Internet is most commonly used for obtaining quotes and for final electronic payment. The results show that there is high level of interest in e-commerce with only 3.3% respondents not being interested in e-commerce. Approximately sixty percent of respondents have at least an "average" level of awareness for e-commerce indicating that most customers have a reasonable grasp of e-commerce. The results tend to indicate that larger companies are more likely to adopt innovations sooner than smaller companies, which is in keeping with the finding of Fredrick & Webster (1969). Due to the highly competitive nature of the animal feed industry, the "bandwagon effect" identified by Mansfield (1968) will have significant effect in increasing the rate of diffusion of e-commerce within the animal feed industry in S.A. The main reason why most local customers are currently not using e-commerce is that suppliers are not ready. In Europe, procurement managers stated that the main reason why managers did not purchase on-line was that their suppliers were not on-line or not ready to implement e-commerce. In Singapore a study found that security, initial set-up costs, and on going operational costs as the main barriers to the adoption of B2B e-commerce. Customers rated the ability to reach a wider network suppliers and the ability to track orders as the major benefits of e-commerce. This result is similar to the results of the Singaporean survey where 49.1 % of the firms rated global reach of suppliers as being important. Generally the financial benefits of using e-commerce was not rated as highly as the logistical benefits. This study is only the first step in Bioproducts e-commerce decision making process. Having established there is an interest in e-commerce amongst customers and that customers have the resources to purchase online, Bioproducts can now invest resources in answering the other aspects of the decision making process. The study indicates that most local customers are keen to purchase Lysine online within one year which means that Bioproducts should commence with further investigations as soon as possible. The scope for further research can be increased by including international customers in the survey. Bioproducts needs to perform further research to establish the cost of implementing an e-commerce strategy. The study also needs to evaluate the financial benefits that will accrue to Bioproducts if it embarks on an e-commerce strategy. Bioproducts also need to establish if its suppliers are in a position to embark on business-to-business e-commerce. If Bioproducts is able to employ e-commerce for procurement and for sale of its products it would increase the financial justification for e-commerce. It is imperative that Bioproducts has a sound business model before implementing e-commerce. This study shows that people are very concerned about the "lack of human contact" that is normally associated with e-commerce. Bioproducts should ensure that even if e-commerce is introduced it should not be a substitute for human contact. Bioproducts needs to ensure that it employs adequately qualified IT personnel early in the conceptual phases if it wants to successfully implement e-commerce. While customers welcome e-commerce the traditional methods of marketing still need to be maintained. In essence, e-commerce should complement traditional marketing channels and not substitute them. / Thesis (MBA)-University of Natal, Durban, 2002.

The extent of e-retail in South Africa

Diamond, Kevin Joel 05 February 2014 (has links)
M.B.A. / There is much contemporary writing on electronic commerce, although the amount of academic literature is limited. Most of the survey data and literature available is conducted in the USA and Europe and information on electronic commerce in South Africa is severely limited (Benjamin, 1999:1). This would indicate that data specific to e-retailing would be difficult to source. Electronic commerce has experienced very fast development in recent years following a slow start with its inception in the 1960s, when the first attempts at integration between trading partners took place. The value of electronic commerce transactions internationally was expected to reach US$300 billion by the year 2000 (Bacchetta, Low, Mattoo, Schuknecht, Wager, and Wehrens, 1998). South Africa is expected to follow a similar development trend. As at early 1998, 80% to 89% ofthe revenue from electronic commerce came from business-to-business transactions, while the reaming 11% came from business-to-consumer (Benjamin, 1999:1). Technological change is one of the many strategic issues facing retailers and organisations alike. The high costs of the technology, the scale of implementation and commitment required affects the organisation and its interactions within the Industry (Kieser, 1999:4). The use of technology for data transfer is no longer simply a competitive advantage but is becoming standard practice (Benjamin, 1999:34) The choice to study e-retail (business to consumer) as opposed to business-tobusiness is based on the premise that although business to business is deemed to currently have a significantly larger impact on organisations, organisations are ultimately going to sell to customers via the internet, the end product of electronic...

Critical analysis of the effects of e-commerce on taxation

Hirschowitz, Debrah Ann 03 1900 (has links)
A research report submitted to the Faculty of Commerce, Law and Management at the University of Witwatersrand in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Commerce / E-commerce has become a significant part of the global economy and will continue to grow. However, e-commerce doesn’t only provide exceptional growth opportunities, but also creates considerable challenges in terms of taxation. Due to the nature of e-commerce, various commercial activities are carried out in cyberspace where trade is not confined by geographical boundaries. This study is motivated by the key importance of understanding the taxation landscape in a rapidly growing digital economy. In this study the impact of e-commerce on taxation is explored by means of a systematic literature review. The primary research question was: what is the impact of e-commerce on taxation? In order to address the research question, secondary questions were formulated to firstly attend to the broader tax challenges in a digital economy and to determine how these challenges lead to tax avoidance practices. Secondly, the impact of e-commerce on taxation was explored specifically in terms of the artificial avoidance of the permanent residence status. Thirdly, the prevention of artificial avoidance of the permanent residence status was reviewed as well as investigating what practices have been put in place by some countries to protect their tax bases. Based on the research question, the objective of this study was to explore and provide an overview of the existing literature to determine what the impact of ecommerce has been in terms of the challenges it poses to taxation. Due to the exploratory nature of the research, it was a qualitative study within the interpretivist paradigm. In this study, the aim was not to identify a specific theory, but rather to explore the existing literature and provide an overview of how e-commerce affects taxation within the framework of the primary and secondary research questions by means of systematic literature review. In terms of the findings, the broader tax challenges were identified as: nexus, data and value-creation, the characterisation of payments and the impact of highly digitised business models. It was further established that these challenges created an environment where significant tax avoidance practices are employed by highly digitised organisations. The key tax avoidance practices were identified as: avoiding withholding tax, the use of preferential tax regimes, artificial internal trading of intangibles, internal debt shifting, transfer pricing and avoiding taxable presence. This study has certain limitations, since the full domain of e-commerce and taxation is vast and complex and beyond the scope of a research report. Therefore, the key challenge that was explored is the artificial avoidance of the permanent residence status which is an issue that lies at the heart of the nexus issue since a PE normally requires some sort of physical presence which is not necessarily the case in the digital economy. This study contributes to the existing body of knowledge as a useful assessment of the impact of e-commerce on the digital economy as well as the associated tax avoidance practices. Furthermore, in conducting the research, it became apparent to the researcher that South Africa has very limited exposure in the field of the tax challenges relating to e-commerce. This research could therefore provide some insight into some of the key tax challenges identified in the international arena and this study could provide a starting point from a South African perspective. / PH2020

A guide to improving the e-commerce user interface design

Singh, Alveen January 2005 (has links)
Thesis (M. Tech.: Information Technology)-Dept. of Information Technology, Durban Institute of Technology, 2005 xiv, 170, [20] leaves / This study examines the efficiency, ease of use and ease of understanding of user interface designs implemented in current e-commerce websites. Four South African based e-commerce websites formed the test cases of this study. Selection of the test cases was based on the results and conclusions of previous surveys conducted by an independent research institution. The outcome of that survey identified the most popular e-commerce websites among South African internet users.

Factors that influence the adoption of internet banking by South Africans in the eThekweni metropolitan region

Wu, Jun January 2005 (has links)
Thesis (M.Tech.: Marketing)-Dept. of Marketing, Durban Institute of Technology, 2005 xviii, 161 leaves / Information technology is fundamentally changing the banking industry worldwide. The advent of internet banking offers banking firms a new frontier of opportunities and challenges. An understanding of how demographic characteristics, social factors, and consumer perceptions and attitudes towards internet banking influence the adoption of internet banking can allow banks to create solutions and plans to attract consumers to their internet banking services, thus enabling them to gain a greater share in the banking market. In South Africa little is known and understood about the emergence of internet banking even though this is now beginning to represent an important share of the banking market. This is because internet banking is a new industry here, and so consumer acceptance and use of internet banking is still limited. To date very little research has been conducted into factors which influence consumer adoption of internet banking, and so therefore there is a need for a study such as this. This study investigates attitudes of retail banking customers in South Africa, specifically in the Ethekweni metropolitan region, towards the adoption of internet banking.

An overview of the strategic issues faced by business to business E-commerce models in South Africa

Skei, Peter 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MBA)--Stellenbosch University, 2001. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The development of new business models in the emerging Business-to-Business electronic transacting arena is demanding answers to a new set of questions being asked of businesses. Amongst the issues identified are the viability and sustainability of these new business models and their applicability in addressing identified business problems, especially those related to procurement. In assessing the benefits, obstacles and opportunities for procurement a clearer picture emerge about the value of these marketplaces. The value of marketplaces is analysed using Porter's value chain discussion and other research that highlights value creation in the digital age. Obstacles to value creation are also discussed using Zwass's hierarchy to understand the marketplace architecture. Discussing the marketplace innovation at three distinct levels assist with the definition of key challenges, such as telecommunication infrastructure, SME development, legal, security, taxation, and technology standards. Also discussed are the issues that revolve around the various business models, their uniqueness and their ability to unlock value. The comparative matrix developed in the study report confirms that competition in narrowly defined areas is intensifying and will result in a shakeout with a few marketplaces remaining in South Africa. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die ontwikkeling van nuwe besigheidsmodelle in die opkommende Besigheid-tot- Besigheid elektroniese transaksie arena vereis antwoorde op 'n nuwe stel vrae wat aan besigheid gestel word. Van die geïdentifiseerde kwessies is die lewensvatbaarheid en volhouding van die nuwe besigheidsmodelle en hul toepassing in die oplossing van geïdentifiseerde besigheidsprobleme, veral met betrekking tot aankopebestuur. Deur die voordele, struikelblokke en geleenthede van elektroniese aankopebestuur te ondersoek, word 'n duideliker beeld van markruimtes verkry. Die waarde van markruimtes word geanaliseer deur Porter se waardeketting bespreking en ander navorsing wat die waardeskepping uitlig in die digitale era. Struikelblokke in die pad van waardeskepping word ook bespreek deur Zwass se hierargiese model word gebruik om die waardeskepping van markruimte se argitektuur te verstaan. Om die Markruimte innovering op drie belangrike vlakke te bespreek help met die definiering van die sleutel uitdagings, soos telekommunikasie infrastruktuur, klein en medium besigheids, regs-, sekuriteit-, belasting-, en tegnologiestandaarde. Die vergelykende matriks wat in die studieverslag ontwikkel is, bevestig dat kompetisie in goed geidentifiseerde areas meer intensief word en 'n uitskudding to gevolg sal hê met slegs 'n paar oorblywende markruimtes in Suid Afrika.

Mobile business adoption and readiness in South African orgnisations

Kirsten, Etienne 12 1900 (has links)
Thesis (MBA) -- Stellenbosch University, 2006. / ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Mobile business, through the use of enabling technologies such as cellular phones, 3G data cards, and wireless technology. is set to provide businesses in South Africa not only with ways of improving their efficiency, but ultimately offer them ways of utilising the fast growing technologies in such a way that it enables them to outmanoeuvre their opposition. With such fast and continuous change comes a possible drawback, being the inability to implement specific technology before it is again outdated by newer, better, cheaper, and more expectant alternatives. South Africa is generally not seen as being at the forefront of the development of mobile and wireless technologies, and as such is not regarded as one of the early adopters such as the typical Asian, USA, and European markets are. This research study sets out to answer the question to what extent larger South African organisations are aware, ready, and willing to embrace and implement the various elements of mobile business into their business models and strategies. In doing so the reporl details the wide variety of enabling technologies available in South Africa. It further goes on to evaluate the South African mobile market and provide a crosssectional view of the current state of mobility in the country. A review is also provided on the most typical types of mobile applications and ways in which mobility is incorporated in the business value chain. The empirical research utilised a self-administered online questionnaire, which was sent to a random selection of companies from those listed on the Johannesburg Securities Exchange (JSE). In total 313 companies were selected and contacted through e-mail solicitation. Endeavours were made to identify the most suitable contact person responsible for the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in each firm and, although this was not achieved in all cases, it was possible in by far the majority of the cases. Although the response rate was lower than hoped for, the analysis of the results provided a list of implications for managers that no company who wishes to maximise the potential benefits from the incorporation of mobile technologies, should ignore. Stellenbosch University http://scholar.sun.ac.za iv The research shows that cellular phones and laptops remain the most widely deployed existing technologies. These technologies can be regarded as the essential mobile technologies today. The adoption of 3G technology is further spreading fast and is set to overtake current leader GPRS. On the other side of the scale Bluetooth technology is appearing to become outdated as wireless LAN and Wi-Fi are starting to overtake it as the network standard of choice. Corporate SMS, push e-mail, mobile synchronisation, and VolP are the clear application leaders and are most widely implemented as companies attempt to achieve competitive advantages through their use. An element of possible concem is the fact that senior management enjoys access to the majority of mobile enabling technologies with the distribution significantly distorted in terms of its use by saleslfield staff. It was further evident that operations, as a primary business function in the value chain, enjoy the highest integration of mobile technologies. Opportunity exists to improve efficiency in logistics. Important emerging technologies that were identified are VoIP, converging communication, mobile VPN access, 3G(HSDPA}, Wi-Fi, remote security and monitoring, Instant Messaging, and communication enabled applications. Technology leaders should investigate these technologies set to play major roles in the industry in future. In the technologically advanced world today, and more specifically in South Africa, organisations can ill afford not to embrace the mobile phenomenon. Withhout searching for innovative ways of incorporating mobile technology across all business functions, companies could find themselves losing ground. / AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Mobiele besigheid, deur die gebruik van mobiele tegnologiee soos sellulere telefone, 3G data kaarte, en koordlose tegnologie, bied aan Suid-Afrikaanse firmas die vermoe om hul effektiwiteit te verbeter en verskaf ook maniere om die snel-groeiende tegnologiee op so 'n manier te benut om 'n mededingende voordeel oor hulle opposisie te verkry. Ongelukkig veroorsaak die snelle groei van die industrie sekere komplikasies. Die vemaamste hiervan is dikwels die onverrnoe om spesifieke tegnologiee te implementeer voordat dit verouderd raak as gevolg van nuwe, beter, en goedkoper tegnologiese alternatiewe in die wereldmark. Verder word Suid-Afrika oor die algemeen nie gesien as een van die leiers op die gebied van mabiele en koordlose tegnologie ontwikkeling nie en word as sodanig nie geklassifiseer as 'n vroee aannemer van tegnologie soos tipiese markte in Asia, Amerika, en Europa nie. Hierdie navorsingstuk ondersoek die vraag tot watter mate groter Suid-Afrikaanse maatskappye bewus, gereed, en bereid is om die verskeie elemente van mabie Ie besigheid aan te neem en in hul besigheidsmodelle en strategiee te implementeer. Die skryfstuk rapporteer sodoende ook detail aangaande die wye spektrum van mobiele tegnologiee wat in Suid Afrika beskikbaar is. Hierna word die huidige Suid-Afrikaanse mobiele mark ontleed en word 'n oorsig verskaf van die mees tipiese mabie!e toepassings en maniere waardeur mobiliteit in die besigheids waardeketting ge'inkorporeer word. Die empiriese navorsing het gebruik gemaak van 'n self geadministreerde aanlyn vraelys wat gestuur is aan 'n groep arbitrer geselekteerde maatskappye wat op die Johannesburgse Sekuriteite Beurs (JSB) genoteer is. Daar is in totaal 313 maatskappye deur middel van e-pos versoeke gekontak. Stappe is gevolg om die mees geskikte persona te identifiseer wat verantwoordelik is vir die lnformasie en Kommunikasie Tegnologie van elke maatskappy. Alhoewel dit nie prakties vennag is nie, is die persone in verreweg die meeste van die gevalle direk gekontak. Ten spyte van die responskoers wat laer was as wat verwag is, bied die analise van die resultate 'n Iys van implikasies wat geen maatskappy, wat poog om die potensiiile voordele as gevolg van die benutting van mobiele besigheid te maksimeer, behoort te ignoreer nie. Die navorsing toon dat sellulere telefone en skootrekenaars die bestaande te9nologie8 is wat steeds die wydste gebruik word, en 'n mens kan hulle daarom beskou as die essensiele mobiele tegnologiee van die dag. Verder word getoon dat die aanneming van 3G tegnologie besig is om vinnig uit te brei en sodoende GPRS begin verbysteek. Aan die ander kant van die skaal blyk dit dat Bluetooth tegnologie besig om uit te sak teenoor koordlose LAN en Wi-Fi, wat meer en meer as die netwerk standaard van voorkeur gesien word. Korporatiewe kort boodskappe, bediener gedrewe e-pos, mobiele sinkronisasie, en Intemet!elefonie (VoIP) is die duidelike toepassing voorlopers en geniet die wydste vlakke van implementering. 'n Element wat moontlik kommerwekkend is, is die feit dat topbestuur toegang tot die meeste mobiele tegnologie geniet met 'n skewe verdeling in terme van die gebruik daarvan deur veld en verkoopspersoneel. Dit is verder duidelik dat die operasionele afdelin9. as een van die primere besigheidsaktiwiteite, die hoogste integrasie van mobiele tegnologie geniet. Daar bestaan egter geleenthede om effektiwiteit in ander afdelings, soos byvoorbeeld logistiek, te verbeter. Belangrike ontluikende tegnologiee wat ge"identifiseer is, is Intemet!elefonie (VoIP), konvergerende kommunikasie, mobiele virtuele private netwerk (VPN) toegang, 3G(HSDPA), Wi-Fi, afstand sekuriteit en monitering, kits boodskappe, en toepassings programmatuur met kommunikasie vermoens. Tegnologie leiers behoort hierdie te9nol09ie8 te ondersoek aangesien dit gerat is am 'n daadwerklik invloed op die industrie uit te oefen. In die hedendaagse tegnologies ontwikkelde wereld, en ook spesifiek in Suid Afrika, word dit al hoe duideliker dat organisasies dit nie meer kan bekostig om die mobiele verskynsel te ignoreer nie. Maatskappye mag weliswaar vind dat hul groei belemmer word sander die gedurige soeke na innoverende maniere om mabiele te9nol09ie in aile fasette van die organisasie te inkorporeer.

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